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See detailA novel formulation of inhaled doxycycline reduces allergen-induced inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases and cytokines modulation in a mouse model of asthma
Guéders, Maud ULg; Bertholet, P.; Perin, Fabienne ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2008), 75(2), 514-26

Background In this study, we assess the effectiveness of inhaled doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic displaying matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitory effects to prevent allergen-induced ... [more ▼]

Background In this study, we assess the effectiveness of inhaled doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic displaying matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitory effects to prevent allergen-induced inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. MMPs play key roles in the complex cascade of events leading to asthmatic phenotype. Methods Doxycycline was administered by aerosols by the mean of a novel formulation as a complex with hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma-CD) used as an excipient. BALB/c mice (n = 16–24 in each group) were sensitized and exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) from day 21 to 27 (short-term exposure protocol) or 5 days/odd weeks from day 22 to 96 (long-term exposure protocol). Results In the short-term exposure model, inhaled doxycycline decreased allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in peribronchial areas, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness. In lung tissue, exposure to doxycycline via inhaled route induced a fourfold increase in IL-10 levels, a twofold decrease in IL-5, IL-13 levels and diminished MMP-related proteolysis and the proportion of activated MMP-9 as compared to placebo. In the long-term exposure model, inhaled doxycycline significantly decreased the extent of glandular hyperplasia, airway wall thickening, smooth muscle hyperplasia and subepithelial collagen deposition which are well recognized features of airway remodeling. Conclusion Doxycycline administered by aerosols decreases the allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and inhibits the development of bronchial remodeling in a mouse model of asthma by modulation of cytokines production and MMP activity. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Avocat général Colomer estime que le refus partiel de livrer opposé par un laboratoire à des grossistes en vue d’assécher le commerce parallèle n’est pas un abus per se, mais l’intention manifestement anticoncurrentielle crée une forte présomption d’abus
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

in Concurrences : Revue des Droits de la Concurrence (2008), 2

Conclusions de l’avocat général D. Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer, 1er avril 2008, Lélos e.a./Glaxosmithkline, C468/06 à C478/06 L’Avocat général Colomer estime que le refus partiel de livrer opposé par un ... [more ▼]

Conclusions de l’avocat général D. Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer, 1er avril 2008, Lélos e.a./Glaxosmithkline, C468/06 à C478/06 L’Avocat général Colomer estime que le refus partiel de livrer opposé par un laboratoire à des grossistes en vue d’assécher le commerce parallèle n’est pas un abus per se, mais l’intention manifestement anticoncurrentielle crée une forte présomption d’abus [less ▲]

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See detailSox10 is not necessary for auditory neurons survival
Breuskin, I; Bodson, M; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2008)

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See detail« Maar dus ik denk dat … » Het gebruik van dus en maar door Franstalige leerders van het Nederlands: een kwalitatieve analyse
Perrez, Julien ULg

in Verslagen en Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Taal en Letterkunde (2008)

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See detailDesertification process in the sahelian belt of West Africa: What's the state of play?
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Sokpon, Nestor; Nicolas, Jacques ULg et al

in Ozer, André; Swinne, Danielle (Eds.) Desertification: Migration, Health, Remediation and Local Governance (2008)

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See detailAngles corniculaires et nombres superréels
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Bulletin of the Belgian Mathematical Society Simon Stevin (2008), 15(1), 77-86

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See detailL'assurance obligatoire de la responsabilité des architectes et le principe d'égalité
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2008)

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See detailL'actualité du droit des ententes en 2007
Petit, Nicolas ULg

in Les Petites Affiches (2008)

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See detailUn projet ambitieux : l'informatisation du Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch
Renders, Pascale ULg

in Wallonnes : Chronique de la Société de Langue et de Littérature Wallonnes (2008), (3e trimestre), 3-5

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See detailSelective growth of CdTe on patterned CdTe/Si(211)
Seldrum, T.; Bommena, R.; Samain, Louise ULg et al

in Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology : Part B (2008), 26(3), 1105-1109

The authors have studied selective growth of cadmium telluride on Si(211) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Patterned substrates were produced by optical lithography of MBE-grown CdTe/As/Si(211 ... [more ▼]

The authors have studied selective growth of cadmium telluride on Si(211) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Patterned substrates were produced by optical lithography of MBE-grown CdTe/As/Si(211). Photoemission microscopy was used as the main tool to study selective growth. This is very powerful because Si or SiO2 can be very easily distinguished from areas covered with even small amounts of CdTe due to contrast from work function differences. It was found that CdTe grows on CdTe without sticking on bare Si areas if the temperature is sufficiently high. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependence of the growth rate of CdTe, we suggest that different physisorption energies on Si and CdTe are the main cause of this selective growth. (C) 2008 American Vacuum Society. [less ▲]

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See detailStress echocardiography expert consensus statement: European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) (a registered branch of the ESC).
Sicari, Rosa; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Evangelista, Arturo et al

in European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology (2008), 9(4), 415-37

Stress echocardiography is the combination of 2D echocardiography with a physical, pharmacological or electrical stress. The diagnostic end point for the detection of myocardial ischemia is the induction ... [more ▼]

Stress echocardiography is the combination of 2D echocardiography with a physical, pharmacological or electrical stress. The diagnostic end point for the detection of myocardial ischemia is the induction of a transient worsening in regional function during stress. Stress echocardiography provides similar diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as radionuclide stress perfusion imaging, but at a substantially lower cost, without environmental impact, and with no biohazards for the patient and the physician. Among different stresses of comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, semisupine exercise is the most used, dobutamine the best test for viability, and dipyridamole the safest and simplest pharmacological stress and the most suitable for combined wall motion coronary flow reserve assessment. The additional clinical benefit of myocardial perfusion contrast echocardiography and myocardial velocity imaging has been inconsistent to date, whereas the potential of adding - coronary flow reserve evaluation of left anterior descending coronary artery by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography adds another potentially important dimension to stress echocardiography. New emerging fields of application taking advantage from the versatility of the technique are Doppler stress echo in valvular heart disease and in dilated cardiomyopathy. In spite of its dependence upon operator's training, stress echocardiography is today the best (most cost-effective and risk-effective) possible imaging choice to achieve the still elusive target of sustainable cardiac imaging in the field of noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodiversité linguistique
Durand, Pascal ULg

E-print/Working paper (2008)

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See detailStrain accommodation by slow slip and dyking in a youthful continental rift, East Africa
Calais, E.; d'Oreye, N.; Albaric, J. et al

in Nature (2008), 456

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See detailRevue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité LV (2008) (parue en septembre 2009)
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité (2008), LV

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See detailOn-the-go georeferenced measurements of soil mechanical strength and differenciation of soil structure.
Destain, Marie-France ULg; Sirjacobs, Damien ULg; Hanquet, Bernard et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2008)

Soil strength is defined as the resistance which as to be overcome to obtain a given soil deformation. Amongst the numerous methods developed to measure soil strength, two are classically used. On one ... [more ▼]

Soil strength is defined as the resistance which as to be overcome to obtain a given soil deformation. Amongst the numerous methods developed to measure soil strength, two are classically used. On one hand, a laboratory method based on triaxial tests of undisturbed soil samples allows the estimation of cohesion and internal friction angle by the Mohr-Coulomb equation. On the other hand, measuring soil penetration resistance by pushing a cone into a soil is a widely used technique. Both techniques deliver discontinuous field information and are not suited to produce digital soil mapping. The objectives of this paper are to present a sensor able to continuously measure soil strength variations. The sensor was constituted of a thin blade pulled in the soil at a constant depth and speed and a beam which transferred the soil-blade forces to a transducer fixed on a vehicle. The transducer measures the draft force Fx, the vertical force Fz and the moment My thanks to an octagonal ring dynamometer. A measurement chain was developed to acquire simultaneously the signals provides by the soil strength sensor and those of a DGPS. Signal processing was notably based on geostatistics and allows soil mapping [1]. Four fields representative of the soils used in silty areas for arable production in Belgium were selected. The measurements were repeated several times during 1999-2003. Targeted test plots were chosen in each field to perform reference measurements, namely granulometry, cohesion, friction angle, pF, water content, dry bulk density, and cone index. The within-field studies revealed high variability caused by texture, history, traffic, etc., and showed a correlation between the sensor signals and physical parameters, such as cone index and soil moisture, as long as no over-consolidation of the soil occurred [2]. To assess the similarity of soil strength between the fields, the data Fx, Fz and My were classified by using canonical variates (CV). The two first CV represented 95.9 % of the variability, which means that two main variables contain the essential part of the information. In a plane (Fz, Fx), three clusters could be distinguished. The first one (trials 1 and 5), characterized by a low draft and a high Fz, corresponded to trials performed in March on soils ploughed during the winter, naked or covered with small vegetation, and characterized by small values of cone index. The second one (trials 2, 3, 4, 7) with high values of Fx and Fz grouped measurements done just after wheat harvest in August. The third cluster (trials 6) corresponded to measurements performed during wheat growth. It may be concluded that the signals from the sensor treated by suited statistical analysis have the potential to differentiate soil structures at a field scale. REFERENCES [1] Sirjacobs D., Hanquet B., Lebeau F., Destain M.-F. (2002). On-line mechanical resistance mapping and correlation with soil physical properties for precision agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research 64, 231-242. [2] Hanquet B., Sirjacobs D., Destain M.-F., Frankinet M., Verbrugge J.-C. (2004). Analysis of soil variability measured with a soil strength sensor. Precision Agriculture, 5, 227-246. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between lactoferrin, minerals, and somatic cells in bovine milk
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Arnould, Valérie ULg; Bruwier, Damien et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2008), 91(E-Suppl. 1), 542

Selection for increased mastitis resistance is hampered by lack of available data. Currently, somatic cell count or score are proven indicators. However, it should be a priority to increase the number of ... [more ▼]

Selection for increased mastitis resistance is hampered by lack of available data. Currently, somatic cell count or score are proven indicators. However, it should be a priority to increase the number of available indicator traits for mastitis resistance. The aim of this research was to study the relationships among potential indicator traits as lactoferrin content, concentrations of major minerals in milk (calcium, Ca; sodium, Na; phosphore, P), and somatic cell count. First, 3 calibration equations Breeding and Genetics: Breeding for Milk Quality and Test-Day Model Applications J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86, E-Suppl. 2/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 91, E-Suppl. 1 543 were developed using partial least squares regressions to predict the contents of Ca, Na, and P in milk by mid-infrared spectrometry. A total of 1,609 milk samples were collected between March 2005 and May 2006 for 475 cows from 6 dairy breeds. Based on their spectral variability, 100 samples were selected using a principal components approach. The contents of these minerals were estimated by emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The ratio of standard deviation to standard error of cross validation obtained for the equations predicted the contents of Ca, Na, and P were superior to 2 suggesting the use of these equations in this research. Second, the relationship between lactoferrin, minerals and somatic cells was studied using a random regressions multi-trait animal test-day model. A total of 57,973 milk samples were collected from 94 herds between April 2005 and January 2008 during milk recording in the Walloon part of Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous-state reinforcement learning with fuzzy approximation
Busoniu, Lucian; Ernst, Damien ULg; De Schutter, Bart et al

in Tuyls, K.; Nowé, A.; Guessoum, Z. (Eds.) et al Adaptive Agents and Multi-Agent Systems III, Adaptation and Multi-Agent Learning (2008)

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a widely used learning paradigm for adaptive agents. There exist several convergent and consistent RL algorithms which have been intensively studied. In their original form ... [more ▼]

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a widely used learning paradigm for adaptive agents. There exist several convergent and consistent RL algorithms which have been intensively studied. In their original form, these algorithms require that the environment states and agent actions take values in a relatively small discrete set. Fuzzy representations for approximate, model-free RL have been proposed in the literature for the more difficult case where the state-action space is continuous. In this work, we propose a fuzzy approximation architecture similar to those previously used for Q-learning, but we combine it with the model-based Q-value iteration algorithm. We prove that the resulting algorithm converges. We also give a modified, asynchronous variant of the algorithm that converges at least as fast as the original version. An illustrative simulation example is provided. [less ▲]

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See detailEnquête sur les compétences documentaires et informationnelles des étudiants qui accèdent à l'enseignement supérieur en Communauté française de Belgique : Rapport de Synthèse
Thirion, Paul ULg; Pochet, Bernard ULg

Report (2008)

Cette enquête est une adaptation d’une étude équivalente réalisée, en 2002, au Québec. Le questionnaire comporte 20 questions réparties en cinq thèmes représentant les étapes de la recherche documentaire ... [more ▼]

Cette enquête est une adaptation d’une étude équivalente réalisée, en 2002, au Québec. Le questionnaire comporte 20 questions réparties en cinq thèmes représentant les étapes de la recherche documentaire. Elle vise à connaître le niveau de compétences documentaires des étudiants qui arrivent dans l’enseignement supérieur, vérifier l’adéquation de celui-ci avec la perception qu’en ont les formateurs et identifier les lacunes afin de permettre d’améliorer les formations. 31 établissements d'enseignement universitaire et non universitaire ont accepté de participer à l’étude. Le questionnaire québécois adapté à la situation belge a été envoyé en septembre 2007 à un échantillon aléatoire de 4388 étudiants accédant pour la première fois à l'enseignement supérieur. Le taux de retour s’élève à 42,57%. Après analyse, il apparaît que comme au Québec, la moyenne des résultats est faible (7,67/20). Outre diverses variables sociologiques, certaines caractéristiques des étudiants sont en lien direct avec le niveau de performance, notamment la fréquentation d'une bibliothèque dans l'enseignement secondaire, le choix d'option dans le secondaire ou le choix actuel d’étude. A contrario, l'utilisation d'Internet ne semble pas favoriser les compétences informationnelles des étudiants. Ces observations, tenant compte de toutes les limites que l'on doit accorder à une évaluation de ce type, confirment néanmoins la nécessité de proposer des formations aux étudiants pour leur permettre d’atteindre les compétences requises par le métier d’étudiant. Les lacunes observées vont permettre d’adapter les formations existantes. L'étude doit se poursuivre pour évaluer l’impact réel des formations documentaires proposées. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling Lymphangiogenesis in a three-dimensional culture system
Bruyere, Françoise; Melen-Lamalle, Laurence; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

in Nature Methods (2008), 5(5), 431-437

Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis is hampered by the lack of appropriate in vitro models of three-dimensional (3D) lymph vessel growth which can be used to exploit the potential of ... [more ▼]

Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis is hampered by the lack of appropriate in vitro models of three-dimensional (3D) lymph vessel growth which can be used to exploit the potential of available transgenic mice. We developed a potent reproducible and quantifiable 3D-culture system of lymphatic endothelial cells, the lymphatic ring assay, bridging the gap between 2D-in vitro and in vivo models of lymphangiogenesis. Mice thoracic duct fragments are embedded in a collagen gel leading to the formation of lymphatic capillaries containing a lumen as assessed by electron microscopy and immunostaining. This assay phenocopies the different steps of lymphangiogenesis, including the spreading from a preexisting vessel, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into capillaries. Our study provides evidence for the implication of an individual matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-2, during lymphangiogenesis. The lymphatic ring assay is a robust, quantifiable and reproducible system which offers new opportunities for rapid identification of unknown regulators of lymphangiogenesis. [less ▲]

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