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See detailCobalt mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) using bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II): a unique tool for controlling the radical polymerization of conjugated and unconjugated vinyl monomers
Hurtgen, Marie ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

Poster (2009, September 17)

Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization (CMRP) imparts a high level of control on the polymerization of acrylic and vinylic esters, acrylic acid and acrylonitrile. However, each class of monomers appears ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization (CMRP) imparts a high level of control on the polymerization of acrylic and vinylic esters, acrylic acid and acrylonitrile. However, each class of monomers appears to be controlled by one class of cobalt complexes. For example, the polymerization of acrylates and acrylic acid is mediated by cobalt porphyrin complexes while vinyl acetate (VAc) and acrylonitrile are efficiently controlled by bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) (Co(acac)2). Therefore, a challenging issue in CMRP remains to broaden the range of monomers that can be controlled by the same cobalt complex. Recently, the controlled random copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BuA) with VAc was performed using the conventional V-70/Co(acac)2 CMRP system, but the homopolymerization of BuA remained uncontrolled. In this work, we used a new alkylcobalt(III) adduct to initiate and control the copolymerization of BuA with VAc. This achievement resulted in a significant improvement over the V-70/Co(acac)2 pair regarding the molecular weight control and the polydispersity indexes. Moreover, for the first time, the alkylcobalt(III) adduct was also efficient in controlling the homopolymerization of BuA and yielded low polydispersity PBuA even in the absence of VAc. These results indicate that Co(acac)2 is a versatile mediator for the CMRP of both unconjugated vinyl monomers (VAc, N-vinylpyrrolidone) and conjugated monomers such as acrylates. It gives access to copolymers that cannot be prepared by other controlled radical polymerization techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailα-chloro-ε-caprolactone, a versatile precursor for grafting of aliphatic polyesters
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Lenoir, Sandrine ULg; Lecomte, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2009, September 17)

Macromolecular engineering is one of the most powerful tool to synthesise many polymers of various architectures and with tailored properties. This contribution aims at reporting on a novel strategy for ... [more ▼]

Macromolecular engineering is one of the most powerful tool to synthesise many polymers of various architectures and with tailored properties. This contribution aims at reporting on a novel strategy for the macromolecular engineering of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) which is based on the use of a dual monomer / initiator compound, α-chloro-ε-caprolactone (αClεCL). Indeed, αClεCL is not only polymerizable by ring opening initiated by metal alkoxides, but it is also an initiator for the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of vinyl monomers, so leading easily to the synthesis of macromonomers. Polystyrene macromonomer has been prepared by this method and successfully copolymerized with ε-caprolactone (εCL) with formation of the corresponding grafted PCL. αClεCL is also a precursor of copolyesters with εCL that bear pendant chlorides. These (co)polyesters have been used as macroinitiators for the ATRP of methyl methacrylate in order to synthesise the corresponding graft copolymer. On the other hand, the pendant chlorides of poly(αClεCL-co-εCL) copolyesters were easily converted into azide with formation of the corresponding azide bearing copolyester. This copolyester was then reacted with an alkyne bearing an ATRP initiator by “Click chemistry”. The conversion of chlorides into more efficient ATRP initiators led to the improvement of the initiation efficiency of the macroinitiator. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailIMPROVE - Design of Innovative Ship Concepts using an Integrated Decision Support System for Ship Production and Operation
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in IMPROVE Workshop (EU Project FP6 n°031382), DUBROVNIK 17-18 Sept. 2009, Croatia, Editor V. Zanic – Univ. of Zagreb (2009, September 17)

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See detailHerstellung von neuen strahlenhärtenden bindemitteln
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Weikard, Jan; Greszta-Franz, Dorota et al

Patent (2009)

Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Herstellung neuartiger Bindemittel, die unter Einwirkung aktinischer Strahlung mit ethylenisch ungesättigten Verbindungen unter Polymerisation ... [more ▼]

Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Herstellung neuartiger Bindemittel, die unter Einwirkung aktinischer Strahlung mit ethylenisch ungesättigten Verbindungen unter Polymerisation reagierende Gruppen und gegebenenfalls auch gegenüber Isocyanaten reaktive Gruppen aufweisen, sowie deren Verwendung in Beschichtungsmitteln. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement durable: Moins, mieux, autrement
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

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See detailFoams of polyurethane/MWNT nanocomposites for efficient EMI reduction
Chen, Y. Y.; Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2009, September 16)

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See detailIntroduction au droit commercial
Thirion, Nicolas ULg; Delvaux, Thierry; Benoit-Moury, Anne

Learning material (2009)

Le cours d'introduction au droit commercial, destiné à des non-juristes, a pour objet de décrire, dans ses grandes lignes, le régime juridique applicable à l'organisation et au fonctionnement de l ... [more ▼]

Le cours d'introduction au droit commercial, destiné à des non-juristes, a pour objet de décrire, dans ses grandes lignes, le régime juridique applicable à l'organisation et au fonctionnement de l'économie. Les liens avec des disciplines autres que le droit, notamment l'économie et l'histoire, seront privilégiés, afin d'adapter la matière aux besoins et centres d'intérêts d'étudiants en sciences humaines. Après une introduction générale, le cours s'articule autour de la trilogie fondamentale d'un système d'économie libérale tel qu'il existe aujourd'hui en Belgique et, plus largement, dans l'Union européenne: l'entreprise ; le marché et le risque. Le cours envisagera en effet les diverses modalités suivant lesquelles ces concepts sont traduits et utilisés dans le droit des affaires. D'abord, l'entreprise a reçu une première traduction juridique à travers la notion de commerçant, laquelle déclenche déjà l'application d'un grand nombre de règles (compétence des tribunaux de commerce ; modes de preuve particuliers ; droit de la faillite) ; cette traduction juridique s'est ultérieurement étendue à toutes les entités exerçant une activité économique. Parmi celles-ci, les sociétés commerciales retiendront tout particulièrement l'attention. Ensuite, l'organisation et le fonctionnement du marché font l'objet d'une deuxième partie : principe de la liberté du commerce et de l'industrie, droit de la concurrence, pratiques du commerce, ainsi qu'une introduction à l'organisation des marchés financiers et au fonctionnement des établissements financiers. Enfin, dans une troisième partie, le droit du concordat judiciaire et de la faillite sera analysé, en tant qu'instrument juridique de la sanction des défaillances des agents économiques et symbole du risque encouru par ceux qui font acte d'entreprendre. [less ▲]

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See detailThéories du droit
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

Learning material (2009)

L'enseignement de théorie du droit a pour objet de réaliser une approche du phénomène juridique s'appuyant sur un ensemble de concepts et de constructions puisés dans l'oeuvre foisonnante d'un des plus ... [more ▼]

L'enseignement de théorie du droit a pour objet de réaliser une approche du phénomène juridique s'appuyant sur un ensemble de concepts et de constructions puisés dans l'oeuvre foisonnante d'un des plus importants philosophes du vingtième siècle : Michel FOUCAULT. Il ne s'agit pas, bien entendu, de limiter le propos aux travaux de ce dernier, mais de s'en inspirer afin de fixer le cadre général d'une réflexion originale sur le droit. Dans une première partie, il conviendra de synthétiser l'appareillage intellectuel foucaldien pour en faire ensuite usage, dans la seconde partie - quantitativement la plus importante -, à propos de l'objet spécifique du cours : le phénomène juridique. Celle-ci vise en effet à appliquer les hypothèses présentées dans la première partie, en dissociant le droit comme pouvoir, d'une part, et le droit comme savoir, d'autre part. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit de l'entreprise
Thirion, Nicolas ULg; Pasteger, David ULg; Delvaux, Thierry et al

Learning material (2009)

Support écrit du cours de "droit de l'entreprise" à destination des étudiants de la troisième année du grade de bachelier en droit

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See detailMulti-aperture imaging of extrasolar planetary systems (invited review)
Absil, Olivier ULg

Scientific conference (2009, September 14)

Space‐based nulling interferometry has been identified since 1978 as a promising technique to detect and characterize extrasolar Earth‐like planets. In this talk, I will review the evolution of the ... [more ▼]

Space‐based nulling interferometry has been identified since 1978 as a promising technique to detect and characterize extrasolar Earth‐like planets. In this talk, I will review the evolution of the multi‐aperture concepts dedicated to Earth‐like planet imaging during the last 30 years, and discuss the future prospects in this field. In particular, I will describe the proposed architecture for the Darwin/TPF‐I mission, which has resulted from a common optimization effort by ESA and NASA and from various industrial studies during the past decade. The main scientific and technical hard points will be critically discussed. This talk will also review the precursor instruments (present and future) that could enable future flagship interferometric missions similar to Darwin/TPF‐I. [less ▲]

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See detailThe economics of climate change and the change of climate in economics: the implications for climate policy of adopting an evolutionary perspective
Maréchal, Kevin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

1. Contextual outline of the PhD Research Climate change is today often seen as one of the most challenging issue that our civilisation will have to face during the 21st century. This is especially so now ... [more ▼]

1. Contextual outline of the PhD Research Climate change is today often seen as one of the most challenging issue that our civilisation will have to face during the 21st century. This is especially so now that the most recent scientific data have led to the conclusion that the globally averaged net effect of human activities since 1750 has been one of warming (IPCC 2007, p. 5) and that continued greenhouse gas emissions at or above current rates would cause further warming (IPCC, 2007 p. 13). This unequivocal link between climate change and anthropogenic activities requires an urgent, world-wide shift towards a low carbon economy (STERN 2006 p. iv) and coordinated policies and measures to manage this transition. The climate issue is undoubtedly a typical policy question and as such, is considered amenable to economic scrutiny. Indeed, in today’s world economics is inevitable when it comes to arbitrages in the field of policy making. From the very beginning of international talks on climate change, up until the most recent discussions on a post-Kyoto international framework, economic arguments have turned out to be crucial elements of the analysis that shapes policy responses to the climate threat. This can be illustrated by the prominent role that economics has played in the different analyses produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to assess the impact of climate change on society. The starting point and the core idea of this PhD research is the long-held observation that the threat of climate change calls for a change of climate in economics. Borrowing from the jargon used in climate policy, adaptation measures could also usefully target the academic discipline of economics. Given that inherent characteristics of the climate problem (e.g. complexity, irreversibility, deep uncertainty, etc.) challenge core economic assumptions, mainstream economic theory does not appear as appropriately equipped to deal with this crucial issue. This makes that new assumptions and analyses are needed in economics in order to comprehend and respond to the problem of climate change. In parallel (and without environmental considerations being specifically the driving force to it), the mainstream model in economics has also long been (and still is) strongly criticised and disputed by numerous scholars - both from within and outside the field of economics. For the sake of functionality, these criticisms - whether they relate to theoretical inconsistencies or are empirically-based - can be subsumed as all challenging part of the Cartesian/Newtonian legacy of economics. This legacy can be shown to have led to a model imprinted with what could be called “mechanistic reductionism”. The mechanistic side refers to the Homo oeconomicus construct while reductionism refers to the quest for micro-foundations materialised with the representative agent hypothesis. These two hypotheses constitute, together with the conjecture of perfect markets, the building blocks of the framework of general equilibrium economics. Even though it is functional for the purpose of this work to present them separately, the flaws of economics in dealing with the specificities of the climate issue are not considered independent from the fundamental objections made to the theoretical framework of mainstream economics. The former only make the latter seem more pregnant while the current failure of traditional climate policies informed by mainstream economics render the need for complementary approaches more urgent. 2. Overview of the approach and its main insights for climate policy Starting from this observation, the main objective of this PhD is thus to assess the implications for climate policy that arise from adopting an alternative analytical economic framework. The stance is that the coupling of insights from the framework of evolutionary economics with the perspective of ecological economics provides a promising way forward both theoretically as well as on a more applied basis with respect to a better comprehension of the socioeconomic aspects related to the climate problem. As claimed in van den Bergh (2007, p. 521), ecological economics and evolutionary economics “share many characteristics and can be combined in a fruitful way" - which renders the coupling approach both legitimate and promising. The choice of an evolutionary line of thought initially stems from its core characteristic: given its focus on innovation and system change it provides a useful approach to start with for assessing and managing the needed transition towards a low carbon economy. Besides, its shift of focus towards a better understanding of economic dynamics together with its departure from the perfect rationality hypothesis renders evolutionary economics a suitable theoretical complement for designing environmental policies. The notions of path-dependence and lock-in can be seen as the core elements from this PhD research. They arise from adopting a framework which is founded on a different view of individual rationality and that allows for richer and more complex causalities to be accounted for. In a quest for surmounting the above-mentioned problem of reductionism, our framework builds on the idea of ‘multi-level selection’. This means that our analytical framework should be able to accommodate not only for upward but also for downward causation, without giving analytical priority to any level over the other. One crucial implication of such a framework is that the notion of circularity becomes the core dynamic, highlighting the importance of historicity, feedbacks and emergent properties. More precisely, the added value of the perspective adopted in this PhD research is that it highlights the role played by inertia and path-dependence. Obviously, it is essential to have a good understanding of the underlying causes of that inertia prior to devising on how to enforce a change. Providing a clear picture of the socio-economic processes at play in shaping socio-technical systems is thus a necessary first step in order to usefully complement policy-making in the field of energy and climate change. In providing an analytical basis for this important diagnosis to be performed, the use of the evolutionary framework sheds a new light on the transition towards low-carbon socio-technical systems. The objective is to suggest strategies that could prove efficient in triggering the needed transition such as it has been the case in past “lock-in” stories. Most notably, the evolutionary framework allows us to depict the presence of two sources of inertia (i.e at the levels of individuals through “habits” and at the level of socio-technical systems) that mutually reinforce each other in a path-dependent manner. Within the broad perspective on path dependence and lock-in, this PhD research has first sketched the implications for climate policy of applying the concept of ‘technological lock-in’ in a systemic perspective. We then investigated in more details the notion of habits. This is important as the ‘behavioural’ part of the lock-in process, although explicitly acknowledged in the pioneer work of Paul David (David, 1985, p. 336), has been neglected in most of subsequent analyses. Throughout this study, the notion of habits has been studied at both the theoretical and applied level of analysis as well as from an empirical perspective. As shown in the first chapters of the PhD, the advantage of our approach is that it can incorporate theories that so far have been presented opposite, partial and incomplete perspectives. For instance, it is shown that our evolutionary approach not only is able to provide explanation to some of the puzzling questions in economics (e.g. the problem of strong reciprocity displayed by individual in anonymous one-shot situations) but also is very helpful in bringing a complementary explanation with respect to the famous debate on the ‘no-regret’ emission reduction potential which agitates the experts of climate policy. An emission reduction potential is said to be "no regret" when the costs of implementing a measure are more than offset by the benefits it generates such as, for instance, reduced energy bills. In explaining why individuals do not spontaneously implement those highly profitable energy-efficient investments , it appears that most prior analyses have neglected the importance of non-economic obstacle. They are often referred to as “barriers” and partly relate to the ‘bounded rationality’ of economic agent. As developed in the different chapters of this PhD research, the framework of evolutionary economics is very useful in that it is able to provide a two-fold account (i.e. relying on both individual and socio-technical sources of inertia) of this limited rationality that prevent individuals to act as purely optimising agents. Bearing this context in mind, the concept of habits, as defined and developed in this study, is essential in analysing the determinants of energy consumption. Indeed, this concept sheds an insightful light on the puzzling question of why energy consumption keeps rising even though there is an evident increase of awareness and concern about energy-related environmental issues such as climate change. Indeed, if we subscribe to the idea that energy-consuming behaviours are often guided by habits and that deeply ingrained habits can become “counter-intentional”, it then follows that people may often display “locked-in” practices in their daily energy consumption behaviour. This hypothesis has been assessed in our empirical analysis whose results show how the presence of strong energy-consuming habitual practices can reduce the effectiveness of economic incentives such as energy subsidies. One additional delicate factor that appears crucial for our purpose is that habits are not fully conscious forms of behaviours. This makes that individuals do not really see habits as a problem given that it is viewed as easily changed. In sum, based on our evolutionary account of the situation, it follows that, to be more efficient, climate policies would have to both shift the incumbent carbon-based socio-technical systems (for it to shape decisions towards a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and also deconstruct habits that this same socio-technical has forged with time (as increased environmental awareness and intentions formulated accordingly are not sufficient in the presence of strong habits). Accordingly, decision-makers should design measures (e.g. commitment strategies, niche management, etc.) that, as explained in this research, specifically target those change-resisting factors and their key features. This is essential as these factors tend to reduce the efficiency of traditional instruments. Micro-level interventions are thus needed as much as macro-level ones. For instance, it is often the case that external improvements of energy efficiency do not lead to lower energy consumption due to the rebound effect arising from unchanged energy-consuming habits. Bearing this in mind and building on the insights from the evolutionary approach, policy-makers should go beyond the mere subsidisation of technologies. They should instead create conditions enabling the use of the multi-layered, cumulative and self-reinforcing character of economic change highlighted by evolutionary analyses. This means supporting both social and physical technologies with the aim of influencing the selection environment so that only the low-carbon technologies and practices will survive. [less ▲]

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See detailLa fiscalité locale : décennie d'évolutions
Bortolotti, Aurélien ULg

Scientific conference (2009, September 11)

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See detailFroment 2009: de bons rendements mais une piètre qualité boulangère
Sinnaeve, Georges; Gofflot, Sébastien; Chandelier, Anne et al

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailPadvinder voor het leven
Meesters, Gert ULg

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailKleine bibliotheek voor een Kuifoloog
Meesters, Gert ULg; Van Cauwelaert, Rik

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailIntegrated Research and Protected Spaces: a New Role for STS?
Thoreau, François ULg

Poster (2009, September 10)

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See detailVariétés: orge de brasserie
Monfort, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailImplantation des cultures
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Roisin, Christian; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailVariétés: froment d'hiver
Seutin, Benoit ULg; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Couvreur, Luc et al

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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