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See detailInżyneria powierzchni betonu. Część 1. Struktura geometryczna powierzchni.
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Courard, Luc ULg

in Materialy Budowlane (2006), 9

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See detailAction du maître de l'ouvrage contre le sous-traitant: le débat n'est pas clos. Note sous C.A., 28 juin 2006
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Entreprise et le Droit (L') = Tijdschrift voor Aannemingsrecht (2006)

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See detailLa Paix de Fexhe, de sa rédaction à la fin de la principauté de Liège
Masson, Christophe ULg

in Bulletin de la Commission Royale des Anciennes Lois et Ordonnances de Belgique (2006), XLVII

The Peace of Fexhe has always been seen by the Liegeois as a constitutional treaty of paramount importance as it provided the principality of Liège with a representative assembly. Yet, this text, enacted ... [more ▼]

The Peace of Fexhe has always been seen by the Liegeois as a constitutional treaty of paramount importance as it provided the principality of Liège with a representative assembly. Yet, this text, enacted in 1316, remained in use until the end of the State of Liège. The present article focuses therefore on its history in order to determine the role it actually played in the political life of Liège at the end of the Middle Ages and during the Modern Times. What emerges is that, signed in a context of tension, the Peace of Fexhe really was a compromise signed between two parties exhausted by famine, not the victory of one over the other. Even though the treaty seems to record several claims of the opponents to the prince-bishop Adolphe de La Marck, it really is the latter who, in spite of what numerous historians believed, continued to direct the political game of Liège. Indeed, his arbitrators managed to counter the claims of their opponents through the insertion of clauses preventing any real upheaval within the principality. For Adolphe, this treaty is therefore a break in his quest for a total sovereignty. Following him, the prince-bishops of Liège strove in defence of their power, contravening if need be the text of 1316. The Liégeois appeared to us to have been perfectly aware of the limits of the Peace of Fexhe but they endeavoured to gloss over these in order to make the text an absolute reference in the domain of political claims and a revered rallying symbol. Then, it will be through the constant reminder of this treaty that various political claims arose, making it de facto the source of the “Liegian constitution”. Afterwards, the Liegeois had recourse to the Peace of Fexhe in order to legitimate their political options. However, it was absolutely not a general rule since several politicians close to the people, such as Thierry de Perwez or Raes de Heers did not make use of the text. On the contrary, it was within more “cultivated” circles, such as the municipal magistrates and the burgomasters, that the text was the less rarely used, whether it be at the time of the promulgation of the decisions of the Council of Trente or at the eve of the Liegian Revolution. Moreover, it is by its almost uninterrupted presence in the Liegian politics that the Peace of Fexhe asks the question of the administration of law in the principality. In spite of a common objective, punishing the abuse of power of the episcopal officers, it was in opposition over the question of the procedure with the Peaces of the XXII . Yet the Court of the XXII considered itself to be in charge of the defence of the Peace of Fexhe. Similarly, the capitulations of the prince-bishops swore to the respect of the text and court without fear of a contradiction that no one seemed to have wanted to highlight. This shows how deep it was rooted in the Liegian legal culture, even though the real action of the Peace of Fexhe through the centuries left few traces. In conclusion, the Peace of Fexhe owes its prestige to its recuperation by different political forces that used it as a battle flag, adapting it, contradicting it sometimes, to their claims. Thus, event though its exact stipulations were forgotten as soon as the end of the 16th century and it was then progressively completed, it survived in the imagination and built up its prestige on the additional meaning its utilisations provided it with, for, in Liège, who defends Fexhe defends the good right. [less ▲]

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See detailThe astrobiology primer: An outline of general knowledge - Version 1, 2006
Mix, Lucas J; Armstrong, John C; Mandell, Avi M et al

in Astrobiology (2006), 6(5), 735-813

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See detailMinerals discovered in paleolithic black pigments by transmission electron microscopy and micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure
Chalmin, Emilie; Vignaud; Salomon, Hélène ULg et al

in Applied Physics A : Materials Science & Processing (2006)

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See detailEvaluation de l’efficacité d’un module d’enseignement à distance centré sur l’analyse de tâche et l’émission de feed-back
Lenzen, Benoît; Gustin, Frédéric; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Carlier, Ghislain; Bouthier, Daniel; Bui-Xuân, G. (Eds.) Intervenir en éducation physique et en sport. Recherches actuelles (2006)

L’importance du feedback dans la relation pédagogique d’enseignement a été mise en évidence dans de nombreuses recherches de type « processus-produit » et les mécanismes relatifs à son émission ont par ... [more ▼]

L’importance du feedback dans la relation pédagogique d’enseignement a été mise en évidence dans de nombreuses recherches de type « processus-produit » et les mécanismes relatifs à son émission ont par ailleurs été bien définis. La question qui se pose est la suivante : Comment intervenir dans la formation initiale des enseignants en éducation physique et des entraîneurs afin de développer chez eux l’aptitude à corriger les performances motrices des apprenants ? [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse qualitative de la problématique de l’abandon de la natation de compétition en Communauté française de Belgique
Lefefvre, Fabien; Habsch, Ingrid; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Carlier, Ghislain; Bouthier, Daniel; Bui-Xuän, G. (Eds.) Intervenir en éducation physique et en sport. Recherches actuelles (2006)

Dans cette étude, nous aborderons le phénomène de l’abandon de la pratique compétitive de la natation en privilégiant une approche qualitative, contrairement à ce qui a déjà été proposé dans la ... [more ▼]

Dans cette étude, nous aborderons le phénomène de l’abandon de la pratique compétitive de la natation en privilégiant une approche qualitative, contrairement à ce qui a déjà été proposé dans la littérature. En récoltant des données chez les différents acteurs de clubs, nous ambitionnons de mieux cerner le phénomène et, surtout, de croiser les données issues des pratiquants avec celles des autres personnages clés de la réussite sportive. Mettre en exergue les solutions imaginées par les dirigeants sportifs pour lutter contre ce phénomène et offrir une base de réflexion et d’action aux praticiens constituent les finalités pratiques de cette étude. [less ▲]

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See detailMAXIMIZATION OF PULL-IN VOLTAGE OF MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL STRUCTURES USING TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION
Lemaire, Etienne ULg; Rochus, Véronique ULg; Fleury, Claude ULg et al

Conference (2006)

The design problem consists in maximizing the pull-in voltage using topology optimization method, which is formulated as an optimal material distribution. In addition to the classical volume constraint ... [more ▼]

The design problem consists in maximizing the pull-in voltage using topology optimization method, which is formulated as an optimal material distribution. In addition to the classical volume constraint, different structural constraints could be taken into consideration. Sensitivity analysis is one of the key issues of the optimization process and is performed with the formulation of eigenvalue topology optimization problems. Here the paper investigates topology optimization of strongly coupled electromechanical systems. To avoid important modifications of the electric field by the optimization process, this first study considers a non design electrode and use topology optimization to design an optimal suspension structure. Solution procedure of the optimization problem is based on CONLIN optimizer using a sequential convex programming. This method that has proved its efficiency in many structural problems (sizing, shape) is here tailored to strongly coupled multiphysics design problems under consideration. The choice of appropriate explicit convex approximations schemes for multiphysic problems is investigated. The proposed method is illustrated and validated on microbeam optimization applications. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon balance of two Belgian crops
Moureaux, Christine ULg; Debacq, Alain ULg; Vilret, Amélie et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2006), 8(1),

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See detailInfluence de la protection fongicide, de la variete et de la date de semis sur les caracteristiques et les proprietes de l'amidon de ble.
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Massaux, Christine; Lenartz, Jonathan et al

in 8eme Conference Internationale sur les Maladies des Plantes, Tours,France, 5 et 6 Decembre, 2006 (2006)

Starch characteristics and properties of wheat grains are slightly influenced by fungicide protection application on the crop but are mainly linked to the variety and date of sowing.

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See detailImpact d’un sport-études sur la vie d’un établissement scolaire
Frédéric, Olivier; Louis, Lionel; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Carlier, Ghislain; Bouthier, Daniel; Bui-Xuân, G. (Eds.) Intervenir en éducation physique et en sport. Recherches actuelles (2006)

Nous nous proposons d’étudier le cas d’un établissement secondaire dans lequel a été créée une section sport-études et d’analyser l’impact social de cette filière d’études dans l’école en question en ... [more ▼]

Nous nous proposons d’étudier le cas d’un établissement secondaire dans lequel a été créée une section sport-études et d’analyser l’impact social de cette filière d’études dans l’école en question en recueillant, auprès des différents acteurs de la structure, des informations concernant les objectifs associés au sport-études, les motifs de participation, les relations entre les différents acteurs du site, la perception du sport-études et la perception du niveau des élèves. Pour d’évidentes raisons de place, nous avons choisi de n’aborder dans cet article que les trois premiers aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement de la méthodologie documentaire
Pochet, Bernard ULg

in Allain, Annie (Ed.) Miscellanea, Collection UL3, travaux et recherches (2006)

This paper presents the information literacy courses at the Gembloux agricultural University. It compares the approach methodological and technical approach. It also describes the target audience.

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See detailDévelopper une approche par compétences dans la formation universitaire. Bilan de trois expériences en géographie urbaine et économique
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2006), (48), 55-64

In this article, we’ll be wondering about the point, the challenges and the limits of integrating competences in Higher Education, starting from three experiences lead in Urban and Economic Geography. For ... [more ▼]

In this article, we’ll be wondering about the point, the challenges and the limits of integrating competences in Higher Education, starting from three experiences lead in Urban and Economic Geography. For this purpose, we’ve managed to combine works from Higher Education specialists and observations from the field. This reflection has been built in three stages. First, we’ll be reminding the foundations and specificities of the competence based approach. Then, we’ll be analysing our three experiences with the help of a common grid allowing us to successively consider the original needs and motivations, the process design, its trial and its adjustment. Finally, we’ll be trying to draw conclusion in terms of impacts on the students learning process, and impacts on the way teachers approach their teaching process, its limits and constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailOccupational Activities and Cognitive Reserve: a Frontier Approach Applied to the Survey on Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)
Adam, Stéphane ULg; Bonsang, Eric; Germain, Sophie ULg et al

Report (2006)

The aim of this paper was to use a parametric stochastic frontier approach (coming from the economic literature) to explore the impact of the concept of activity (taken in a broad sense: i.e., including ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper was to use a parametric stochastic frontier approach (coming from the economic literature) to explore the impact of the concept of activity (taken in a broad sense: i.e., including both professional and non-professional activities) on the constitution and the care of cognitive reserve among the European population aged 50 and up. For this purpose, we use individual data collected during the first wave of SHARE (Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) performed in 2004. The advantages of this survey were (1) it included a large population (n = 18,623) geographically distributed throughout Europe; and (2) it simultaneously analyzed several dimensions (physical and mental health, mobility, occupational activities, socioeconomic status, etc.). Our results confirm the positive impact of occupational activities on the cognitive functioning of elderly people. These results are discussed in terms of the prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease, and more particularly of retirement policy issues. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganiser la formation CAPAES : une expérience qui suscite quelques questions
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Puzzle (2006), (20), 31-35

Bilan de l'expérience CAPAES à l'Université de Liège après quatre ans. Analyse au départ de cinq grandes questions

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See detailNew firm property and regional and local service development
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in GeolNova (2006), (12), 381-395

In less than ten years, a corporate property market has emerged in Wallonia. This market first covered offices and retail units and recently extended to semi-industrial establishments. Its development is ... [more ▼]

In less than ten years, a corporate property market has emerged in Wallonia. This market first covered offices and retail units and recently extended to semi-industrial establishments. Its development is largely related to the creation of a new type of demand resulting from the growth of new service activities and from new expectations regarding physical units, environment, accessibility and location choices – on both sub-regional and local scales. It has been favoured by the appearance of new property stakeholders, Belgians as well as foreigners (developers, investors and estate agents), but also by public authorities (the Walloon Region and economic development supra-communal agencies). This market’s emergence is related to the deepening of territorial contrasts as property development projects usually reinforce strong areas. [less ▲]

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See detailStrunian
Streel, Maurice ULg; Brice, D; Mistiaen, B

in Geologica Belgica (2006), 9(1/2), 105-109

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See detailNew or interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France. X.
Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg; Diederich, Paul; Ertz, Damien et al

in Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois (2006), 107

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