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See detailEfficacy and safety of rimonabant for improvement of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese patients: pooled 1-year data from the Rimonabant in Obesity (RIO) program.
Van Gaal, Luc; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Despres, Jean-Pierre et al

in Diabetes Care (2008), 31 Suppl 2

OBJECTIVE: To better define the efficacy and safety of rimonabant, the first selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor antagonist, in a large population of overweight and obese patients using pooled ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To better define the efficacy and safety of rimonabant, the first selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor antagonist, in a large population of overweight and obese patients using pooled efficacy data from three Phase III nondiabetes Rimonabant in Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders (RIO) studies, selected efficacy data from the RIO-Diabetes study, and pooled safety data for all four RIO studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The RIO studies enrolled patients who were either overweight (BMI >27 kg/m(2)) with at least one comorbidity (i.e., hypertension, dyslipidemia, or, for RIO-Diabetes, type 2 diabetes) or obese. All patients received daily treatment with rimonabant (5 or 20 mg) or placebo for 1 year plus a hypocaloric diet (600 kcal/day deficit) and advice on increased physical activity. RIO-Europe (n = 1,508), RIO-North America (n = 3,045), and RIO-Lipids (n = 1,036) excluded patients with type 2 diabetes; untreated dyslipidemia was an entry requirement for RIO-Lipids. RIO-Diabetes (n = 1,047) required the presence of type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulfonylurea or metformin monotherapy. RESULTS: The pooled intention-to-treat population comprised 5,580 patients without diabetes (3,165 completed treatment) and 1,047 patients with diabetes (692 completed treatment). Most efficacy measures improved during the 4-week placebo run-in period, except that HDL cholesterol decreased as expected in the early phase of a hypocaloric diet. After 1 year of randomized treatment, changes from baseline with 20 mg rimonabant in the nondiabetic population were as follows: body weight -6.5 kg, waist circumference -6.4 cm, HDL cholesterol +16.4%, triglycerides -6.9%, fasting insulin -0.6 muU/ml, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) -0.2 (all P < 0.001 vs. placebo). In the diabetic population, 20 mg rimonabant reduced A1C levels by 0.6% (P < 0.001 vs. placebo). Regression analysis of change in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin (in RIO-Lipids), and A1C (in RIO-Diabetes) versus body weight at 1 year by ANCOVA suggested that 45-57% of the effect of rimonabant could not be explained by the observed weight loss. At 1 year, adverse events more frequently reported with rimonabant were gastrointestinal, neurological, and psychiatric in nature. Serious adverse events were infrequent and almost equivalent to placebo. Overall discontinuation rates were similar across treatment groups, except discontinuation from adverse events, which occurred more frequently with 20 mg rimonabant versus placebo (most commonly, depressive disorders [1.9 vs. 0.8%], nausea [1.4 vs. 0.1%], mood alterations with depressive symptoms [1.0 vs. 0.6%], and anxiety [1.0 vs. 0.3%]). A thorough review of psychiatric and neurological adverse events was performed. CONCLUSIONS: In overweight/obese patients, 20 mg/day rimonabant produced weight loss and significant improvements in multiple cardiometabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, A1C, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Rimonabant was generally well tolerated, with more frequently reported adverse events being gastrointestinal, neurological, and psychiatric in nature. [less ▲]

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See detailSquatting amplifies pulse pressure increase with disease duration in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Marchand, Monique ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes Care (2008), 31(2), 322-4

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulse pressure changes according to duration of type 1 diabetes and to assess the influence of posture. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed continuous measurement of blood ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulse pressure changes according to duration of type 1 diabetes and to assess the influence of posture. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed continuous measurement of blood pressure with a Finapres device during a 3 x 1 min posture test (standing, squatting, standing) in 159 type 1 diabetic patients divided into four groups according to diabetes duration (<or=10, 11-20, 21-30, and >30 years, groups 1-4, respectively) and compared the results with those of age-matched nondiabetic subjects. RESULTS: Pulse pressure progressively increased according to type 1 diabetes duration (P < 0.0001), especially in women, but not in age-matched nondiabetic subjects (NS). Pulse-pressure increase from group 1 to group 4 was amplified in the squatting position (from 50 +/- 17 to 69 +/- 14 mmHg) compared with standing (from 44 +/- 15 to 55 +/- 12 mmHg). CONCLUSIONS: Pulse pressure increases according to type 1 diabetes duration more in women than in men, and the squatting position sensitizes such pulse-pressure increase in both sexes. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards high performance virtual routers on commodity hardware
Egi, N.; Greenhalgh, A.; Handley, M. et al

in Proceedings of the 2008 ACM CoNEXT Conference (2008)

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See detailFairness issues in software virtual routers
Egi, N.; Greenhalgh, A.; Handley, M. et al

in Proceedings of the ACM workshop on Programmable routers for extensible services of tomorrow (2008)

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See detailA perturbation method for the 3D finite element modeling of electrostatically driven MEMS
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULg; V Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Dular, Patrick ULg

in Sensors (2008), 8(2), 994-1003

In this paper, a finite element (FE) procedure for modeling electrostatically actuated MEMS is presented. It concerns a perturbation method for computing electrostatic field distortions due to moving ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a finite element (FE) procedure for modeling electrostatically actuated MEMS is presented. It concerns a perturbation method for computing electrostatic field distortions due to moving conductors. The computation is split in two steps. First, an unperturbed problem (in the absence of certain conductors) is solved with the conventional FE method in the complete domain. Second, a perturbation problem is solved in a reduced region with an additional conductor using the solution of the unperturbed problem as a source. When the perturbing region is close to the original source field, an iterative computation may be required. The developed procedure offers the advantage of solving sub-problems in reduced domains and consequently of benefiting from different problem-adapted meshes. This approach allows for computational efficiency by decreasing the size of the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailConcerns, expectations and perception regarding stature, physical appearance and psychosocial functioning before and during high-dose growth hormone treatment of short pre-pubertal children born small for gestational age.
Lagrou, K.; Froidecoeur, C.; Thomas, M. et al

in Hormone Research (2008), 69(6), 334-42

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few data are available about parental concerns and psychosocial functioning of young children born small for gestational age (SGA) treated with growth hormone (GH). The present study ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few data are available about parental concerns and psychosocial functioning of young children born small for gestational age (SGA) treated with growth hormone (GH). The present study focused on the perception of short stature and the concerns and expectations of the parents regarding GH treatment. METHODS: Forty prepubertal short SGA children, randomized into a GH-treated and a GH-untreated group, and their parents were evaluated by a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview at start and after 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Before start, 85% of the parents were concerned about short stature, 76% expected an increase in adult height of > or =10 cm and 81% expected a positive impact on well-being. Half of the parents expressed fears regarding GH treatment. After 2 years, more parents of treated children reported obvious growth and physical changes, and fewer parents reported teasing because of short stature. An improvement of well-being was reported by half of the parents of treated and untreated children. Fears about GH treatment disappeared almost completely. CONCLUSION: The perspective of GH treatment induced major adult height expectations. In treated children, the physical effects of GH treatment became obvious, teasing because of short stature decreased and initial concerns about short stature and GH therapy decreased. [less ▲]

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See detailVers la création d’un méta-modèle générique de l’information spatiale 3D urbaine
Billen, Roland ULg; Laplanche, François ULg; Zlatanova, Siyka et al

in Revue XYZ (2008), 114(1), 37-42

The need of 3D urban spatial data infrastructures (3D SDI) is now almost commonly accepted. However, their implementation suffers from a lack of standardisation. This is usually due to an underestimation ... [more ▼]

The need of 3D urban spatial data infrastructures (3D SDI) is now almost commonly accepted. However, their implementation suffers from a lack of standardisation. This is usually due to an underestimation of the initial conceptual step, where modelling options should be clearly stated. In this article, we present a modelling ontological approach inspired by our experience in spatial data acquisition techniques. In this ontology, one considers that the universe is composed of free space and occupied space and that their interface is the only measurable feature. On that basis, we present a generic 3D urban spatial information meta-model. This meta-model is compared to the City GML standard through the study of the building object. Expect from some level-ofdetail issues, both models are compatible. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and use of a 4D GIS to support the conservation of the Calakmul site (Mexico, World Heritage Programme)
Van Ruymbeke, Muriel ULg; Tigny, Vincent; De Bats, Erik et al

in Ioannides, M. (Ed.) VSMM 2008. Digital Heritage. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia (2008)

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See detailAnalysis of Dose Volume Histogram Differences between High Dose Rate Brachytherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Treatment
Hermesse, Johanne ULg; Thissen, Benedicte ULg; Warlimont, Bernard ULg et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2008), 72(1 (supplément)), 566

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See detailProcess window enhancement for single point incremental forming through multi-step toolpaths
Duflou, J. R.; Verbert, J.; Belkassem, B. et al

in CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology (2008), (57), 253-256

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) suffers from process window limitations which are strongly determined by the maximum achievable forming angle. Forming consecutive, intermediate shapes can ... [more ▼]

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) suffers from process window limitations which are strongly determined by the maximum achievable forming angle. Forming consecutive, intermediate shapes can contribute to a significantly enlarged process window by allowing steeper maximum wall angles for a range of part geometries. In this paper an experimentally explored multi-step toolpath strategy is reported and the resulting part geometries compared to simulation output. Sheet thicknesses and strains achieved with these multi-step toolpaths were verified and contribute to better understanding of the material relocation mechanism underlying the enlarged process window. [less ▲]

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See detailPrefabricated composite beam-to-concrete filled tube or partially reinforced-concrete-encased column connections for severe seismic and fire loadings
Bursi, Oreste; Ferrario, Fabio; Haller, Mike et al

Book published by European Commission (2008)

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See detailRéflexions sur la consécration du sacrifiant védique dans l'offrande de Soma
Swennen, Philippe ULg

in Journal Asiatique (2008), 296(1), 93-139

Important studies dedicated to Vedic prose formulas showed how it is possible to recognize the most ancient brahmanic doctrines. Such results allow us to identify the most ancient interpretation of the ... [more ▼]

Important studies dedicated to Vedic prose formulas showed how it is possible to recognize the most ancient brahmanic doctrines. Such results allow us to identify the most ancient interpretation of the consecration ceremony in the soma sacrifice. It is shown that this interpretation was built up on Aditi's mythology: she generated several twin gods, especially Indra and a still-born child, root of mankind. In archaic Vedic mythology, gods did not create humanity but just deprived it of its divine nature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Tolerability of Risk
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Brunet, Sébastien ULg

in Journal of Risk Research (2008)

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See detailADAMTS-1 metalloproteinase induces a stromal reaction and propotes tumor development in mice.
Rocks, Natacha ULg; Paulissen, Geneviève ULg; Quesada Calvo, Florence ULg et al

in Cancer Research (2008), 68(22), 9541-50

ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs), the first described member of the ADAMTS family, is differentially expressed in various tumors. However, its exact role in tumor ... [more ▼]

ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs), the first described member of the ADAMTS family, is differentially expressed in various tumors. However, its exact role in tumor development and progression is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ADAMTS-1 transfection in a bronchial epithelial tumor cell line (BZR) and its potential to modulate tumor development. ADAMTS-1 overexpression did not affect in vitro cell properties such as (a) proliferation in two-dimensional culture, (b) proliferation in three-dimensional culture, (c) anchorageindependent growth in soft agar, (d) cell migration and invasion in modified Boyden chamber assay, (e) angiogenesis in the aortic ring assay, and (f) cell apoptosis. In contrast, ADAMTS-1 stable transfection in BZR cells accelerated the in vivo tumor growth after s.c. injection into severe combined immunodeficient mice. It also promoted a stromal reaction characterized by myofibroblast infiltration and excessive matrix deposition. These features are, however, not observed in tumors derived from cells overexpressing a catalytically inactive mutant of ADAMTS-1. Conditioned media from ADAMTS-1–overexpressing cells display a potent chemotactic activity toward fibroblasts. ADAMTS-1 overexpression in tumors was associated with increased production of matrix metalloproteinase-13, fibronectin, transforming growth factor B (TGF-B), and interleukin-1B (IL-1B). Neutralizing antibodies against TGF-B and IL-1B blocked the chemotactic effect of medium conditioned by ADAMTS-1–expressing cells on fibroblasts, showing the contribution of these factors in ADAMTS-1–induced stromal reaction. In conclusion, we propose a new paradigm for catalytically active ADAMTS-1 contribution to tumor development, which consists of the recruitment of fibroblasts involved in tumor growth and tumor-associated stroma remodeling. [less ▲]

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See detailthe metalloproteinase ADAM-12 regulates bronchial epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Rocks, Natacha ULg; Estrella, C.; Paulissen, Geneviève ULg et al

in Cell Proliferation (2008), 41(6), 988-1001

Objectives: The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) enzymes compose a family of membrane-bound proteins characterized by their multi-domain structure and ADAM-12 expression is elevated in human ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) enzymes compose a family of membrane-bound proteins characterized by their multi-domain structure and ADAM-12 expression is elevated in human non-small cell lung cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles played by ADAM-12 in critical steps of bronchial cell transformation during carcinogenesis. Materials and methods: To assess the role of ADAM-12 in tumorigenicity, BEAS-2B cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding human full-length ADAM-12 cDNA, and then the effects of ADAM-12 overexpression on cell behaviour were explored. Treatment of clones with heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF) neutralizing antibodies as well as an EGFR inhibitor allowed the dissection of mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Results: Overexpression of ADAM-12 in BEAS-2B cells promoted cell proliferation. ADAM-12 overexpressing clones produced higher quantities of HB-EGF in their culture medium which may rely on membrane-bound HB-EGF shedding by ADAM-12. Targeting HB-EGF activity with a neutralizing antibody abrogated enhanced cell proliferation in the ADAM-12 overexpressing clones. In sharp contrast, targeting of amphiregulin, EGF or transforming growth factor-α failed to influence cell proliferation; moreover, ADAM-12 transfectants were resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis and the use of a neutralizing antibody against HB-EGF activity restored rates of apoptosis to be similar to controls. Conclusions: ADAM-12 contributes to enhancing HB-EGF shedding from plasma membranes leading to increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in this bronchial epithelial cell line. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Conseil de la concurrence accepte les engagements proposés par les NMPP pour permettre l’accès des MLP au tronc commun du logiciel Presse 2000 moyennant quelques modifications et précisions
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

in Concurrences : Revue des Droits de la Concurrence (2008), 2

Cons. conc, déc. n° 08-D-04, 25 février 2008, relative à des pratiques mises en œuvre par les Nouvelles Messageries de la presse parisienne)

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See detailExpression of zebrafish pax6b in pancreas is regulated by two enhancers containing highly conserved cis-elements bound by PDX1, PBX and PREP factors
Delporte, F. M.; Pasque, Vincent; Devos, Nathalie et al

in BMC Developmental Biology (2008), 8

BACKGROUND: PAX6 is a transcription factor playing a crucial role in the development of the eye and in the differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine cells as well as of enteroendocrine cells. Studies on ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: PAX6 is a transcription factor playing a crucial role in the development of the eye and in the differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine cells as well as of enteroendocrine cells. Studies on the mouse Pax6 gene have shown that sequences upstream from the P0 promoter are required for expression in the lens and the pancreas; but there remain discrepancies regarding the precise location of the pancreatic regulatory elements. RESULTS: Due to genome duplication in the evolution of ray-finned fishes, zebrafish has two pax6 genes, pax6a and pax6b. While both zebrafish pax6 genes are expressed in the developing eye and nervous system, only pax6b is expressed in the endocrine cells of the pancreas. To investigate the cause of this differential expression, we used a combination of in silico, in vivo and in vitro approaches. We show that the pax6b P0 promoter targets expression to endocrine pancreatic cells and also to enteroendocrine cells, retinal neurons and the telencephalon of transgenic zebrafish. Deletion analyses indicate that strong pancreatic expression of the pax6b gene relies on the combined action of two conserved regulatory enhancers, called regions A and C. By means of gel shift assays, we detected binding of the homeoproteins PDX1, PBX and PREP to several cis-elements of these regions. In constrast, regions A and C of the zebrafish pax6a gene are not active in the pancreas, this difference being attributable to sequence divergences within two cis-elements binding the pancreatic homeoprotein PDX1. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate a conserved role of enhancers A and C in the pancreatic expression of pax6b and emphasize the importance of the homeoproteins PBX and PREP cooperating with PDX1, in activating pax6b expression in endocrine pancreatic cells. This study also provides a striking example of how adaptative evolution of gene regulatory sequences upon gene duplication progressively leads to subfunctionalization of the paralogous gene pair. [less ▲]

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