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See detailUnderstanding Habitability and Characterizing ExoEarths: The Role of Debris Disks
Roberge, Aki; Chen, Christine; Hinz, Philip et al

E-print/Working paper (2009)

The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Science White Papers, no. 250.

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See detailSi/SiGe Resonant Interband Tunneling Diodes Incorporating δ-Doping Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Park, Si-Young; Anisha, Ramesh; Berger, Paul et al

in IEEE Electron Device Letters (2009), 30

This is the first report of a Si/SiGe resonant interband tunneling diodes (RITDs) on silicon substrates grown by the chemical vapor deposition process. The nominal RITD structure forms two quantum wells ... [more ▼]

This is the first report of a Si/SiGe resonant interband tunneling diodes (RITDs) on silicon substrates grown by the chemical vapor deposition process. The nominal RITD structure forms two quantum wells created by sharp delta-doping planes which provide for a resonant tunneling condition through the intrinsic spacer. The vapor phase doping technique was used to achieve abrupt degenerate doping profiles at higher substrate temperatures than previous reports using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, and postgrowth annealing experiments are suggestive that fewer point defects are incorporated, as a result. The as-grown RITD samples without postgrowth thermal annealing show negative differential resistance with a recorded peak-to-valley current ratio up to 1.85 with a corresponding peak current density of 0.1 kA/cm2 at room temperature [less ▲]

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See detail« Dessinez la Belgique » : Comment de jeunes Belges francophones voient le fédéralisme
Reuchamps, Min ULg; Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg; Flaba, Elodie ULg

Book published by Éditions de l'Université de Liège (2009)

"Draw Belgium" was the unique guideline that was given to 234 students in political and social sciences of the Université de Liège, Belgium, on December 4, 2008. In addition to this request, the young ... [more ▼]

"Draw Belgium" was the unique guideline that was given to 234 students in political and social sciences of the Université de Liège, Belgium, on December 4, 2008. In addition to this request, the young citizens were asked to fill in a 19-question questionnaire about their federal perceptions and preferences as well as some political and socio-demographic indicators. Relying on this experimental research, this book explores the relationships between the federal representations, perceptions and preferences of young Francophone Belgians who grew up in the era of federalism and who will have the task to shape tomorrow’s Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailRelaxation of strained pseudomorphic SixGe1-x layers on He-implanted Si/δ-Si:C/Si(100) substrates
Buca, D.; Minamisawa, R. A.; Trinkaus, H. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2009), 95

In this letter we present a method to increase the efficiency of SiGe layer relaxation by He+ ion implantation and annealing. Preferential nucleation of He platelets along a 􏰀-impurity layer grown in the ... [more ▼]

In this letter we present a method to increase the efficiency of SiGe layer relaxation by He+ ion implantation and annealing. Preferential nucleation of He platelets along a 􏰀-impurity layer grown in the Si substrate below the SiGe layer results in planar localization and homogenization of dislocation loop sources inducing a more uniform distribution of misfit dislocations. We demonstrate this for a thin Si:C layer grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The optimization of the conditions for efficient relaxation and layer quality is studied with respect to the position of the Si:C layer and the process parameters. Relaxation degrees up to 85% are obtained for Si0.77Ge0.23 layers. [less ▲]

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See detailSiGe growth using Si3H8 by low temperature chemical vapor deposition
Takeuchi, Shotaro; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Goossens, Jozefien et al

in Thin Solid Films (2009), 518(6), 18

Low temperature epitaxial growth of group-IV alloys is a key process step to realize the advanced Si-based devices. In order to keep high growth rate below 600 $\,^ rc$C, trisilane (Si3H8) was used for ... [more ▼]

Low temperature epitaxial growth of group-IV alloys is a key process step to realize the advanced Si-based devices. In order to keep high growth rate below 600 $\,^ rc$C, trisilane (Si3H8) was used for their growth as an alternative Si precursor gas. Then, we compared the use of Si3H8 versus SiH4 for Si1−xGex growth in H2 and N2 as carrier gas by low temperature chemical vapor deposition. By using Si3H8 and controlling GeH4 flow rate, Si1−xGex growth with high growth rate and wide range of Ge concentration has been achieved compared to SiH4-based process. The growth rate and Ge concentration in Si1−xGex with Si3H8 grown at 600 $\,^ rc$C ranged from 11 to 74 nm/min and from 0 to 40%, respectively. The obtained growth rates with Si3H8 are between 1.5 and 6 times higher than for SiH4 at a given growth condition. Si3H8-based in-situ B- and C-doped Si1−xGex growth with high growth rate was also demonstrated [less ▲]

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See detailVLT transit and occultation photometry for the bloated planet CoRoT-1b
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Demory, B.-O.; Triaud, A.H.M.J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 506

We present VLT eclipse photometry for the giant planet CoRoT-1b. We observed a transit in the R-band filter and an occultation in a narrow filter centered on 2.09 microns. Our analysis of this new ... [more ▼]

We present VLT eclipse photometry for the giant planet CoRoT-1b. We observed a transit in the R-band filter and an occultation in a narrow filter centered on 2.09 microns. Our analysis of this new photometry and published radial velocities, in combination with stellar-evolutionary modeling, leads to a planetary mass and radius of 1.07 (+0.13,-0.18) M_Jup and 1.45 (+0.07,-0.13) R_Jup, confirming the very low density previously deduced from CoRoT photometry. The large occultation depth that we measure at 2.09 microns (0.278 (+0.043,-0.066) %) is consistent with thermal emission and is better reproduced by an atmospheric model with no redistribution of the absorbed stellar flux to the night side of the planet. [less ▲]

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See detailSurface properties of new virginiamycin M1 derivatives
Nott, Katherine ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg; Dufour, Samuel et al

in Colloids & Surfaces B : Biointerfaces (2009), 69(2), 268-275

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See detailDistribution, origin and cycling of carbon in the Tana River (Kenya): a dry season basin-scale survey from headwaters to the delta
Bouillon, S.; Abril, G.; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2009), 6

The Tana River basin (TRB) is the largest in Kenya (_120 000 km2). We conducted a survey during the dry season throughout the TRB, analyzing a broad suite of biogeochemical parameters. Biogeochemical ... [more ▼]

The Tana River basin (TRB) is the largest in Kenya (_120 000 km2). We conducted a survey during the dry season throughout the TRB, analyzing a broad suite of biogeochemical parameters. Biogeochemical signatures in headwater streams were highly variable. Along the middle and lower river course, total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations increased more than 30-fold despite the absence of tributary inputs, indicating important resuspension events of internally stored sediment. These resuspended sediment inputs were characterized by a lower and 14C-depleted OC content, suggesting selective degradation of more recent material during sediment retention. Masinga Dam (a large reservoir on the upper river) induced a strong nutrient retention (_50% for inorganic N, _72% for inorganic phosphate, and _40% for dissolved silicate). Moreover, while DOC pools and _13C signatures were similar above, in and below the reservoir, the POC pool in Masinga surface waters was dominated by 13C-depleted phytoplankton, which contributed to the riverine POC pool immediately below the dam, but rapidly disappeared further downstream, suggesting rapid remineralization of this labile C pool in the river system. Despite the generally high turbidity, the combination of relatively high oxygen saturation levels, low _18O signatures of dissolved O2 (all <+24.2‰), and the relatively low pCO2 values suggest that in-stream primary production was significant, even though pigment data suggest that phytoplankton makes only a minor contribution to the total POC pool in the Tana River. [less ▲]

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See detailBudesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy versus conventional best practice.
Demoly, Pascal; Louis, Renaud ULg; Soes-Petersen, Ulrik et al

in Respiratory medicine (2009), 103(11), 1623-32

Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (Symbicort SMART) reduces asthma exacerbations and symptoms versus fixed-dose regimens plus short-acting beta(2)-agonists (SABA) in double-blind ... [more ▼]

Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (Symbicort SMART) reduces asthma exacerbations and symptoms versus fixed-dose regimens plus short-acting beta(2)-agonists (SABA) in double-blind trials. Information is lacking regarding its effectiveness versus conventional best practice (CBP). This pooled analysis of six 6-month, randomized, open-label studies examined asthma control and exacerbation risk in asthmatics (aged> or =12 years). Patients (N=7855) symptomatic on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or stable/symptomatic on ICS/long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABA) received budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (160/4.5microg bid and as needed) or CBP (ICS or ICS/LABA+/-other agents at an approved dose plus as-needed SABA). Overall asthma control was assessed comparing the incidence of exacerbations and levels of asthma control using the asthma control questionnaire (ACQ). Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy did not significantly reduce time to first severe exacerbation (primary variable) versus CBP (P=0.062). However, patients in this group experienced 15% fewer exacerbations (0.20 versus 0.24/patient/year; P=0.021) and used 27% less ICS (P<0.0001). Odds of remaining well controlled (ACQ< or =0.75) over 6 months were higher with budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy versus CBP (45% versus 41%, odds ratio [OR] 1.29; P<0.01) while risk of remaining uncontrolled decreased (25% versus 29%, OR 0.81; P<0.01). Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy improves key aspects of asthma control versus physicians' choice of CBP. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of external poly base sheet resistance in 0.13 µm quasi self-aligned SiGe:C HBTs
You, Suzhen; Van Huylenbroeck, Stefaan; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2009), 518(6), 68

This paper investigates the optimization of the external polysilicon base sheet resistance of quasi self-aligned (QSA) SiGe:C HBTs from a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process. Taking advantage of optimized implant ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the optimization of the external polysilicon base sheet resistance of quasi self-aligned (QSA) SiGe:C HBTs from a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process. Taking advantage of optimized implant conditions to improve the doping of the external base poly, and using an optimized non-selective epitaxy process with improved growth rate ratio of 1.7 between the polycrystalline silicon and monocrystalline silicon of the base, the maximum oscillation frequency fmax reaches 300 GHz. [less ▲]

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See detailBariatric surgery in patients with Type 2 diabetes: benefits, risks, indications and perspectives.
Scheen, André ULg; De Flines, Jenny ULg; De Roover, Arnaud ULg et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2009), 35(6 Pt 2), 537-43

Obesity plays a key role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and weight loss is a major objective, although difficult to achieve with medical treatments. Bariatric surgery has proven its ... [more ▼]

Obesity plays a key role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and weight loss is a major objective, although difficult to achieve with medical treatments. Bariatric surgery has proven its efficacy in obtaining marked and sustained weight loss, and is also associated with a significant improvement in glucose control and even diabetes remission. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass appears to be more effective in diabetic patients than the restrictive gastroplasty procedure. This may be explained not only by greater weight reduction, but also by specific hormonal changes. Indeed, increased levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) may lead to improved beta-cell function and insulin secretion as well as reduced insulin resistance associated with weight loss. The presence of T2DM in obese individuals is a further argument to propose bariatric surgery, and even more so when diabetes is difficult to manage by medical means and other weight-related complications may occur. Bariatric surgery is associated with a better cardiovascular prognosis and reduced mortality, even though acute and long-term complications are present. The observation that surgical rerouting of nutrients triggers changes in the release of incretin hormones that, in turn, ameliorate the diabetic state in the absence of weight loss has led to the recent development of innovative surgical procedures. Thus, bariatric surgery may be said to be progressing towards so-called 'metabolic surgery', which merits further evaluation in patients with T2DM within a multidisciplinary approach that involves both surgeons and endocrinologists. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Vildagliptine (Galvus) et combinaison fixe vildagliptine-metformine (Eucreas) dans le traitement du diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(3), 161-7

Vildagliptin (Galvus) is a selective inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted by L cells of the intestine. It potentiates the ... [more ▼]

Vildagliptin (Galvus) is a selective inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted by L cells of the intestine. It potentiates the insulin secretory response (incretin effect) by enhancing the endogenous post-prandial response of GLP-1 (incretin enhancer) in a glucose-dependent manner. Vildagliptin is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It improves blood glucose control (HbA1c) in patients treated by diet alone, metformin, sulfonylurea, glitazone or insulin. In patients not well controlled with metformin alone, the addition of vildagliptin is as effective in reducing HbA1c as the coadministration of glimepiride or pioglitazone. Tolerance of vildagliptin is excellent, with no weight gain and no hypoglycaemic episodes. Treatment is simple, with two doses of 50 mg per day, without need of titration or home blood glucose monitoring. In Belgium, vildagliptin is currently reimbursed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes after diet failure and monotherapy with metformin. Therapy can be administered separately or by using a fixed combination vildagliptin-metformin (Eucreas), which should improve drug compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailSustaining durable rural development through good practice models
Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin ULg

in Lucrări Ştiinţifice, Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole Şi Medicină Veterinară a Banatului, Timisoara, Seria I, Management Agricol (2009), 11(1), 225-232

Rural Economy and Strategic Management are expected to support durable rural developmentin reducing the gap between the growth that major urban centres had over the last years and that of small rural ... [more ▼]

Rural Economy and Strategic Management are expected to support durable rural developmentin reducing the gap between the growth that major urban centres had over the last years and that of small rural comunities. In particular, Rural Development and Strategic Consultancy provide access to high quality information and to appropiate protocols. The present paper aims to present the importance of strategic planning in durable rural development and, also, the role of a good practice model in the development of a rural community. The good practice model presented here was created as an experimental model for a middle-sized rural village based on statistical data provided by the National Statistics Institute. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional analysis of yeast bcs1 mutants highlights the role of Bcs1p-specific amino acids in the AAA domain.
Nouet, Cécile ULg; Truan, Gilles; Mathieu, Lise et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2009), 388(2), 252-61

The mitochondrial protein Bcs1p is conserved from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans and its C-terminal region exhibits an AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) domain. The absence of ... [more ▼]

The mitochondrial protein Bcs1p is conserved from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans and its C-terminal region exhibits an AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) domain. The absence of the yeast Bcs1p leads to an assembly defect of the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) subunit within the mitochondrial respiratory complex III, whereas human point mutations located all along the protein cause various pathologies. We have performed a structure-function analysis of the yeast Bcs1p by randomly generating a collection of respiratory-deficient point mutants. We showed that most mutations are in the C-terminal region of Bcs1p and have localized them on a theoretical three-dimensional model based on the structure of several AAA proteins. The mutations can be grouped into classes according to their respiratory competence and their location on the three-dimensional model. We have further characterized five mutants, each substituting an amino acid conserved in yeast and mammalian Bcs1 proteins but not in other AAA proteins. The effects on respiratory complex assembly and Bcs1p accumulation were analyzed. Intragenic and extragenic compensatory mutations able to restore complex III assembly to the mutants affecting the AAA domain were isolated. Our results bring new insights into the role of specific residues in critical regions that are also conserved in the human Bcs1p. We show that (1) residues located at the junction between the Bcs1p-specific and the AAA domains are important for the activity and stability of the protein and (2) the residue F342 is important for interactions with other partners or substrate proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailRural – urban interactions. Influences on the rural development process in the North-East Region of Romania
Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin ULg

in Scientific Papers Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development (2009), 9(3), 157-160

This paper aims to present the interactions that occur between urban and rural, realizing a strict separation of these two areas, their populations and their activities here. This thing is being reflected ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to present the interactions that occur between urban and rural, realizing a strict separation of these two areas, their populations and their activities here. This thing is being reflected in the division of policies on spatial and sectorial criteria, urban planners usually concentrating on the importance of urban centers as commerce and transportation nods in the regional policy giving little attention to agricultural or rural-led development. It is based on statistical data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Development and by the National Statistics Institute and on direct observation executed in the North – East region of Romania. The data has been processed into the following indicators: aging indicator, average number of rural inhabitants, active occupied population, infant mortality, the average index of poverty and others. This paper represents an overview of how the strategies of urban and rural are intertwined. It ends with some recommendations on how the planners and decision makers can take these issues into consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailRodents within the Centre for Thai National Reference Collections (CTNRC), Past, Present and Future
Waengsothorn, Surachit; Kenthao, Anan; Latinne, Alice ULg et al

in Kasetsart Journal. Natural Sciences (2009), 43

The Centre for Thai National Reference Collections (CTNRC) was officially established in 1965, but animal collections in Thailand had been continuously conducted long before this time. This paper gives an ... [more ▼]

The Centre for Thai National Reference Collections (CTNRC) was officially established in 1965, but animal collections in Thailand had been continuously conducted long before this time. This paper gives an historical review of the main steps leading to the constitution of the current collections under the administration of TISTR, with a focus on the rodent collection, which represents about one fifth of the whole mammal specimens. An inventory of the species and genera represented is given. Statistics representing the sampling effort in the different Thai provinces are given. The paper concludes with considerations on the current and future needs and the means necessary to develop and support the efforts of the CTNRC. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptual model for the realization of SWOT analysis to elaborate local development strategies
Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin ULg

in Agronomy Series of Scientific Research = Lucrari Stiintifice Seria Agronomie (2009), 52(2), 532-537

This paper aims to present the ways of making SWOT analysis using quantitative and qualitative models and establishing the optimal development strategies of rural settlements in the North – East region of ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to present the ways of making SWOT analysis using quantitative and qualitative models and establishing the optimal development strategies of rural settlements in the North – East region of Romania, previously used to establish strategies within organizations. This represents an adaptation of this approach to another area of activity. Stratification criteria were established for the general domains at the level of all rural settlements in this development region (trade and catering, agriculture, living conditions, rural infrastructure, access to basic services, public order and safety, constructions, administration and civil society and others) that were then classified, according to actual needs of local communities, into areas of expertise. This conceptual model can be applied to the entire North – East development region, being built on data collected from 6 different counties (Botosani, Iasi, Vaslui, Bacau, Neamt, Suceava).Based on the stratification criteria of the domains encountered in the rural villages of the North – East region, a division and classification of the durable rural development strategies of local communities has been realized according to the opportunities and threats presented by their external environment and by their strengths and weaknesses. By virtue of these characteristics determined by the quantitative and qualitative models of the SWOT analysis, we will have four types of strategies that can be used. It has been discovered that the majority of local communities’ present characteristics that do not allow the application of only one type of strategy, but that can generate various combinations between the four types of achieving them. It results then a customization of the conceptual model of realizing the local development strategies according to local conditions. However there is a preponderance of one of the four types of strategies (SO, ST, WO, WT). [less ▲]

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See detailGénération, cénacle, mouvance : essai de sociologie quantitative des Jeunes-France
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Glinoer, Anthony

in Les Cahiers du XIXe siècle (2009), III-IV

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See detailInhibitory control of memory in normal ageing: Dissociation between impaired intentional and preserved unintentional processes.
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Germain, Sophie ULg; Hogge, Michaël et al

in Memory (2009), 17(1), 104-122

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of elderly and young participants on a series of memory tasks involving either intentional or unintentional inhibitory control of memory content ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of elderly and young participants on a series of memory tasks involving either intentional or unintentional inhibitory control of memory content. Intentional inhibition processes in working and episodic memory were explored with directed forgetting tasks and in semantic memory with the Hayling task. Unintentional inhibitory processes in working memory, long-term memory, and semantic memory were explored with an interference resolution task, the retrieval practice paradigm, and the flanker task, respectively. The results indicate that elderly participants' performance on the two directed forgetting tasks and the Hayling task is lower than that of young ones, and that this impairment is not related to their initial memory capacity. This suggests that there is a specific dysfunction affecting intentional inhibitory control of memory contents in normal ageing. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the demanding necessity of properly evaluating renal graft function in clinical trials.
Maillard, Nicolas; Alamartine, Eric; Berthoux, Francois et al

in Transplant International (2009), 22(2), 247-8

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