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See detailAssessment Of Pichia Anomala (Strain K) Efficacy Against Blue Mould Of Apples When Applied Pre- Or Post-Harvest Under Laboratory Conditions And In Orchard Trials
Lahlali, R.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; De Clercq, D. et al

in European Journal of Plant Pathology (2009), 123(1), 37-45

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See detailOptimal age at first calving for improved milk yield and lengh of productive life in Tunisian Holstein cows
Ben Gara, Abderrahmen; Bouraoui, Rachid; Rekik, Boulbaba et al

in American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy (2009), 2(3), 162-167

The effects of age at first calving on milk production and true herd life were studied in Tunisian Holstein cows. There were 33,407 first lactation records of cows born between 1987 and 2001 from 166 ... [more ▼]

The effects of age at first calving on milk production and true herd life were studied in Tunisian Holstein cows. There were 33,407 first lactation records of cows born between 1987 and 2001 from 166 herds. Firstly, age at first calving was analyzed using an animal model that included herd, calving year, herd-calving year interaction, calving month, and age of dam as fixed effects and the random additive genetic effect. Secondly, differences in first lactation and productive life milk yields and in true herd life were explained by age at first calving in addition to herd, year at first calving, herd-year at first calving interaction and month at first calving. A cow produced on the average 5669.8 kg milk (SD=1812 kg) during a 305-d first lactation period. The lifetime production of a cow was was 19,496.3 kg (SD=12,192 kg) during 3.3 lactations (SD=1.8 lactations). Coefficients of determination ranged from 14% for true herd life to 64% for first lactation milk yield. The mean of true herd life was 38.6 months (SD=24 months) and the mean age at first calving was 28.7 months (SD=3.4 months). Posterior mean of heritability of the age at first calving derived by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesien method via a Gibbs sampling algorithm was 0.08. The reduction of age at first calving to around 24 months may result in improved 305-d and lifetime yields and a longer herd life in Tunisian Holsteins. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraint Based Learning of Mixtures of Trees
Schnitzler, François ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

Conference (2009)

Mixtures of trees can be used to model any multivariate distributions. In this work the possibility to learn these models from data by causal learning is explored. The algorithm developed aims at ... [more ▼]

Mixtures of trees can be used to model any multivariate distributions. In this work the possibility to learn these models from data by causal learning is explored. The algorithm developed aims at approximating all first order relationships between pairs of variables by a mixture of a given size. This approach is evaluated based on synthetic data, and seems promising. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an animal experimental model to study the effects of levonorgestrel on the human endometrium.
Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz ULg; Galant, C.; Frankenne, F. et al

in Human Reproduction (2009), 24(3), 697-704

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to develop an animal model to test the response of endometrium to local progestin delivery. METHODS: Proliferative human endometrium was subcutaneously grafted in two ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to develop an animal model to test the response of endometrium to local progestin delivery. METHODS: Proliferative human endometrium was subcutaneously grafted in two groups of SCID mice that received, 2 days before, a subcutaneous estradiol (E2) pellet and, for half of them, an additional implant of levonorgestrel (LNG). Mice were sacrificed 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after endometrial implantation and grafts were histologically analysed. Proliferation, steroid hormone receptors, blood vessels and stromal decidualization in both groups (E2 and LNG) were immunohistologically evaluated and compared with proliferative endometrium and endometrium from women with an LNG intrauterine device. RESULTS: Grafts presented normal morphological endometrial characteristics. The expression of progesterone receptors was significantly decreased in glands and stroma of the LNG group as compared with the E2 group at all times. A significant decrease was also observed in the stromal expression of estrogen receptor- in the LNG group. At 4 weeks, the mean cross-sectional area of vessels was significantly higher after LNG treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics are similar to those observed in women treated with local LNG. This mouse model might facilitate further investigations needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the breakthrough bleeding frequently observed in progestin users. [less ▲]

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See detailLes codes correcteurs
Rigo, Michel ULg

Learning material (2009)

Qu'on le veuille ou non, nous vivons dans un monde où les informations et les moyens de communication sont omniprésents. Les exemples où se mêlent informatique et télécommunications sont nombreux. Que ce ... [more ▼]

Qu'on le veuille ou non, nous vivons dans un monde où les informations et les moyens de communication sont omniprésents. Les exemples où se mêlent informatique et télécommunications sont nombreux. Que ce soit l'Internet, la musique achetée en ligne ou gravée sur CD, les baladeurs de type iPod et autres appareils portables, les supports mémoire de tout type, la photographie numérique, la présence d'ordinateurs de bord sophistiqués dans nos voitures, etc. Sans code correcteur, le CD (implémentant un code correcteur de type Reed-Solomon) et de nombreux autres produits n'auraient probablement jamais connu le succès ! [less ▲]

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See detailBIOLOGIE MOLECULAIRE APPLIQUEE A L’HOMME
Noël, Agnès ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailMixed origin of neovascularization of human endometrial grafts in immunodeficient mouse models
Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz ULg; Frankenne, F.; Galant, C. et al

in Human Reproduction (2009), 24(9), 2217-24

BACKGROUND: In vivo mouse models have been developed to study the physiology of normal and pathologic endometrium. Although angiogenesis is known to play an important role in endometrial physiology and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In vivo mouse models have been developed to study the physiology of normal and pathologic endometrium. Although angiogenesis is known to play an important role in endometrial physiology and pathology, the origin of neovasculature in xenografts remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the origin of the neovasculature of endometrial grafts in different mouse models. METHODS: Human proliferative endometrium (n = 19 women) was grafted s.c. in two immunodeficient mouse strains: nude (n = 8) and severely compromised immunodeficient (SCID; n = 20). Mice were also treated with estradiol, progesterone or levonorgestrel. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization using a centromeric human chromosome X probe, immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand factor and collagen IV) and lectin perfusion were performed to identify the origin of the vessels. RESULTS: More than 90% of vessels within xenografts were of human origin 4 weeks after implantation. Some vessels (9.67 +/- 2.01%) were successively stained by human or mouse specific markers, suggesting the presence of chimeric vessels exhibiting a succession of human and murine portions. No difference in staining was observed between the two strains of mouse or different hormone treatments. Furthermore, erythrocytes were found inside human vessels, confirming their functionality. CONCLUSION: This article shows that human endometrial grafts retain their own vessels, which connect to the murine vasculature coming from the host tissue and become functional. [less ▲]

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See detailLa copropriété
Lecocq, Pascale ULg

Book published by Anthemis (2009)

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See detailBalancing selection of a frame-shift mutation in the MRC2 gene accounts for the outbreak of the Crooked Tail Syndrome in Belgian Blue Cattle.
Fasquelle, Corinne ULg; Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Li, Wanbo et al

in PLoS Genetics (2009), 5(9), 1000666

We herein describe the positional identification of a 2-bp deletion in the open reading frame of the MRC2 receptor causing the recessive Crooked Tail Syndrome in cattle. The resulting frame-shift reveals ... [more ▼]

We herein describe the positional identification of a 2-bp deletion in the open reading frame of the MRC2 receptor causing the recessive Crooked Tail Syndrome in cattle. The resulting frame-shift reveals a premature stop codon that causes nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant messenger RNA, and the virtual absence of functional Endo180 protein in affected animals. Cases exhibit skeletal anomalies thought to result from impaired extracellular matrix remodeling during ossification, and as of yet unexplained muscular symptoms. We demonstrate that carrier status is very significantly associated with desired characteristics in the general population, including enhanced muscular development, and that the resulting heterozygote advantage caused a selective sweep which explains the unexpectedly high frequency (25%) of carriers in the Belgian Blue Cattle Breed. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivalent mixed model for joint genetic evaluation considering molecular and phenotypic information
Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Colinet, Frédéric ULg

in Journal of Dairy Science (2009), 92(E-suppl.1), 315

Currently efforts are underway to introduce molecular information into genetic evaluation systems. A particular situation is genomic selection however simpler cases exists where major genes are known and ... [more ▼]

Currently efforts are underway to introduce molecular information into genetic evaluation systems. A particular situation is genomic selection however simpler cases exists where major genes are known and used by breeders. A new alternative strategy for the prediction of gene effects and especially their smooth integration into genetic evaluations based on an equivalent method was developed from existing theory. Underlying hypothesis were based on the idea that knowledge of genotypes will not affect overall additive genetic variance but only change expected values of genetic effects for animals with known genotypes. The developed equations were modified to allow that not all animals were genotyped. As the underlying mixed model is open a very large range of models can be used in situations including random regression models, multipletrait, maternal effects and multiple-across-country-evaluation models. Computations involved successive solving of two mixed models, with the use of an linear extrapolation to speed up convergence of gene effects. The method was tested for several known major genes and QTL, e.g. for the mh gene in the dual-purpose Belgian Blue population in Belgium. Modifications of the method could also be developed to be useful in the context of genomic selection. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Fondements d’une politique industrielle et énergétique pour l’Europe
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Bulletin de liaison des membres de la Société de Géographie de Paris (2009), (Hors série), 112-126

Malgré la mise en place de la Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier (CECA) en 1952 et un traité Euratom en 1958, l’Union européenne (UE) n’a toujours pas de réelle politique industrielle ni de ... [more ▼]

Malgré la mise en place de la Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier (CECA) en 1952 et un traité Euratom en 1958, l’Union européenne (UE) n’a toujours pas de réelle politique industrielle ni de réelle politique énergétique. Certes, différentes mesures ont été initiées à partir de 1990 et à la suite de la Stratégie de Lisbonne (2000) qui vise à faire de l’Union européenne « l’économie de la connaissance la plus compétitive et la plus dynamique du monde » à l’horizon 2010. Une politique industrielle se met ainsi progressivement en œuvre. Parallèlement, il est de plus en plus question d’une politique énergétique. L’objectif de ce travail est de comprendre le pourquoi de ces nouvelles stratégies en recherchant leurs fondements. [less ▲]

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See detailResistivity percolation of co-sputtered amorphous Si/Ti films
Lewis, Gareth Neil; Moktadir, Zakaria; Kraft, Michaël ULg et al

in Materials Letters (2009), 63(2), 215--217

Amorphous silicon/titanium (a-Si/Ti) composite was deposited by co-sputtering techniques at room temperature with a view to explore its potential applications for monolithic integration of micro ... [more ▼]

Amorphous silicon/titanium (a-Si/Ti) composite was deposited by co-sputtering techniques at room temperature with a view to explore its potential applications for monolithic integration of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits. The electrical resistivity of the films was successfully controlled over a range of magnitudes and the electrical transport mechanism was studied, based on percolation conduction theory of a three dimensional random network. The stability of the nanostructures and thus the percolation threshold was also observed at annealing temperatures below 300 °C, while the percolation threshold decreased with annealing temperature above 300 °C. Surface morphology and dry etching feasibility of the composite are also discussed for the potential applications of using it as the structural device layer for MEMS. [less ▲]

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See detailTypologie d’exploitations agricoles familiales dans la province de Hai Duong au Vietnam
Andres, Ludovic ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2009)

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See detailNeuropsychological analysis of gait disturbances during dual task in MCI patients
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Gillain, Sophie ULg; Warzee, Emmanuelle ULg et al

in Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging (The) (2009), 13(Supp 1),

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See detailThermal actuation based 3-DoF non-resonant microgyroscope using MetalMUMPs
Iqtidar Shakoor, Rana; Bazaz, Shafaat Ahmed; Kraft, Michaël ULg et al

in Sensors (2009), 9(4), 2389--2414

High force, large displacement and low voltage consumption are a primary concern for microgyroscopes. The chevron-shaped thermal actuators are unique in terms of high force generation combined with the ... [more ▼]

High force, large displacement and low voltage consumption are a primary concern for microgyroscopes. The chevron-shaped thermal actuators are unique in terms of high force generation combined with the large displacements at a low operating voltage in comparison with traditional electrostatic actuators. A Nickel based 3-DoF micromachined gyroscope comprising 2-DoF drive mode and 1-DoF sense mode oscillator utilizing the chevron-shaped thermal actuators is presented here. Analytical derivations and finite element simulations are carried out to predict the performance of the proposed device using the thermo-physical properties of electroplated nickel. The device sensitivity is improved by utilizing the dynamical amplification of the oscillation in 2-DoF drive mode using an active-passive mass configuration. A comprehensive theoretical description, dynamics and mechanical design considerations of the proposed gyroscopes model are discussed in detail. Parametric optimization of gyroscope, its prototype modeling and fabrication using MetalMUMPs has also been investigated. Dynamic transient simulation results predicted that the sense mass of the proposed device achieved a drive displacement of 4.1μm when a sinusoidal voltage of 0.5V is applied at 1.77 kHz exhibiting a mechanical sensitivity of 1.7μm /o/s in vacuum. The wide bandwidth frequency response of the 2-DoF drive mode oscillator consists of two resonant peaks and a flat region of 2.11 kHz between the peaks defining the operational frequency region. The sense mode resonant frequency can lie anywhere within this region and therefore the amplitude of the response is insensitive to structural parameter variations, enhancing device robustness against such variations. The proposed device has a size of 2.2 x 2.6 mm2, almost one third in comparison with existing M-DoF vibratory gyroscope with an estimated power consumption of 0.26 Watts. These predicted results illustrate that the chevron-shaped thermal actuator has a large voltagestroke ratio shifting the paradigm in MEMS gyroscope design from the traditional interdigitated comb drive electrostatic actuator. These actuators have low damping compared to electrostatic comb drive actuators which may result in high quality factor microgyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailKhảo sát một số chỉ tiêu chất lượng thịt trâu bò
Do Duc, Luc ULg; Thanh, Nguyen Chi; Thinh, Nguyen Hoang et al

in Journal of Science and Development (2009), 7(1), 17-24

A survey was carried out on 13 Vietnamese Yellow cattle, 14 LaiSind cattle and 18 buffalos in Hanoi to estimate the quality of longissimus dorsi in terms of pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss and ... [more ▼]

A survey was carried out on 13 Vietnamese Yellow cattle, 14 LaiSind cattle and 18 buffalos in Hanoi to estimate the quality of longissimus dorsi in terms of pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss and tenderness at 6 different postmortem intervals. It was found that the pH value of longissimus dorsi was not significantly different among the 3 breeds (P>0.05), being reduced rapidly during the first 36 hours postmortem, and then stayed stable. The value was in the range that was considered to be normal. Conversely, the color values L*, a* and b* tended to increase and also stable at 36 hours postmortem, except that for LaiSind cattle at 48 hours. According to L* scale, the meat of Yellow and LaiSind cattle met the normal quality but the buffalo meat was considered to be dark cutters. The tenderness of longissimus dorsi was significantly different among the breeds (P<0.05). The value was highest at 48 hours and then decreased for LaiSind and buffalo, but for Yellow cattle the value decreased continuously after slaughtering In terms of tenderness buffalo meat and Yellow cattle meat were classified as “intermediate”, while LaiSind meat was out of this interval and classified as “tough”. Drip loss ratio was increased with the time of preservation (P<0.05). The cooking loss ratio was lowest at 12 hours and higher at the next period, but there was no significant difference among the periods after 36 hours postmotem. [less ▲]

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See detailĐặc điểm kinh tế - kỹ thuật và các hoạt động phi nông nghiệp của các hệ thống sản xuất nông nghiệp trong giai đoạn chuyển dịch cơ cấu nông nghiệp ở xã Cẩm Hoàng, Hải Dương
Phan Dang, Thang ULg; Vu Dinh Ton; Dufumier, Marc

in Tạp chí Khoa học và phát triển (2009), VII(1), 10

This study aims to identify and analyze the economic-technical characteristics of the main multi farming systems under progressing analysis methods of farming systems at Cam Hoang commune, located in the ... [more ▼]

This study aims to identify and analyze the economic-technical characteristics of the main multi farming systems under progressing analysis methods of farming systems at Cam Hoang commune, located in the Red River Delta. Only 8.9% of the farm households produced at the commercial scale for selling a majority of farm products (system 1 and 2), up to 76.5% of the farm households had to look for extra jobs from non-farm activities (in the system 4), and 14.6% of total farm households only involved in agricultural production combined with raising livestock at small scale (system 5). This study has indicated issues on rural development, sustainability in agricultural production and active dynamics of farm households with various production systems. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh salt-tolerant protease from a potential biocontrol agent bacillus pumilus M3-16
Essghaier, Badiaa; Bajji, Mohammed; Jijakli, Haissam ULg et al

in Annals of Microbiology (2009), 59(3), 553-558

In this paper, we investigate the characterization and evaluation of the antifungal protease activity from a halotolerant strain M3-16 of Bacillus pumilus, earlier isolated from a shallow salt lake in ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the characterization and evaluation of the antifungal protease activity from a halotolerant strain M3-16 of Bacillus pumilus, earlier isolated from a shallow salt lake in Tunisia. Protease enzyme was highly induced by the pathogen tested in vitro (27.4 U/ml). This is the first report on high salt-tolerant protease from B. pumilus, since it was active at high salinity (from 5 to 30% NaCl, w/v) as well as in the absence of salinity. This enzyme showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 8. At 80 °C and 30 min, the enzyme retained up to 91% and it showed stability over a wide pH range (from pH 5 to 11). The enzyme was found to be monomer with an estimated molecular mass of 31 kDa. The amino acid sequence showed high similarity (94%) to ATP-dependent protease from B. pumilus strain ATCC 7061. Thus, our alkaline thermostable and high salt-tolerant protease induced by a phytopathogenic fungus, could be useful for application in diverse areas such as biotechnology alimentary and agronomy industries. [less ▲]

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