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See detailOn the privacy of file sharing services
Nikiforakis, Nick; Gadaleta, Francesco ULg; Younan, Yves et al

Report (2010)

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See detailEtude de la statégie alimentaire du balbuzard pêcheur
Rosoux, René; Libois, Roland ULg; Schweyer, Jean Baptiste

Learning material (2010)

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See detailDesign of an Algebraic Neural Operating System in Programmable Logical Controller for Simulation and Execution of Sequential Operations
Dubois, Daniel ULg; Mascia, Antonio

in International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems [=IJCAS] (2010), 25

This paper deals with a general method for the analysis and the logical generation of discrete systems in Programmable Logical Controller (PLC). The Boolean operators are implemented with a generic and ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with a general method for the analysis and the logical generation of discrete systems in Programmable Logical Controller (PLC). The Boolean operators are implemented with a generic and unique algebraic model as event-dependent discrete equations, which can be executed in a sequential order. With this method, a generator of sequential logical tables can be designed, simulated and executed for implementing discrete dynamical systems. Two applications are studied. The first application deals with the industrial automation of a water supply for a factory. From the logical table of the events, an algebraic model is designed with a set of discrete equations. From these digital equations, a neural network of the water supply is built. The second application deals with an industrial traveling wagon. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to the Natural Anticipator and the Artificial Anticipator
Dubois, Daniel ULg

in Dubois, Daniel (Ed.) COMPUTING ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS (2010)

This short communication deals with the introduction of the concept of anticipator, which is one who anticipates, in the framework of computing anticipatory systems. The definition of anticipation deals ... [more ▼]

This short communication deals with the introduction of the concept of anticipator, which is one who anticipates, in the framework of computing anticipatory systems. The definition of anticipation deals with the concept of program. Indeed, the word program, comes from “pro-gram” meaning "to write before" by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes or behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. Any natural or artificial programs are thus related to anticipatory rewriting systems, as shown in this paper. All the cells in the body, and the neurons in the brain, are programmed by the anticipatory genetic code, DNA, in a low-level language with four signs. The programs in computers are also computing anticipatory systems. It will be shown, at one hand, that the genetic code DNA is a natural anticipator. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock [8], genomes are programmed. The fundamental program deals with the DNA genetic code. The properties of the DNA consist in self-replication and self-modification. The self-replicating process leads to reproduction of the species, while the self-modifying process leads to new species or evolution and adaptation in existing ones. The genetic code DNA keeps its instructions in memory in the DNA coding molecule. The genetic code DNA is a rewriting system, from DNA coding to DNA template molecule. The DNA template molecule is a rewriting system to the Messenger RNA molecule. The information is not destroyed during the execution of the rewriting program. On the other hand, it will be demonstrated that Turing machine is an artificial anticipator. The Turing machine is a rewriting system. The head reads and writes, modifying the content of the tape. The information is destroyed during the execution of the program. This is an irreversible process. The input data are lost. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de la surface disponible et du type de sol sur les émissions gazeuses lors de l’élevage de truies gestantes
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Canart, Bernard et al

in 42èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2010)

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See detailLes nouveaux défis de l'enseignement du français langue étrangère en Europe
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Dialogues et Cultures (2010), 56

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See detailAnticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis
Dubois, Daniel ULg; Holmberg, Stig C.

in Trappl, Robert (Ed.) CYBERNETICS AND SYSTEMS 2010 (2010)

In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic ... [more ▼]

In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. In our automata system, the asymmetric membrane of the self-creating living cell plays a central role. The simulation confirms the validity of our algorithm in showing its autopoietic properties. [less ▲]

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See detailA General Method for the Analysis and the Logical Generation of Discrete Mathematical Systems in Programmable Logical Controller
Dubois, Daniel ULg; Mascia, Antonio

in Trappl, Robert (Ed.) CYBERNETICS AND SYSTEMS 2010 (2010)

This paper deals with a general method for the analysis and the logical generation of discrete systems in Programmable Logical Controller (PLC). The Boolean operators are implemented with a generic and ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with a general method for the analysis and the logical generation of discrete systems in Programmable Logical Controller (PLC). The Boolean operators are implemented with a generic and unique algebraic model as event-dependent discrete equations, which can be executed in a sequential order. With this method, a generator of sequential logical tables can be designed, simulated and executed for implementing discrete dynamical systems. The purpose of this research is to design self-rewrite operating systems in PLC, which automatically checks the logic of the implemented discrete dynamical systems, for simulation and execution of sequential operations. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la cerise au sanglier: contribution à l'étude du régime alimentaire de la fouine, Martes foina (Erxleben 1777) en Belgique
Lambinet, Clotilde ULg; Libois, Roland ULg

in Naturalistes Belges (Les) (2010), 91

The study of the diet of an animal contributes to a better knowledge of its ecology. The present study consists of the analysis of five faeces samples collected in various environments as well as 26 ... [more ▼]

The study of the diet of an animal contributes to a better knowledge of its ecology. The present study consists of the analysis of five faeces samples collected in various environments as well as 26 stomach contents, to underline the various food resources consumed by the stone marten. The results obtained overlap rather well the data of the literature. Therefore, it allows to strenghten the researches carried out in the bordering countries. The conclusions of the present study are the following ones: the stone marten is an animal polyphagous and non-specialized. Its food spectrum covers as well the animal kingdom as the vegetable one. Furthermore, samples allowed to point out seasonal variations in the diet. Also, net differences are observed between urban and rural environments. Finally, the variety and the relative occurrence of the various elements gathered show how much the stone marten is an opportunistic animal which adapts itself to the environmental resources [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of an original scale development during the settlement phase of a coral reef fish (Acanthurus triostegus)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Lecchini, David; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Applied Ichthyology (2010), 26

As the majority of coral reef fishes, the Convict Surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus (Acanthuridae) has a complex life cycle that involves an ontogenetic change in morphology, physiology and behaviour as ... [more ▼]

As the majority of coral reef fishes, the Convict Surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus (Acanthuridae) has a complex life cycle that involves an ontogenetic change in morphology, physiology and behaviour as its pelagic larval stage colonizes the benthic habitat. Few studies are devoted to the changes in skeleton during the settlement phase of coral reef fishes. In the present study, we highlighted an unexpected scales development in A. trisostegus just after the reef settlement. At settlement (t0), A. triostegus showed calcified and very thin vertical plates, lying in the dermis on the whole body. During the first 9 days after settlement, thin vertical plates regressed and adult scales began to appear simultaneously. At 12 days post-settlement, the whole body was covered with small scales. Overall, such a rapid skeletal transformation is an example of morphological changes dealing with metamorphosis of coral reef fishes. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural and Artificial Intelligence, Language, Consciousness, Emotion, and Anticipation
Dubois, Daniel ULg

in Dubois, Daniel (Ed.) COMPUTING ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS (2010)

The classical paradigm of the neural brain as the seat of human natural intelligence is too restrictive. This paper defends the idea that the neural ectoderm is the actual brain, based on the development ... [more ▼]

The classical paradigm of the neural brain as the seat of human natural intelligence is too restrictive. This paper defends the idea that the neural ectoderm is the actual brain, based on the development of the human embryo. Indeed, the neural ectoderm includes the neural crest, given by pigment cells in the skin and ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, and the neural tube, given by the brain, the spinal cord, and motor neurons. So the brain is completely integrated in the ectoderm, and cannot work alone. The paper presents fundamental properties of the brain as follows. Firstly, Paul D. MacLean proposed the triune human brain, which consists to three brains in one, following the species evolution, given by the reptilian complex, the limbic system, and the neo-cortex. Secondly, the consciousness and conscious awareness are analysed. Thirdly, the anticipatory unconscious free will and conscious free veto are described in agreement with the experiments of Benjamin Libet. Fourthly, the main section explains the development of the human embryo and shows that the neural ectoderm is the whole neural brain. Fifthly, a conjecture is proposed that the neural brain is completely programmed with scripts written in biological low-level and high-level languages, in a manner similar to the programmed cells by the genetic code. Finally, it is concluded that the proposition of the neural ectoderm as the whole neural brain is a breakthrough in the understanding of the natural intelligence, and also in the future design of robots with artificial intelligence. [less ▲]

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See detailValve aortique percutanée
ERPICUM, Marie ULg; DEFRAIGNE, Jean ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg et al

in Urgences & Accueil (2010), 11(40), 6-8

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is increasingly performed and represents a relatively safe alternative treatment for high risk patients denied to surgical aortic valve replacement. TAVI is ... [more ▼]

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is increasingly performed and represents a relatively safe alternative treatment for high risk patients denied to surgical aortic valve replacement. TAVI is performed at the University Hospital of Liege since July 2008 with the Medtronic CoreValve Revalving® system by femoral or subclavian access. This paper exposed the technique of TAVI and the nursing care required after this procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. La triade "classique" de présentation de certains cancers bronchiolo-alvéolaires mucineux.
Figiel, S.; de Leval, Laurence ULg; Rousie, C. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(11), 611-4

The case of a 59-year-old female complaining of cough of recent onset, abundant salty expectoration and lung condensation is presented. This "triad" constitutes a rare but nearly pathognomonic ... [more ▼]

The case of a 59-year-old female complaining of cough of recent onset, abundant salty expectoration and lung condensation is presented. This "triad" constitutes a rare but nearly pathognomonic presentation of mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) of the lung. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-destructive extraction of junction depths of active doping profiles from photomodulated optical reflectance offset curves
Bogdanowicz, Janusz; Dortu, Fabian; Clarysse, Trudo et al

in Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology : Part B (2010), 28(1), 11

The ITRS Roadmap highlights the electrical characterization of the source and drain extension regions as a key challenge for future complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. Presently, an ... [more ▼]

The ITRS Roadmap highlights the electrical characterization of the source and drain extension regions as a key challenge for future complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. Presently, an accurate determination of the depth of ultrashallow junctions can routinely only be performed by time-consuming and destructive techniques such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In this work, the authors propose to use the fast and nondestructive photomodulated optical reflectance (PMOR) technique , as implemented in the Therma-Probe\textregistered (TP) dopant metrology system, for these purposes. PMOR is a pump-probe technique based on the measurement of the pump-induced modulated change in probe reflectance, i.e., the so-called (photo) modulated reflectance. In this article, the authors demonstrate that the absolute junction depths of boxlike active dopant structures can be extracted in a very simple and straightforward way from the TP offset curves, which represent the behavior of the modulated reflectance as a function of the pump-probe beam spacing. Although the procedure is based on the insights into the physical behavior of the offset curves, no modeling is involved in the actual extraction process itself. The extracted junction depths are in good correlation with the corresponding junction depths as measured by means of SIMS. The technique has a subnanometer depth sensitivity for depths ranging from 10 to 35 nm with the present Therma-Probe\textregistered 630XP system. The extension of the proposed procedure to the general ultrashallow profiles is also explored and discussed [less ▲]

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See detailSelective epitaxial growth of InP in STI trenches on off-axis Si(001) substrates
Wang, Gang; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Leys, Maarten et al

in ECS Transactions (2010), 27

We report high quality InP layers selectively grown in shallow trench isolation structures on 6 degree offcut Si (001) substrates capped with a thin Ge buffer layer. The Ge layer was used to reduce the ... [more ▼]

We report high quality InP layers selectively grown in shallow trench isolation structures on 6 degree offcut Si (001) substrates capped with a thin Ge buffer layer. The Ge layer was used to reduce the thermal budget for surface clean and double step formation. The atomic steps on the Ge surface were recovered after a bake at 680°C. Smooth nucleation layer was obtained at 420°C on the Ge surface. Baking the Ge surface in As ambient facilitates the InP nulceation and improves the InP crystalline quality. This improvement is attributed to the effective As adsorption on the Ge surface and the polar Ge:As surface prevents the islanding of InP seed layer. Stacking faults were found in the InP layers as a result of threading dislocation dissociation and high quality InP layers were obtained in trenches with aspect ratio greater than 2. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Improved Test to Study the Changes in Membrane Permeability During Rehydration of Freeze-Dried Weissella paramesenteroides LC11
Soro, Amenan Anastasie; Djè, K. M.; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in The Open Biotechnology Journal (2010), 4

The objective of this study was to assess changes in membrane permeability during rehydration of freeze-dried Weissella paramesenteroides LC11. Viability was assessed using the electrical conductivity ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to assess changes in membrane permeability during rehydration of freeze-dried Weissella paramesenteroides LC11. Viability was assessed using the electrical conductivity measurement (ms cm-1 g-1 dry weight) and the plate count method (cfu g-1 dry weight). The symptoms of injury included an increase in the electrolyte leakage during the first 4 h of rehydration in Milli Q water and a decrease in the survival rate (about 64%), suggesting an increase in membrane permeability during dehydration. During rehydration of the freeze-dried strain, an increase in the temperature, NaCl or monosodium glutamate concentration and a decrease in H+ concentration resulted in an increase in the electrolyte leakage and a decrease in the survival rate (from about 5% to 97%, with respect to the treatment made). However, a decrease in the electrolyte leakage was observed with increasing glycerol, sucrose or maltodextrin and resulted in the maintenance of cell viability. Change in membrane permeability might lead to electrolyte leakage during rehydration and, ultimately, cell death. The electrolyte leakage assay associated with the plate count method, a quick and inexpensive method, could be used to evaluate dried bacteria resistance to dehydration. [less ▲]

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See detailFructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions.
Tappy, Luc; Lê, Kim A.; Tran, Christel et al

in Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (2010), 26(11-12), 1044-9

There has been much concern regarding the role of dietary fructose in the development of metabolic diseases. This concern arises from the continuous increase in fructose (and total added caloric ... [more ▼]

There has been much concern regarding the role of dietary fructose in the development of metabolic diseases. This concern arises from the continuous increase in fructose (and total added caloric sweeteners consumption) in recent decades, and from the increased use of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a sweetener. A large body of evidence shows that a high-fructose diet leads to the development of obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in rodents. In humans, fructose has long been known to increase plasma triglyceride concentrations. In addition, when ingested in large amounts as part of a hypercaloric diet, it can cause hepatic insulin resistance, increased total and visceral fat mass, and accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver and skeletal muscle. These early effects may be instrumental in causing, in the long run, the development of the metabolic syndrome. There is however only limited evidence that fructose per se, when consumed in moderate amounts, has deleterious effects. Several effects of a high-fructose diet in humans can be observed with high-fat or high-glucose diets as well, suggesting that an excess caloric intake may be the main factor involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome. The major source of fructose in our diet is with sweetened beverages (and with other products in which caloric sweeteners have been added). The progressive replacement of sucrose by HFCS is however unlikely to be directly involved in the epidemy of metabolic disease, because HFCS appears to have basically the same metabolic effects as sucrose. Consumption of sweetened beverages is however clearly associated with excess calorie intake, and an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases through an increase in body weight. This has led to the recommendation to limit the daily intake of sugar calories. [less ▲]

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See detailCordon sanitaire et principes journalistiques: le point de vue de la réception
Devresse, Jenifer ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2010)

L'objectif du séminaire est d'amener les acteurs présents (éditeurs de chaînes, journalistes, politiques) à débattre de la question du cordon sanitaire et ainsi mettre à plat les différentes ... [more ▼]

L'objectif du séminaire est d'amener les acteurs présents (éditeurs de chaînes, journalistes, politiques) à débattre de la question du cordon sanitaire et ainsi mettre à plat les différentes interprétations qui en sont données. A terme ces réflexions serviront de cadre au Collège d'avis du CSA qui devra revoir le règlement relatif aux programmes de radio et télévision en période électorale. Il s'agit de proposer des perspectives et questions par rapport au fait de donner ou non la parole à l'extrême droite dans les médias. Plus précisément, il s'agit d'interroger la responsabilité sociale et éditoriale des médias en éclairant le rôle que les médias et les journalistes jouent concrètement dans le succès électoral de l'extrême droite (à partir d'une analyse discursive de la couverture médiatique des présidentielles françaises de 2002). [less ▲]

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See detailLeadership et genre : regard croisé de la gestion et de la psychanalyse
Cornet, Annie ULg; Cadalen, Sophie

in Gazette Cournot (La) (2010), 47

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