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See detailTsunami en Asie du Sud-Est : analyse de son importance dans la presse écrite, des coûts assurés et du nombre de victimes à Sumatra
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2005), 46

The tsunami that affected the Indian ocean’s rims on December 26, 2004 claimed close to 300 000 deaths, essentially on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which suffered overwhelming devastation. This ... [more ▼]

The tsunami that affected the Indian ocean’s rims on December 26, 2004 claimed close to 300 000 deaths, essentially on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which suffered overwhelming devastation. This article is focused on three specific aspects of the disaster. On one side, we analyse the tribune offered to the tsunami catastrophe by the press in Le Soir and Le Monde. On the other side, we present an analysis of the distribution of insured losses from the latest data made available by the two largest reinsurance world companies, Swiss Re and Munich Re. Finally, we try to compare the estimated death toll with available demographic data for the province of Aceh. Here we show that the place given to the tsunami is enormous when compared to other natural tragedies, and we try to explain what motivated such a coverage. In addition, the analysis of insured losses highlights the North-South differences as local victims (99 %) concentrate less than 10 % of the losses supported by insurers. For what regards the death toll, we conclude that the number of about 235 000 for northern Indonesia is a broad estimation and that a realistic approach is impossible since no census was made in this region over the last three decades. [less ▲]

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See detailDésertification au Sahel : Crise climatique ou anthropique ?
Ozer, André ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2005), 51(4), 395-423

Over the last decades, the Sahel suffered two dramatic contiguous droughts. At present, and since the early 1990s, rainfalls have recorded an amelioration that tends towards the average of precipitation ... [more ▼]

Over the last decades, the Sahel suffered two dramatic contiguous droughts. At present, and since the early 1990s, rainfalls have recorded an amelioration that tends towards the average of precipitation previous to the 1970s. However, this improvement may be due to increasing rainfall intensity and it seems that the length of the rainy season did not show any extension when compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Moreover, the Sahelian population has been multiplied by 3 since 1950 and is foreseen to be multiplied by 10 by the second half of the 21st century. Increasing urban population levels are much more impressive and bring about important environmental disruptions every day. Such increasing human pressure leads to uncontrolled deforestation in order to meet the needs in fuel wood, wood for construction and shifting cultivation. In addition, the ever-increasing number of herds for contracting range conditions leads to overgrazing. All these processes cause the degradation of the vegetation cover, a constant diminution of crop yields, as well as a strong reduction of biodiversity. One of the consequences is the reactivation of previously fixed dunes that were formed during the last interpluvial phase (18,000 BP). This article provides a state-of-the-art of the present controversy about desertification processes and concludes that if the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s have had dramatic consequences for the population of the Sahel, current and coming increasing human pressure will intensify the desertification of the southern fringe of the Sahara. [less ▲]

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See detailAeolian dust falls in northern Italy in autumn 1996: chemical and mineralogical comparison
Ozer, Pierre ULg; LUCCHETTI, Gabriella

in Periodico di Mineralogia (2005), 74(2), 103-116

This paper describes two dust fall events in Genoa and Turin (northern Italy) on 12 November 1996 and 7 December 1996 respectively. Meteorological data suggest that the dust-bearing rain that fell on ... [more ▼]

This paper describes two dust fall events in Genoa and Turin (northern Italy) on 12 November 1996 and 7 December 1996 respectively. Meteorological data suggest that the dust-bearing rain that fell on Genoa originated in north-eastern Morocco, where dust mobilisation was reported two days earlier, and had been carried straight to the north-western Italian coast by very strong winds. But the dust fall observed in Turin was not characterised by any specific synoptic situation inducing dust transport from the southern Mediterranean. The analyses include a quantitative and a qualitative study of two dust samples collected in downtown Genoa and Turin. The total amounts of dust that fell give two very high values of 4.05 g m-2 for Genoa and 0.54 g m-2 for Turin. The median sizes of the dust particles were 14.6 µm and 25.8 µm respectively. Most of the dust material collected in Genoa showed a yellowish-brown to red colour due to surface weathering by ferric hydroxides, and was sometimes coated with clayey particles. This attests to the Saharan origin of the particles. On the contrary, only 15% of the material sampled in Turin was coated with red-like clayey material from the desert. A large part of the sample was covered with a carbon-like substance. In addition, the proportion of organic matter (pollen grains and seeds) and anthropogenic fibrous material was much higher. This suggests that the dust fall observed in Turin very likely originated from local pollution mixed with a low proportion of long-distance Saharan dust. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Equations of Stiffened Panels and Fourier Series Expansion
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Richir, Thomas

in The Annals of “Dunarea De Jos” University of Galati (2005) (2005)

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See detailDifferential Equations of Stiffened Panels of Ship Structures & Fourier Series Expansions
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Ship Technology Research = Schiffstechnik (2005)

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See detailDevelopment of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.
Pigeon, O.; de Vleeschouwer, C.; Cors, F. et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2005), 70(4),

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See detailReproductive Strategies Of Tribolium Flour Beetles
Arnaud, Ludovic; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Lallemand, Stéphane et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2005), 5(33),

Although, beetles of the genus Tribolium first evolved as saprophylic insects, they have adapted to the stored products environment for several thousand years. In this study reproductive strategies are ... [more ▼]

Although, beetles of the genus Tribolium first evolved as saprophylic insects, they have adapted to the stored products environment for several thousand years. In this study reproductive strategies are described for eight species of Tribolium that are known to occur in this environment. Experiments were conducted under the same conditions for every species, and several life history traits, including egg mass, adult mass, developmental time and fecundity were examined and compared among these species. Common reproductive strategies were not found among the different species and univariate analysis highlighted strong differences between the species for most of the traits investigated. Some species showed reproductive traits that are likely to give a fitness advantage in the environment of stored products. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed the detection of different sub-groups with respect to their reproductive strategy. Adult mass and egg-to-adult developmental time discriminated between groups. Intraspecific allometric relationships were further investigated but only a few correlations appeared to be significant. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic de l'intoxication aiguë par les insecticides organophosphorés basé sur la détermination de l'activité cholinestérasique
Turcant, Alain; Dehon, Betty; Ganière-Monteil, Catherine et al

in Annales de Toxicologie Analytique (2005), XVII(3), 207-210

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See detailEquiper des filières durables? L'élevage Bio en Belgique
Stassart, Pierre M ULg; Jamar, Daniel

in Natures Sciences Sociétés (2005), 13(4), 413-420

Résumé – L’agriculture biologique est actuellement à un tournant de son développement : sollicitée de plus en plus fréquemment pour entrer dans une filière de type long, elle apparaît comme « sous-équipée ... [more ▼]

Résumé – L’agriculture biologique est actuellement à un tournant de son développement : sollicitée de plus en plus fréquemment pour entrer dans une filière de type long, elle apparaît comme « sous-équipée »,se confrontant ainsi d’autant plus durement à une filière conventionnelle qui, elle, est « suréquipée ». Les auteurs analysent ce déplacement difficile en se référant au débat anglo-saxon sur la « conventionnalisation ». Ensuite, plutôt que de l’analyser en termes de « conversion de système de production », ils proposent la notion de « référentiel » qui envisage et compare l’équipement des deux filières en termes de normes, de connaissances et d’images. Cette grille de lecture permet à la fois de comprendre le caractère non questionné et non questionnable de la filière conventionnelle et de mettre en évidence la fragilité de la filière bio à se maintenir comme alternative durable. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction d’un marché alternatif de viande bovine fermière
Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in Economie Rurale (2005), (286-287), 28-43

Food quality standards can be analysed as results of a convention process. This paper focuses on a beef farm production and commercialisation chain. It analyses the confrontation between a farmer’s ... [more ▼]

Food quality standards can be analysed as results of a convention process. This paper focuses on a beef farm production and commercialisation chain. It analyses the confrontation between a farmer’s project and the industrial norms that are ruling the Belgian beef market. This confrontation leads to a kind of hybridation of quality definition, but the paper shows how quality definition is closely linked with the kind of underlying commitments. Principles and criteria of collective organisation are modelling quality standards in such a way that flexibility and sensitivity to mutual demands are more important that stability and generalisation. [less ▲]

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See detailCaryl Phillips: A Master of Ambiguity
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Ledent, Bénédicte (Ed.) The Caryl Phillips Bibliography (2005)

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See detailReview of Chris Abani's Graceland and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple Hibiscus
Tunca, Daria ULg

in Wasafiri (2005), 45(Summer), 81-83

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See detailMise en évidence de la résilience de la végétation sahélienne par télédétection basse résolution au Niger à la suite d’épisodes de sécheresse.
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Sokpon, Nestor et al

in Belgeo (2005), 2005(4), 499-516

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are ... [more ▼]

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are well suited to this task. Here, we use time series of NOAA AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and rainfall data. In this study, trend analysis is used to identify areas within the biomes from 1981 to 1999 in Niger with apparent land degradation in semi-arid areas. It appears that most of Niger (82,5%) recorded increasing rainfall while only 78,9 % experienced increasing in integrated vegetation index (iNDVI). However, the combination of the two variables through the ratio iNDVI/RR shows a widespread reduction of the rain-use efficiency with highly significant trend for the stations grouped by bioclimatic area (p<10-6) during the studied period (1981-1999). These negative trends suggest a progressive diminution of the vegetation productivity as highlighted by the lowering of the iNDVI/RR ratio. This situation suggested a consistently environmental degradation and that desertification processes continued during the last two decades over most of the Sahelian belt of Niger. [less ▲]

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See detailIncertitudes sur l'habitus
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Archives Européennes de Sociologie = European Journal of Sociology = Europaisches Archiv für Soziologie (2005), XLVI(3), 469-494

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives ... [more ▼]

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives intermédiaires de Lahire et Corcuff qui, sans omettre de pointer des impasses, ont bien vu l’intérêt du concept d’habitus « singulier ». Après avoir repris leurs approches, nous proposerons une définition « fictionnelle » de cet habitus afin de rendre ce paradigme opérationnel sur des terrains pour lesquels sa capacité heuristique est faible (comme les nouveaux mouvements sociaux). Bourdieu was the founder of a structuralist paradigm which is now often applied by some sociologists and strongly criticised by others. We are interested here in the intermediate attempts of Lahire and Corcuff. Without omitting to notice some dead ends, they understood the interest of the "singular" habitus concept. After following their approach, we propose a "fictional" definition of this habitus in order to make this paradigm operational in areas where its heuristic capacity is low (like the new social movements). [less ▲]

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See detailLa phénoménologie de merleau-ponty : vers une pensée du consensus
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Etudes Phénoménologiques (2005), 41-42

L’histoire de la phénoménologie au 20e siècle s’est élaborée essentiellement autour de la question du sujet héritée de la modernité philosophique. On peut aujourd’hui distinguer a posteriori deux ... [more ▼]

L’histoire de la phénoménologie au 20e siècle s’est élaborée essentiellement autour de la question du sujet héritée de la modernité philosophique. On peut aujourd’hui distinguer a posteriori deux traditions de pensée s’opposant l’une à l’autre par les réponses qu’elles ont voulu lui donner. D’une part, l’initiateur du mouvement phénoménologique que fut Husserl suggère une philosophie qui maintienne l’Ego transcendantal kantien au cœur de la réflexion en lui concédant la priorité sur le monde. La conscience de cet Ego est en effet à l’origine du sens donné au monde qui l’entoure et autrui, dans ce monde, ne se verra octroyer le statut de sujet que par projection analogique depuis cette même conscience. Nous voudrions montrer que ce courant « subjectiviste » a fortement imprégné certains des paradigmes sociologiques qui ont cherché à travailler sur le thème du conflit. Cet article voudrait avancer l’hypothèse que, conjointement à une phénoménologie « subjectiviste » qui a trouvé à se décliner de la sorte empiriquement dans les sociologies du conflit (en se rapprochant fortement de la pensée de Sartre), s’est développée une autre tradition qui pourrait, pour sa part, inspirer une sociologie du compromis encore inexistante. Pour Merleau-Ponty, le monde culturel dans lequel je vis est imprégné de significations qui ne sont pas le fruit de ma conscience mais celui des communautés historiques où elle évolue. Selon nous, sa pensée peut dès lors inaugurer une sociologie dans laquelle le sens donné au monde est le fait d’un consensus « transcendantal » passé entre les différents sujets constituants ma communauté présente et celles qui l’ont précédé. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic mass spectra classification using decision tree based ensemble methods.
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; De Seny, Dominique ULg et al

in Bioinformatics (2005), 21(14), 3138-45

MOTIVATION: Modern mass spectrometry allows the determination of proteomic fingerprints of body fluids like serum, saliva or urine. These measurements can be used in many medical applications in order to ... [more ▼]

MOTIVATION: Modern mass spectrometry allows the determination of proteomic fingerprints of body fluids like serum, saliva or urine. These measurements can be used in many medical applications in order to diagnose the current state or predict the evolution of a disease. Recent developments in machine learning allow one to exploit such datasets, characterized by small numbers of very high-dimensional samples. RESULTS: We propose a systematic approach based on decision tree ensemble methods, which is used to automatically determine proteomic biomarkers and predictive models. The approach is validated on two datasets of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight measurements, for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The results suggest that the methodology can handle a broad class of similar problems. [less ▲]

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See detailLa maternité des déesses grecques et les déesses-mères : entre mythe, rite et fantasme
Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Clio : Histoire, Femmes et Sociétés (2005), 21

The first part shows how, in the Hesiodic Theogony, the word « mother » is applied to goddesses who construct a specific attachment to their children, above and beyond the genealogical link. The second ... [more ▼]

The first part shows how, in the Hesiodic Theogony, the word « mother » is applied to goddesses who construct a specific attachment to their children, above and beyond the genealogical link. The second part considers why at Elis, Athena was called « mother », comparing this situation with Athens. A brief conclusion comes back to the historiographical illusion of a generic « Mothergoddess » in the Greek world. [less ▲]

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See detailNew evidence regarding hormone replacement therapies is urgently required. Transdermal postmenopausal hormone therapy differs from oral hormone therapy in risks and benefits
Modena, M. G.; Sismondi, P.; Mueck, A. O. et al

in Maturitas (2005), 52(1), 1-10

Controversies about the safety of different postmenopausal hormone therapies (HTs) started 30 years ago and reached a peak in 2003 after the publication of the results from the Women Health Initiative ... [more ▼]

Controversies about the safety of different postmenopausal hormone therapies (HTs) started 30 years ago and reached a peak in 2003 after the publication of the results from the Women Health Initiative (WHI) trial and the Million Women Study (MWS) [Writing group for the women's health initiative investigations. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:321–33; Million women study collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the million women study. Lancet 2003;362:419–27]. The single HT formulation used in the WHI trial for non hysterectomized women—an association of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE–0.625 mg/day) and a synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA–2.5 mg/day)—increases the risks of venous thromboembolism, cardiovascular disease, stroke and breast cancer. The MWS, an observational study, showed an increased breast cancer risk in users of estrogens combined with either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), norethisterone, or norgestrel. It is unclear and questionable to what extent these results might be extrapolated to other HRT regimens, that differ in their doses, compositions and administration routes, and that were not assessed in the WHI trial and the MWS. Significant results were achieved with the publication of the WHI estrogen-only arm study [Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:1701–1712] in which hormone therapy was reserved to women who had carried out hysterectomy. What emerged from this study will allow us to have some important argument to develop. [less ▲]

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