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See detailFuturs antérieurs et précédents uchroniques: l'anti-utopie comme conjuration de la menace
Claisse, Frédéric ULg

in Temporalités : Productions, Usages, Figures : Revue de Sciences Sociales et Humaines (2010), (12),

Traditionally regarded as a mere critical inversion of utopia, dystopia will be characterized here as an instance of a more general critical posture, through the concepts of ‘future perfect’ and ... [more ▼]

Traditionally regarded as a mere critical inversion of utopia, dystopia will be characterized here as an instance of a more general critical posture, through the concepts of ‘future perfect’ and ‘counterfactual precedent’. The future perfect belongs to, but differs from the logics of alert in its temporal modalities and use of fiction: the dystopian future is described as having already happened in the actuality of the narrative present, in a paradoxical gesture which aims to conjure up the threat in the recipient’s representational space only to thwart it. The cases examined are taken from the issue of new technologies of surveillance and social control, which challenged stakeholders to update their critical reference points and anticipation skills over the last twenty years. An analysis in terms of the future perfect enables us to understand the swing of configurations: Big Brother is now downgraded as a ‘counterfactual precedent’ compared to the new threats posed by ‘societies of control’. In addition, the similar way these fictional patterns and figures operate points to a cognitive (the articulation between the real and the possible worlds accessed by anticipation) as well as a pragmatic dimension (empowering the political community to envision a new future). By the end of the analysis, fiction appears as both a mode of knowledge and a handle on the world. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamique des groupes, dispositif de formation et apprentissage
Faulx, Daniel ULg

in Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale (2010), 86(2), 345-349

Etude d'une expérience structurée questionnant les liens entre la dynamique d'un groupe et l'apprentissage qui peut être développé par les apprenants. Au centre du propos, le lien entre la dynamique de ... [more ▼]

Etude d'une expérience structurée questionnant les liens entre la dynamique d'un groupe et l'apprentissage qui peut être développé par les apprenants. Au centre du propos, le lien entre la dynamique de groupe, en partie stimulée par le dispositif, et les effets d'une action de formation. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure démographique et mouvements saisonniers des populations d’hippopotame commun, Hippopotamus amphibius Linné 1758 dans la Réserve de Biosphère de la Mare aux Hippopotames en zone sud soudanienne du Burkina Faso
Dibloni, Ollo Théophile; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Guenda, Wendengoudi et al

in Tropical Conservation Science (2010), 3(2), 175-189

The study was conducted in the “Mare aux Hippopotames” Biosphere Reserve of Burkina Faso and aimed at assessing the number, age structures and seasonal mobility of Hippopotamus amphibius. Methodology used ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted in the “Mare aux Hippopotames” Biosphere Reserve of Burkina Faso and aimed at assessing the number, age structures and seasonal mobility of Hippopotamus amphibius. Methodology used was based on three consecutive-year (2006-2008) monitoring and ground inventory inside and outside the reserve. The results of the inventories have led to the identification of 41 hippopotamus in 2008 versus 35 in 2006 which are divided into 3 distinct herds. The structure in age group of that population was composed of 32 were adults, 5 sub-adults and 4 juveniles. Location of places where they take a rest varies with the level of the water in the pond. The inventory has identified eight sites on each side of the pond as used by hippos to harvest food. In addition, exploration of the reserve has identified four temporary ponds located near the water meadows used by hippos during the rainy season. These areas were surrounded by agricultural fields that were often raided by these mammals for food. It is urgent to zone agricultural activity in the area and to grant a special conservation status to the four additional ponds to minimize conflicts between humans and hippopotamus. Finally, local participation in conservation activities is probably greatly responsible for an increase in the size of the hippo population. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit européen de la concurrence au banc des accusés
Petit, Nicolas ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2010), (2),

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See detailCharacterization of pentraxin 3 in the horse and its expression in airways.
Ramery, Eve ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Fraipont, Audrey ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2010), 41(2), 18

The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays an important role in host defence and its over-expression may contribute to airway injury. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize in more detail PTX3 ... [more ▼]

The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays an important role in host defence and its over-expression may contribute to airway injury. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize in more detail PTX3 and its expression in the horses airway. Six healthy horses and six horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction (R.A.O.) were submitted to a dusty environment challenge. PTX3 DNA and cDNA were cloned and sequenced. PTX3 expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR, western blotting and immuno-histochemistry in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells, BALF supernatant and bronchial epithelial cells. An alternative splicing of the second exon of PTX3 occurred, resulting in two forms of the protein: spliced (32 kDa) and full length (42 kDa). PTX3 was detected in BALF macrophages, neutrophils and bronchial epithelial cells. It was over-expressed in the BALF supernatant from R.A.O.-affected horses in crisis. However, dust was unable to induce PTX3 in BALF cells ex vivo, indicating that dust is an indirect inducer of PTX3. Dust exposure in-vivo induced PTX3 in BALF macrophages but there was no significant difference between healthy and R.A.O.-affected horses. Conversely, PTX3 was over-expressed in the bronchial epithelial cells from R.A.O-affected horses in crisis. These data indicate a differential regulatory mechanism in inflammatory and bronchial epithelial cells and offer therapeutically interesting perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailLinking programmes and systems: lessons from the GAVI Health Systems Strengthening window.
Galichet, B.; Goeman, L.; Hill, P. S. et al

in Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH (2010), 15(2), 208-15

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the first four rounds of country applications to the GAVI Alliance Health Systems Strengthening (GAVI-HSS) funding window; to provide valuable insight into how countries prioritize ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the first four rounds of country applications to the GAVI Alliance Health Systems Strengthening (GAVI-HSS) funding window; to provide valuable insight into how countries prioritize, articulate and propose solutions for health system constraints through the GAVI-HSS application process and to examine the extent to which this process embodies alignment and harmonization, Principles of the Paris Declaration. METHODS: The study applied multiple criteria to analyse 48 funding applications from 40 countries, submitted in the first four rounds, focusing on the country analysis of health systems constraints, coordination mechanisms, alignment with national and sector planning processes, inclusiveness of the planning processes and stakeholder engagement. RESULTS: The applications showed diversity in the health systems constraints identified and the activities proposed. Requirements of GAVI for sector oversight and coordination, and the management of the application process through the Ministry of Health's Planning Department, resulted in strong alignment with government policy and planning processes and good levels of stakeholder inclusion and local technical support (TS). CONCLUSION: Health Systems Strengthening initiatives for global health partnerships (GHPs) can provide a link between the programmatic and the systemic, influencing policy alignment and harmonization of processes. The applications strengthened in-country coordination and planning, with countries using existing health sector assessments to identify system constraints, and to propose. Analyses also produced evidence of broad stakeholder inclusiveness, a good degree of proposal alignment with national health plans and policy documents, and engagement of a largely domestic TS network. While the effectiveness of the proposed interventions cannot be determined from this data, the findings provide support for the GAVI-HSS initiative as implementation continues and evaluation begins. [less ▲]

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See detailLa carte sanitaire de la ville de Lubumbashi, Republique Democratique du Congo. Partie I: problematique de la couverture sanitaire en milieu urbain congolais.
Chenge, Mukalenge; Van der Vennet, Jean; Porignon, Denis ULg et al

in Global health promotion (2010), 17(3), 63-74

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See detailEndogenous Growth in an OLG Model with a Fixed Factor
Artige, Lionel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2010)

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See detailA Growth Model of Global Imbalances
Artige, Lionel ULg; Cavenaile, Laurent ULg

E-print/Working paper (2010)

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See detailCranioencephalic malformation with atlanto-occipital luxation in an Andalusian neonate foal.
Viu, J.; Armengou, L.; Jose-Cunilleras, E. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(3), 639-42

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See detailThe contribution of primary care to health and health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a critical review of major primary care initiatives.
Kruk, Margaret Elizabeth; Porignon, Denis ULg; Rockers, Peter C. et al

in Social science & medicine (1982) (2010), 70(6), 904-11

It has been 30 years since the Declaration of Alma Ata. During that time, primary care has been the central strategy for expanding health services in many low- and middle-income countries. The recent ... [more ▼]

It has been 30 years since the Declaration of Alma Ata. During that time, primary care has been the central strategy for expanding health services in many low- and middle-income countries. The recent global calls to redouble support for primary care highlighted it as a pathway to reaching the health Millennium Development Goals. In this systematic review we described and assessed the contributions of major primary care initiatives implemented in low- and middle-income countries in the past 30 years to a broad range of health system goals. The scope of the programs reviewed was substantial, with several interventions implemented on a national scale. We found that the majority of primary care programs had multiple components from health service delivery to financing reform to building community demand for health care. Although given this integration and the variable quality of the available research it was difficult to attribute effects to the primary care component alone, we found that primary care-focused health initiatives in low- and middle-income countries have improved access to health care, including among the poor, at reasonably low cost. There is also evidence that primary care programs have reduced child mortality and, in some cases, wealth-based disparities in mortality. Lastly, primary care has proven to be an effective platform for health system strengthening in several countries. Future research should focus on understanding how to optimize the delivery of primary care to improve health and achieve other health system objectives (e.g., responsiveness, efficiency) and to what extent models of care can be exported to different settings. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of admission plasma D-dimer concentration with diagnosis and outcome in horses with colic.
Cesarini Latorre, Carlota ULg; Monreal, L.; Armengou, L. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(6), 1490-7

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathies detected in horses with gastrointestinal problems seem to be associated with poor outcome. Plasma D-Dimer concentration is a sensitive test for assessing coagulopathies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathies detected in horses with gastrointestinal problems seem to be associated with poor outcome. Plasma D-Dimer concentration is a sensitive test for assessing coagulopathies. HYPOTHESIS: Plasma D-Dimer concentration tested on admission is related to diagnosis and outcome in horses with colic. ANIMALS: Four hundred and ninety three horses referred for evaluation of abdominal pain. METHODS: Prospective observational clinical study. Horses were grouped according to diagnosis (medical and surgical intestinal obstructions, ischemic disorders with and without intestinal resection, enteritis, peritonitis), outcome (survivors, nonsurvivors), and number of coagulopathies (normal profile, 1 or 2 coagulopathies, subclinical disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC]). Blood samples were collected on admission and plasma D-Dimer concentration, clotting times (PT and aPTT), and antithrombin activity were determined. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+) were calculated for evaluation of D-Dimer cut-off values, which were later tested in a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Horses with enteritis or peritonitis had significantly (P<.001) higher plasma D-Dimer concentrations and more severe coagulopathies on admission than horses with other diagnoses. Nonsurvivors also had significantly (P<.001) higher plasma D-Dimer concentrations at presentation than did survivors, and those horses with subclinical DIC on presentation had an odds ratio (OR) 8.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-22.5, P<.001) for nonsurvival. Finally, D-Dimer concentrations>4,000 ng/mL had a LR+ of 5.9 and an OR 8.8 (95% CI, 4.5-17.1, P<.001) for nonsurvival. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Plasma D-Dimer concentration measured on admission can be used to facilitate diagnosis and outcome prediction in horses with colic. A potential cut-off value for nonsurvival was found at approximately 4,000 ng/mL. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-molecular-weight heparin dosage in newborn foals.
Armengou, L.; Monreal, L.; Delgado, M. A. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(5), 1190-5

BACKGROUND: Heparin is used in humans as prophylaxis of hypercoagulable states and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, babies need a higher heparin dose than do adults. Septic neonate ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Heparin is used in humans as prophylaxis of hypercoagulable states and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, babies need a higher heparin dose than do adults. Septic neonate foals are at high risk of hypercoagulable state and DIC, and there is limited objective information about heparin dose for equine neonates. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether neonate foals require higher dosages of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) than adults. ANIMALS: Eighteen healthy and 11 septic neonate foals. METHODS: Experimental and clinical studies. Firstly, healthy foals were randomly distributed in 2 groups, 1 receiving 50 IU/kg SC of dalteparin and the 2nd group receiving 100 IU/kg SC of dalteparin, once daily for 3 days. Blood samples were collected before and 3, 6, 27, and 51 hours after the 1st LMWH administration. Plasma antifactor-Xa activity was measured, together with hemostatic and hematologic parameters used to assess the risk of bleeding. Subsequently, septic foals were treated blindly either with placebo (saline) or 100 IU/kg of dalteparin for 3 days. Plasma antifactor-Xa activity and other hemostatic parameters were determined before and after treatment. RESULTS: Plasma antifactor-Xa activity in healthy foals was below prophylactic activity when using the adult dosage (50 IU/kg), whereas prophylactic activities were achieved when using the double dosage (100 IU/kg). No hemorrhagic events and erythrocyte-related complications were observed with either dosage. In the clinical study, only 4/6 septic foals had plasma antifactor-Xa activity adequate for prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Equine neonates require higher dosages of LMWH compared with adults to reach prophylactic heparinemia. [less ▲]

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See detailDetrimental effect of temperature increase on the fitness of an amphibian (Lissotriton helveticus)
Galloy, Valérie ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2010), 36(2), 179-183

Increases of global temperatures have resulted in measurable shifts in the distribution, phenology and survival of some plant and animal species. However, the mechanisms showing links between global ... [more ▼]

Increases of global temperatures have resulted in measurable shifts in the distribution, phenology and survival of some plant and animal species. However, the mechanisms showing links between global warming and biodiversity declines remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether a key parameter of fitness, i.e. offspring number, could be affected by a temperature increase. To this end, we compared egg-laying traits at naturally occurring temperatures (14 °C, 18 °C and 22 °C) in palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus. Our study suggests that water temperature increase has a negative effect on the fecundity of female newts. Females lay half as many eggs at high temperatures as they do at low temperatures, which results in a lower number of hatchlings. This study shows that global warming would affect amphibian populations. It complements other studies in pointing out that changes in phenology may not be driven only by warmer earlier temperatures but also by counter-selection during late-breeding, particularly in long-term breeders such as newts. More experimental studies should be carried out to understand the complex consequences of global warming and the proximate mechanisms of amphibian decline. [less ▲]

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See detailUveal inflammation in septic newborn foals.
Leiva, M.; Pena, T.; Armengou, L. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(2), 391-7

BACKGROUND: Septicemia in humans is described as a leading cause of uveitis, which eventually can induce blindness. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Uveal inflammatory findings could be related to sepsis severity ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Septicemia in humans is described as a leading cause of uveitis, which eventually can induce blindness. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Uveal inflammatory findings could be related to sepsis severity in newborn foals and might be used as an indirect indicator for survival. ANIMALS: Seventy-four septic foals, 54 nonseptic foals, and 42 healthy foals. METHODS: Prospective observational clinical study. A detailed blinded, ophthalmic examination was performed by boarded ophthalmologists on all admitted newborn foals. Foals were grouped as septic (when blood culture resulted positive or the sepsis score was > or =14), nonseptic, and controls. Based on blood culture results, the septic group was subdivided into bacteremic and nonbacteremic foals. RESULTS: Blood culture was performed in 62/74 septic foals, from which 35 (56%) were bacteremic and 27 (44%) were non-bacteremic. Anterior uveitis was diagnosed in a significantly (P < .005) higher number of septic/bacteremic foals (14/35, 40%) than in septic/nonbacteremic foals (5/27, 19%), nonseptic foals (4/54, 7%), and control foals (0%). Anterior chamber fibrin was only observed in 4/14 (29%) septic/bacteremic foals with anterior uveitis. Anterior uveitis was also associated with posterior uveitis in 6/35 (19%) septic/bacteremic foals. The diagnosis of uveitis was related to nonsurvival (P = .001, odds ratio = 6.2, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-18.2). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Anterior uveitis is highly prevalent in septic newborn foals, especially in those with a positive blood culture, and it should be considered as a survival prognostic factor. [less ▲]

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See detailLes défis du droit romain et du droit privé comparé
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Gosselin, Antoinette; Langevin, Caroline; Wautelet, Patrick (Eds.) L'avenir de la recherche: Réflexions à l'occasion des leçons inaugurales 2010 (2010)

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