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See detailEffect Of Various Levels Of Imbalance Between Energy And Nitrogen Release In The Rumen On Microbial Protein Synthesis And Nitrogen Metabolism In Growing Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Bulls Fed A Corn Silage-Based Diet
Valkeners, Damien; Thewis, André ULg; Amant, Stéphanie et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2006), 84(4), 877-885

Seven double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls (initial BW: 341 ± 21 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in an incomplete replicated Latin square. The study examined the effect of ... [more ▼]

Seven double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls (initial BW: 341 ± 21 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in an incomplete replicated Latin square. The study examined the effect of imbalance between energy and N in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and N metabolism by giving the same diet according to 3 different feeding patterns. The feed ingredients of the diet were separated into 2 groups supplying the same amount of fermentable OM(FOM) but characterized by different levels of ruminally degradable N (RDN). The first group primarily provided energy for the ruminal microbes (12.5 g of RDN/kg of FOM), whereas the second provided greater N (33.3 g of RDN/kg of FOM). These 2 groups were fed to the bulls in different combinations with the aim of creating 3 levels of imbalance (0, 20, and 40 g/ kg of DM) between energy andN supplies in the rumen. Imbalance was measured by the variation of the degradable protein balance (OEB value in the Dutch system) of the diet between the 2 meals each a day. Diurnal variations in ruminal NH3-N concentrations and plasma urea concentrations were greatly influenced by the feeding patterns of the diet. Introduction of imbalance affected neither microbial N flow at the duodenum (P = 0.97) nor efficiency of growth (P = 0.54). The feeding patterns of the diet had no negative impact on NDF degradation in the rumen (P = 0.33). Nitrogen retention was not affected by imbalance (P = 0.74) and reached 49.7, 52.0, and 51.3 g/d, respectively for 0, 20, and 40 g of OEB/kg of DM imbalance. It seems that introduction of an imbalance between energy and N supplies for the ruminal microbes by altering the feeding pattern of the same diet does not negatively influence the microbial activity in the rumen norNretention of the animal. Nitrogen recycling in the rumen plays a major role in regulating the amount of ruminally available N and allows a continuous synchronization of N and energyyielding substrates for the microorganisms in the rumen. Therefore, imbalance between dietary energy and N created over a 24-h interval was not detrimental to rumen microbial growth for the animal as long as the level of imbalance did not exceed 40 g of OEB/kg of DM. Thus, these feeding patterns of the diet can be used under practical feeding conditions with minimal impact on the performance of ruminant animals for meat production. [less ▲]

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See detailLe coton dans le monde, place du coton africain et principaux enjeux.
Berti, Fabio ULg; Hofs, J. L.; Zagbai, H. S. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2006), 10(4),

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See detailSelection of bacteria to decrease in vitro growth of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and characterization of their antagonistic activities
Marcq, Christopher ULg; Didderen, Isabelle; Dubois Dauphin, Robin ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Food Microbiology (2006)

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See detailLe monde souterrain : la genèse des cavernes
Ek, Camille ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2006), 75

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See detailRelative Lamb-Mossbauer factors of tin corrosion products
Sougrati, Moulay Tahar ULg; Jouen, S.; Hannoyer, Béatrice

in Hyperfine Interactions (2006), 167(1-3), 815-818

Variable temperature Sn-119 Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to obtain relative Lamb-Mossbauer factors for three tin corrosion products: hydrated stannic oxide SnO2 center dot xH(2)O, abhurite Sn21O6Cl16 ... [more ▼]

Variable temperature Sn-119 Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to obtain relative Lamb-Mossbauer factors for three tin corrosion products: hydrated stannic oxide SnO2 center dot xH(2)O, abhurite Sn21O6Cl16(OH)(14), and tin hydroxysulfate Sn3OSO4(OH)(2). Their hyperfine parameters have also been investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralized shape optimization using X-FEM and Level Set methods
Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Van Miegroet, Laurent ULg; Jacobs, Thibaut et al

in Bendsoe, M.-P.; Olhoff, N.; Sigmund, O. (Eds.) IUTAM Sumposium on Topological Design Optimization of Structures, Machines, and Materials. Status and Perspectives (2006)

This paper presents an intermediate approach between parametric shape optimization and topology optimization. It is based on using the recent Level Set description of the geometry and the novel eXtended ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an intermediate approach between parametric shape optimization and topology optimization. It is based on using the recent Level Set description of the geometry and the novel eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM). The method takes benefit of the fixed mesh work using X-FEM and of the curves smoothness of the Level Set description. Design variables are shape parameters of basic geometric features. The number of design variables of this formulation is small whereas various global and local constraints can be considered. The Level Set description allows to modify the connectivity of the structure as geometric features can merge or separate from each other. However no new entity can be introduced. A central problem that is investigated here is the sensitivity analysis and the way it can be carried out efficiently. Numerical applications revisit the classical elliptical hole benchmark from shape optimization. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des herbicides phénoxyacides par chromatographie en phase liquide : 1er essai inter-laboratoires
Turcant, Alain; Dehon, Betty; Ganière-Monteil, Catherine et al

in Annales de Toxicologie Analytique (2006), XVIII(2), 135-142

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See detailTextos que se rebelan y que revelan. La rebeldía discursiva del EZLN y del Subcomandante Marcos
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Camacho Navarro, Enrique (Ed.) El rebelde contemporáneo en el circuncaribe. Imágenes y representaciones. (2006)

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See detailL'évaluation des projets de prévention des assuétudes
Absil, Gaëtan ULg; Vandoorne, Chantal ULg; Coupienne, Valérie et al

in Observatoire : Revue d'Action Sociale & Médico-Sociale (2006), (51-52), 139-145

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See detailLa sociologie de Max Scheler : une ressource phénoménologique pour un régime d’action philia au cœur de l’économie solidaire
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Social Sciences Information = Information sur les Sciences Sociales (2006), 45(4), 561-599

The present paper has a double goal. Firstly, it tries to rediscover a little used sociological system (Max Scheler’s). Secondly, it tries to propose a thematic analysis of the third sector actors’ ... [more ▼]

The present paper has a double goal. Firstly, it tries to rediscover a little used sociological system (Max Scheler’s). Secondly, it tries to propose a thematic analysis of the third sector actors’ justifications with a specific action regime (also not much discussed). These attempts merge very fast because this retrospective becomes the limits of this very (particular?) regime. It formalizes the search for social bonds in the third sector engagement. The latter could be understood as a search for philia – in the vocabulary of the regimes of action sociology – or a sympathy search – in the vocabulary of Max Scheler’s. This search for social bonds appears as a strong opposition to “capitalist mind set (Capitalistich Geist)”. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-sensitivity staining of proteins for one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using post migration covalent staining with a ruthenium fluorophore.
Tokarski, Caroline; Cren-Olive, Cecile; Fillet, Marianne ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2006), 27(7), 1407-16

This paper describes the use of a ruthenium complex ((bis(2,2'-bipyridine)-4'-methyl-4-carboxybipyridine-ruthenium-N-succidimyl ester-bis(hexafluorophosphate), abbreviated below as ASCQ_Ru) commercially ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the use of a ruthenium complex ((bis(2,2'-bipyridine)-4'-methyl-4-carboxybipyridine-ruthenium-N-succidimyl ester-bis(hexafluorophosphate), abbreviated below as ASCQ_Ru) commercially available and chemically pure. This new ruthenium complex ASCQ_Ru brings an activated ester, allowing the selective acylation of amino acid side chain amines for the post migration staining of proteins separated in 1-DE and 2-DE. The protocol used is a simple three-step protocol fixing the proteins in the gel, staining and then washing, as no lengthy destaining step is required. First the critical staining step was optimized. Although in solution the best described pH for acylating proteins with this reagent is phosphate buffer at pH 7.0, we found that best medium for in-gel staining is unbuffered ACN/water solution (20/80 v/v). The two other steps are less critical and classical conditions are satisfactory: fixing with 7% acetic acid/10% ethanol solution and washing four times for 10 min with water. Sensitivity tests were performed using 1-DE on protein molecular weight markers. We obtained a higher sensitivity than SYPRO Ruby with a detection limit of 80 pg of protein per well. However, contrary to SYPRO Ruby, ASCQ_Ru exhibits a logarithmic dependency on the amount of protein. The dynamic range is similar to SYPRO Ruby and is estimated between three and four orders of magnitude. Finally, the efficiency of the post migration ASCQ_Ru staining for 2-D gel separation is demonstrated on the whole protein extract from human colon carcinoma cells lines HCT 116. ASCQ_Ru gave the highest number of spot detected compared to other common stains Colloidal CBB, SYPRO Ruby and Deep Purple. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of ceramide-redox signaling pathway blocks glomerular injury in hyperhomocysteinemic rats.
Yi, F.; Zhang, A. Y.; Li, N. et al

in Kidney International (2006), 70(1), 88-96

Ceramide-activated NAD(P)H oxidase has been reported to participate in homocysteine (Hcys)-induced abnormal metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in rat glomerular mesangial cells. However, it ... [more ▼]

Ceramide-activated NAD(P)H oxidase has been reported to participate in homocysteine (Hcys)-induced abnormal metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in rat glomerular mesangial cells. However, it remains unknown whether this ceramide-redox signaling pathway contributes to glomerular injury induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) in vivo. The present study was designed to address this question, defining the role of ceramide and activated NAD(P)H oxidase in the development of hHcys-induced glomerular injury. Uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a folate-free diet for 8 weeks to produce hHcys and the de novo ceramide synthesis inhibitor myriocin or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin was administrated. Rats with folate-free diet significantly increased plasma Hcys levels, renal ceramide levels, and NAD(P)H oxidase activity accompanied by marked glomerular injury. Treatment of rats with myriocin significantly reduced ceramide levels and improved glomerular injury, as shown by decreased urinary albumin excretion and reduced glomerular damage index. ECM components changed towards to normal levels with decreased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity. NAD(P)H oxidase activity and Rac GTPase activity were reduced by 69 and 66%, respectively. In rats treated with apocynin, similar beneficial effects in protecting glomeruli from hHcys-induced injury were observed. These results support the view that de novo ceramide production is involved in Hcys-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activity in the kidney of hHcys rats and indicate the important role of ceramide-mediated redox signaling in hHcys-induced glomerular injury in rats. [less ▲]

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See detailDysfonction des muscles respiratoires
Close, Patricia ULg; Nguyen Dang, Delphine ULg; Bury, Thierry ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(4), 227-232

Le fonctionnement des muscles respiratoires peut être altéré par différents facteurs. En particulier, une faiblesse des muscles respiratoires, un déséquilibre mécanique du système thoraco-pulmonaire ou ... [more ▼]

Le fonctionnement des muscles respiratoires peut être altéré par différents facteurs. En particulier, une faiblesse des muscles respiratoires, un déséquilibre mécanique du système thoraco-pulmonaire ou encore une charge imposée majorée induisant une inadéquation entre la capacité de la pompe musculaire respiratoire et les besoins ventilatoires. A un stade ultime, ces différents facteurs génèrent une hypoventilation menant à l’insuffisance respiratoire de type II. [less ▲]

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See detailCompletion of biological networks: the output kernel trees approach
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Touleimat, Nizar; Dutreix, Marie et al

in Proceedings of the the Workshop on Probabilistic Modeling and Machine Learning in Structural and Systems Biology (2006)

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See detailKernelizing the output of tree-based methods
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg; d Alché-Buc, Florence

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Machine Learning (2006)

We extend tree-based methods to the prediction of structured outputs using a kernelization of the algorithm that allows one to grow trees as soon as a kernel can be defined on the output space. The ... [more ▼]

We extend tree-based methods to the prediction of structured outputs using a kernelization of the algorithm that allows one to grow trees as soon as a kernel can be defined on the output space. The resulting algorithm, called output kernel trees (OK3), generalizes classification and regression trees as well as tree-based ensemble methods in a principled way. It inherits several features of these methods such as interpretability, robustness to irrelevant variables, and input scalability. When only the Gram matrix over the outputs of the learning sample is given, it learns the output kernel as a function of inputs. We show that the proposed algorithm works well on an image reconstruction task and on a biological network inference problem. [less ▲]

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See detailOK3: Méthode d’arbres à sortie noyau pour la prédiction de sorties structurées et l’apprentissage de noyau
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg; d'Alché-Buc, Florence

in Proc. of CAP (Conférence francophone d'apprentissage) (2006)

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See detailDo Spermathecal Morphology And Inter-Mating Interval Influence Paternity In The Polyandrous Beetle Tribolium Castaneum?
Bernasconi, Giorgina; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Meyer, Eric P. et al

in Behaviour (2006), 143(5), 643-658

In polyandrous insects, postcopulatory sexual selection is a pervasive evolutionary force favouring male and female traits that allow control of offspring paternity. Males may influence paternity through ... [more ▼]

In polyandrous insects, postcopulatory sexual selection is a pervasive evolutionary force favouring male and female traits that allow control of offspring paternity. Males may influence paternity through adaptations for sperm competition, and females through adaptations facilitating cryptic female choice. Yet, the mechanisms are often complex, involving behaviour, physiology or morphology, and they are difficult to identify. In red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), paternity varies widely, and evidence suggests that both male and female traits influence the outcome of sperm competition. To test the role of spermathecal morphology and of sperm storage processes on the outcome of sperm competition, we mated each of 26 virgin females with two males, one of which carrying a phenotypic marker to assign offspring paternity. We manipulated the interval between mating with the first and the second male, to create different conditions of sperm storage (overlapping and non-overlapping) in the female reproductive tract. To investigate the role of sperm storage more closely, we examined the relationship between paternity and spermathecal morphology in a subset of 14 experimental females. In addition, we also characterized variation in spermathecal morphology in three different strains, wildtype, Chicago black and Reindeer. No significant influence of the intermating interval was found on the paternity of the focal male, although the direction of the difference was in the expected direction of higher last male paternity for longer intervals. Moreover, paternity was not significantly associated with spermathecal morphology, although spermathecal volume, complexity, and tubule width varied significantly and substantially among individuals in all investigated strains. [less ▲]

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See detailFrasnian
Coen-Aubert, M.; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Geologica Belgica (2006), 9(1-2), 19-25

The name Frasnian, which comes from the locality of Frasnes near Couvin in Belgium, was introduced by Gosselet in 1879 and was formally retained for the lower stage of the Upper Devonian by the ... [more ▼]

The name Frasnian, which comes from the locality of Frasnes near Couvin in Belgium, was introduced by Gosselet in 1879 and was formally retained for the lower stage of the Upper Devonian by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy in 1981. The modern definition of the Frasnian is based on conodonts and the historical background of the stage is developed in detail herein. Data about the lithostratigraphy, sedimentology, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and absolute age of the Frasnian can also been found in this contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailDisused Jurassic regional stage from Belgium: Virtonian
Delsate, D.; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Geologica Belgica (2006), 9(1-2), 199-200

An overview of the definition and history of the Virtonian is given with the argumentation for the abandonment of this disused regional stage.

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See detailSpatio-temporal relationships in a primitive space: an attempt to simplify spatio-temporal analysis
Hallot, Pierre ULg

in Raubal, Martin; Miller, Harvey; Frank, Andrew (Eds.) et al Fourth International Conference, GIScience 2006 (2006)

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