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See detailPotential Estimation of Minerals Content in Cow Milk Using Mid-Infrared Spectrometry
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Bruwier, Damien; Gengler, Nicolas ULg et al

in ICAR Proceedings of the Biennial Sessions (2008, June 16)

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See detailLogistique humanitaire
Nondonfaz, Robert ULg

Article for general public (2008)

Organisation logistique en cas de désastre naturel ou provoqué par l'homme

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See detailDo monitoring and counselling boost the job finding rates of the long-term unemployed ?
Fonder, Muriel; Lejeune, Bernard ULg

Conference (2008, June 13)

In July 2004, the Belgian government launched a new monitoring and counselling program targeted at the long-term unemployed. In this new program, people over 13 months unemployment are warned that their ... [more ▼]

In July 2004, the Belgian government launched a new monitoring and counselling program targeted at the long-term unemployed. In this new program, people over 13 months unemployment are warned that their job-search efforts will be monitored 8 months later. At the same time, they are invited to participate actively in the support (job search, training) programs provided for by the Regional Employment Agencies, whose supply was expanded. This reform has been implemented gradually : it focused the unemployed under 30 years in 2004, then the 30-40 year-old unemployed in 2005, and finally the 40-50 year-old unemployed in 2006. This paper aims at evaluate the effect, in terms of transition from unemployment to employment and/or training, of this new program for the 30-40 years old in Wallonia. Using the fact that the reform was implemented gradually, the effect of the program is estimated by difference-in-differences, based on (single exit and two exits) discrete duration models. The results suggest that the program has had a very large relative effect, although limited in absolute terms, regarding transition to training for almost all the treated unemployed. They also show that the program has had a substantial relative effect, although limited in absolute terms as well, with regard to transition to employment for the majority of the treated unemployed. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymer composite material structures comprising carbon based conductive loads
Jérôme, Robert ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

Patent (2008)

The present invention provides a polymer composite material structure comprising at least one layer of a foamed polymer composite material comprising a foamed polymer matrix and 0.1 wt% to 6 wt% carbon ... [more ▼]

The present invention provides a polymer composite material structure comprising at least one layer of a foamed polymer composite material comprising a foamed polymer matrix and 0.1 wt% to 6 wt% carbon based conductive loads, such as e.g. carbon nanotubes, dispersed in the foamed polymer matrix. The polymer composite material structure according to embodiments of the present invention shows good shielding and absorbing properties notwithstanding the low amount of carbon based conductive loads. The present invention furthermore provides a method for forming a polymer composite material structure comprising carbon based conductive loads. [less ▲]

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See detailIS EPIZOOTIC RABBIT ENTEROPATHY (ERE) A BACTERIAL DISEASE?
Huybens, Nathalie ULg; Houeix, Julien ULg; Szalo, Ioan Mihai ULg et al

in Proceeding of the 9th World Rabbit Congress (2008, June 12)

The etiology of epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) is still unknown despite ten years of continuous research. A putative bacterial etiology is at the basis of current research. The fractionation of the ... [more ▼]

The etiology of epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) is still unknown despite ten years of continuous research. A putative bacterial etiology is at the basis of current research. The fractionation of the reference inoculum (TEC4) is a major step to find the potential bacterial agent(s). In this study, TEC4 was fractionated with two techniques: centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose gradient then cell adhesion. Two selected fractions were inoculated to SPF rabbits and analyzed with classical bacteriological techniques. ERE was reproduced with both fractions. The 16S rDNA gene was amplified in all fractions and in three negative controls and subsequently analyzed with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturating Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A difference in bacterial DNA composition was found between virulent and non-virulent fractions which reinforce the potential role of bacteria in the etiology of ERE. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymer composite material structures comprising carbon based conductive loads
Jérôme, Robert ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

Patent (2008)

The present invention provides a polymer composite material structure comprising at least one layer of a foamed polymer composite material comprising a foamed polymer matrix and 0.1 to 6 wt% carbon based ... [more ▼]

The present invention provides a polymer composite material structure comprising at least one layer of a foamed polymer composite material comprising a foamed polymer matrix and 0.1 to 6 wt% carbon based conductive loads, such as e.g. carbon nanotubes, dispersed in the foamed polymer matrix. The polymer composite material structure according to embodiments of the present invention shows good shielding and absorbing properties notwithstanding the low amount of carbon based conductive loads. The present invention furthermore provides a method for forming a polymer composite material structure comprising carbon based conductive loads. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Lemercier (Claire) et Zalc (Claire), Méthodes quantitatives pour l’historien
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2008)

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See detailRecent advances in the synthesis of aliphatic polyesters by ring-opening polymerization
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Lecomte, Philippe ULg

in Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2008), 60(9), 1056-1076

Advanced drug delivery systems rely on the availability of biocompatible materials. Moreover, biodegradability is highly desirable in the design of those systems. Consequently, aliphatic polyesters appear ... [more ▼]

Advanced drug delivery systems rely on the availability of biocompatible materials. Moreover, biodegradability is highly desirable in the design of those systems. Consequently, aliphatic polyesters appear as a class of promising materials since they combine both properties. Nevertheless, their use in practical biomedical systems relies on clinical approval which not only depends on the material itself but also on its reproducible synthesis with the absence of residual toxics. The first sections of this review aim at reporting on the evolution of the initiators/catalytic systems and of the synthesis conditions (particularly the use of supercritical CO2 as polymerization medium) in order to produce aliphatic polyesters with controlled macromolecular parameters by still "greener" ways. In addition, the further development of delivery systems also depends on the synthesis of materials exhibiting novel properties, such as amphiphilicity or pH-sensitivity that are emerging from the active research in macromolecular engineering. Functionalizing aliphatic polyesters is quite tedious due to their sensitivity towards hydrolytic degradation. The last section of this review is discussing several strategies to obtain functional (co)polyesters of various architectures providing them with novel properties. [less ▲]

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See detailLe positionnement des organisations de commerce équitable entre l’économique, le social et le politique : essai de typologie et illustrations en Belgique, en France et au Royaume-Uni
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2008, June 05)

Parallèlement à la croissance exponentielle de ses ventes et de sa notoriété, le mouvement du commerce équitable (CE) connaît une diversification croissante de son paysage organisationnel (Nicholls & Opal ... [more ▼]

Parallèlement à la croissance exponentielle de ses ventes et de sa notoriété, le mouvement du commerce équitable (CE) connaît une diversification croissante de son paysage organisationnel (Nicholls & Opal, 2005; Wilkinson, 2007). Alors qu’à ses débuts, le mouvement était porté par des organisations militantes relativement homogènes, celles-ci se sont progressivement diversifiées, tandis que de nouveaux acteurs sont apparus avec une dynamique commerciale plus marquée (Gendron, 2004; Moore, 2004; Renard, 2003). Si toutes les organisations de commerce équitable (OCE) ont en commun de chercher à soutenir des organisations de producteurs au Sud à travers une activité commerciale « équitable » dans le cadre d'un développement durable Nord-Sud, les stratégies adoptées peuvent fortement différer (Wilkinson, 2007). Ainsi, en caricaturant quelque peu, certaines OCE misent principalement sur le partenariat commercial, encadré par un processus de labellisation, et prônent un développement essentiellement quantitatif de la filière, notamment à travers la distribution des produits en grandes surfaces. D'autres, par contre, insistent plus sur la qualité des partenariats avec les producteurs marginalisés et misent sur les activités de sensibilisation des citoyens et de lobbying auprès des pouvoirs publics dans le but de modifier en profondeur les règles du commerce international. Quelle que soit leur stratégie, les OCE sont inévitablement confrontées aux tensions traversant l’ensemble du mouvement équitable. Ces tensions semblent pouvoir se résumer, globalement et malgré certaines nuances dans les appellations, à deux grands pôles : le pôle économique, de « marché » d’une part, et le pôle socio-politique, de « solidarité » d’autre part. Ce qui différencie les OCE, c’est donc la manière de gérer cette tension et de se positionner par rapport à ces différentes logiques. L’objectif de cette contribution est précisément d’éclairer ces différents positionnements organisationnels sur le « continuum » entre l’économique et le socio-politique. Nous commençons par présenter ce continuum du CE sur lequel les acteurs se positionnent. Nous proposons ensuite différents indicateurs organisationnels susceptibles d'appréhender ces positionnements. A partir de la théorie des organisations appliquée à différentes formes organisationnelles, nous nous penchons sur les objectifs organisationnels, les ressources, le statut juridique et la composition des éventuelles instances de gouvernance (principalement l'assemblée générale et le conseil d'administration). Nous rappelons dans quelle mesure, selon la littérature, ces indicateurs peuvent être révélateurs du positionnement stratégique de l'organisation. Ensuite, nous proposons quatre profils organisationnels possibles pour gérer les tensions entre les différents pôles du CE. Chacun de ces profils est caractérisé par rapport aux indicateurs organisationnels proposés : objectifs déclarés, types de ressources mobilisées (ventes, dons, subventions, bénévolat), statut juridique (association, coopérative, entreprise individuelle, société anonyme,...) et composition des instances de gouvernance (types de parties prenantes impliquées). Chaque profil est ensuite illustré par des exemples d'organisations provenant de trois études de terrain réalisées auprès d’OCE en Belgique, en France (dans la région Rhône-Alpes) et au Royaume-Uni. Enfin, après une synthèse de ces quatre profils, nous nous penchons sur leurs implications sur l’avenir du mouvement équitable. Nous cherchons à percevoir l'évolution des stratégies de positionnement des OCE de manière à distinguer les perspectives futures de la filière. La question posée est de savoir si les différents profils de positionnement peuvent continuer à coexister de manière complémentaire ou si, au contraire, ils mènent à l'apparition de différentes formes de CE n'ayant plus en commun que leur appellation. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of new radiation-curing binders
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Weikard, Jan; Greszta-Franz, Dorota et al

Patent (2008)

Process for preparing binders including reacting A) one or more NCO-functional compounds containing uretdione groups with B) one or more compounds containing groups capable of participating in ... [more ▼]

Process for preparing binders including reacting A) one or more NCO-functional compounds containing uretdione groups with B) one or more compounds containing groups capable of participating in polymerization reaction with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation, and contain isocyanate-reactive groups, followed by C) reaction with one or more hydroxyl-containing compounds other than B), wherein at least one of these compounds has an OH functionality of>=2, D) in the presence of one or more compounds containing phenoxide groups, as catalysts, and E) optionally auxiliaries and additives, where the reaction with compounds of component C); proceeds at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups and where and including binders containing allophanate groups and groups capable of participating in a polymerization reaction with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation, and optionally also contain NCO-reactive groups. The binders are used in coating compositions used to coat substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailVorticity balance in the Northwestern African Upwelling
Troupin, Charles ULg; Mason, Evan; Sangrà, Pablo

Conference (2008, June 02)

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See detailClimatology and circulation of the Azores-Canary region by Data-Interpolation Variational Analysis
Troupin, Charles ULg; Machín, Francisco; Ouberdous, Mohamed ULg et al

Poster (2008, June 02)

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See detailPrésence de la publicité automobile dans la presse écrite belge : Analyse des quotidiens La Libre Belgique et Le Soir et des hebdomadaires Trends-Tendances et Le Vif-L’Express
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Cybergeo : Revue Européenne de Géographie = Cybergeo - European Journal of Geography (2008)

Aspects relating to the environment, and more particularly climate change, are increasingly holding the stage when it comes to the way the media processes information. Of course, the link between climate ... [more ▼]

Aspects relating to the environment, and more particularly climate change, are increasingly holding the stage when it comes to the way the media processes information. Of course, the link between climate change and winters without snow, so-called exceptional flooding, devastating hurricanes or summer heatwaves is perfect material for the headlines of dailies and weeklies. But, what’s more, the concept of global warming is systematically in the headlines because it has become a major stake for society, the environment and the economy. Thus, the written press is calling upon its readers to be conscious of this problem but also to play an active role in this domain. Subsequently, the press tends to call upon us – to its credit – in relation to “good practices” to stop us from wasting energy, and proposes alternatives, which, in general, are not very restrictive. Often, the choice of a “clean” car appears to be an alternative. But compared with the car industry, is the written press coherent with what it puts on paper and the actions it promotes through the adverts it authorises for publication? Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide an answer to the following three questions: 1] What is the position of car advertising in the written press? 2] What level of emissions are promoted in this advertising in relation to the objectives to be achieved? 3] What could be the solutions to this problem? A detailed analysis of car advertising was carried out in 2006 in four bodies of the Belgian French-speaking written press. The results of this study show that advertising boasts of cars which, in terms of CO2 emissions per kilometre, are from another age, and clearly contradict the values recommended in the in-depth articles written by the journalists of this type of media. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptualiser des actions professionnelles vécues, une compétence travaillée avec les futurs formateurs d’enseignants.
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Van der Linden, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2008, June 02)

Cette communication se focalisera sur la préparation au métier de formateur d’enseignants organisée notamment dans le cadre d’un module intitulé « Didactique Professionnelle et Formation Initiale des ... [more ▼]

Cette communication se focalisera sur la préparation au métier de formateur d’enseignants organisée notamment dans le cadre d’un module intitulé « Didactique Professionnelle et Formation Initiale des enseignants » du master en Sciences de l’Education de l’université de Liège (ULg – Belgique). La première partie de ce module privilégie le développement chez les futurs formateurs d’une compétence clé à nos yeux : « Accompagner chaque futur enseignant dans la conceptualisation et la régulation de son activité professionnelle ». Cette compétence est à la fois travaillée sur le terrain (cette année, en classes maternelles) et à l’ULg. Certaines séances de cours dispensées aux futurs formateurs les mettent face à des tâches complexes, proches de celles qu’ils auront à gérer pendant les accompagnements. Elles sont amorcées par des mises en situations ou par des récits exemplaires de pratiques récoltés auprès de formateurs d’enseignants chevronnés. D’autres séances de cours sont destinées à garantir des ressources conceptuelles (didactique professionnelle, utilisation délibérative et non applicationniste de la théorie, caractéristiques du métier enseignant, développement des compétences professionnelles, construction identitaire, …) et techniques (entretien d’explicitation, utilisation des ressources pédagogiques sur Internet, construction d’outils d’observation, utilisation de la caméra, …) à mobiliser dans les tâches complexes puis sur le terrain. Pendant l’accompagnement, l’exploitation par les futurs formateurs de traces (données d’observation, enregistrements vidéos et audios) soutient des entretiens de régulation individualisés et une séance d’analyse de pratiques en petits groupes. Quand un observable soutient la réflexion, on peut faire l’hypothèse qu’il favorise la conceptualisation voire même le changement du cadre interprétatif, particulièrement quand le groupe des pairs introduit des perceptions différentes, des significations autres et suggère des pistes d’actions alternatives. [less ▲]

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See detailAccompagner le développement du regard réflexif chez de futures institutrices préscolaires par la prise en compte de la diversité de leurs parcours, une compétence du formateur d’enseignants.
Van der Linden, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2008, June 02)

Pour instruire et éduquer leurs élèves, les enseignants mobilisent diverses compétences, résumées en « 13 compétences essentielles du métier » dans le décret réformant la Formation initiale des ... [more ▼]

Pour instruire et éduquer leurs élèves, les enseignants mobilisent diverses compétences, résumées en « 13 compétences essentielles du métier » dans le décret réformant la Formation initiale des enseignants préscolaires, primaires et du début du secondaire en Communauté Française de Belgique (décembre 2000). Les compétences que les formateurs des futurs enseignants cités mobilisent pour les accompagner dans le développement des compétences professionnelles et la construction identitaire, sont quant à elles résumées en « 14 compétences essentielles de ce deuxième métier » au sein du décret définissant le certificat d'aptitude pédagogique approprié à l'enseignement supérieur (juillet 2002). Cette communication se focaliserait sur le développement de la compétence porter un regard réflexif sur sa pratique pour développer chez des futurs enseignants préscolaires de première année de formation la capacité de réguler leur propre action et de se projeter dans le métier. En parallèle, le développement de la compétence promouvoir la réussite des étudiants notamment par la prise en compte de la diversité des parcours auprès de leur professeur de pédagogie sera décrit et analysé. [less ▲]

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See detailSupercritical carbon dioxide, a tool for the dispersion ROP of lactone and PCL foaming: Part A
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Stassin, Fabrice et al

Poster (2008, June 02)

Aliphatic polyesters, namely polylactide (PLA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) are biodegradable and biocompatible materials that find applications as resorbable suture (PLA) and drugs delivery vectors (PCL ... [more ▼]

Aliphatic polyesters, namely polylactide (PLA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) are biodegradable and biocompatible materials that find applications as resorbable suture (PLA) and drugs delivery vectors (PCL). Nevertheless, these polymers were mainly prepared by ring opening polymerization using aluminum alkoxide or tin alkoxide initiators in organic media. Recently, the use of supercritical carbon dioxide as polymerization medium was proposed as a potential alternative to the use toxic organic solvents. Nevertheless, due to the non-solubility of PCL in this medium, the growing chains rapidly precipitate during their synthesis leading to the formation of a bulky material that is typical of a precipitation polymerization. This work aims at investigating the dispersion ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone in the presence of fluoropolymer-based stabilizers, that were prepared by combining the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and atom transfer radical polymerization of heptadecafluorodecylacrylate (AC8) and so, stabilizing PCL micrometric particles in supercritical carbon dioxide. In practice, the ROP of CL was initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide in the presence of PCL-b-PAC8 diblock stabilizers of differents molecular weight and composition. After 24h at 40°C, PCL was collected as a powder that consists of small-sized microspheres. Finally, post-polymerization purification of PCL (removal of tin catalyst that may lead to toxicological problems) was demonstrated to be quite feasible by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) leading to the preparation of PCL with low catalytic residues. The second goal of this work aims at reporting on the use of sc CO2 for the preparation of foams of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), that could be useful in the packaging sector and/or the biomedical sector as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering but also as substitutes for polystyrene thermoformed trays. The method that consists of saturating a polymer with a compressed or supercritical fluid, such as carbon dioxide followed by depressurization and polymer expansion was investigated. Indeed, no residual product is left in the foam, no toxic gas is produced and no resort to hydrocarbon solvents is required. Moreover, CO2 is cheap, non-toxic, recyclable, non-flammable and the technology of CO2-assisted foaming can be used in either a batch mode or in a continuous mode within a high-pressure extruder. [less ▲]

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See detailThe stellar population of the Rosat North Ecliptic Pole survey. II. Spectral analysis
Affer, L.; Micela, G.; Morel, Thierry ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 483

Context: X-ray surveys allow to identify young, main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Young, stellar samples, selected according to their activity, can be used to determine the stellar birthrate ... [more ▼]

Context: X-ray surveys allow to identify young, main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Young, stellar samples, selected according to their activity, can be used to determine the stellar birthrate in the last billion years. The ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole survey (NEP), with its moderately deep sensitivity (fluxes â 10[SUP]-14[/SUP] erg cm[SUP]-2[/SUP] s[SUP]-1[/SUP]), is the best survey, to date, able to sample the intermediate-age (10^8{-}10[SUP]9[/SUP] years) nearby population. The identification process of NEP X-ray sources resulted in 144 X-ray sources having a normal stellar counterpart, with an excess of yellow stars with respect to model predictions. <BR />Aims: We want to determine if these X-ray active stars are young or intermediate-age stars, or active binaries. <BR />Methods: We acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra, to determine the age and physical properties of the NEP X-ray-detected stellar sources. We measure the (i) lithium abundance using the Li I 6707.8 à line, which is an excellent, youth indicator for our age range of interest; (ii) rotational and radial velocities (through cross-correlation methods); and (iii) chromospheric emission (from Hα and Na I D{_1} and D{_2} lines). <BR />Results: The radial velocities distribution is consistent with that of a young field star population of age 4à 10{^9} yrs, or younger. Rotational velocity measurements imply that our sample is dominated by relatively young or intermediate-age stars, as confirmed by our lithium measurements. <BR />Conclusions: Most of the detected stars probably belong to a young or intermediate-age population. Our measurements suggest that a burst in the stellar birthrate of a factor of four occurred in the last 10[SUP]8[/SUP] years. We cannot, however, exclude the possibility that a small fraction of sources, amongst the fastest of the K-rotators, are old binary systems with tidally-locked rotation. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus
Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Zasova, L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 483

Context: Airglow emissions, such as previously observed from NO and O2(a-X) (0-0) on Venus, provide insight into the chemical and dynamical processes that control the composition and energy balance in the ... [more ▼]

Context: Airglow emissions, such as previously observed from NO and O2(a-X) (0-0) on Venus, provide insight into the chemical and dynamical processes that control the composition and energy balance in the upper atmospheres of planets. The OH airglow emission has been observed previously only in the Earth's atmosphere where it has been used to infer atomic oxygen abundances. The O2(a-X) (0-1) airglow emission also has only been observed in the Earth's atmosphere, and neither laboratory nor theoretical studies have reached a consensus on its transition probability. Aims: We report measurements of night-side airglow emission in the atmosphere of Venus in the OH (2-0), OH (1-0), O2(a-X) (0-1), and O2(a-X) (0-0) bands. This is the first detection of the first three of these airglow emissions on another planet. These observations provide the most direct observational constraints to date on H, OH, and O3, key species in the chemistry of Venus' upper atmosphere. Methods: Airglow emission detected at wavelengths of 1.40-1.49 and 2.6-3.14 mum in limb observations by the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on the Venus Express spacecraft is attributed to the OH (2-0) and (1-0) transitions, respectively, and compared to calculations from a photochemical model. Simultaneous limb observations of airglow emission in the O2(a-X) (0-0) and (0-1) bands at 1.27 and 1.58 mum, respectively, were used to derive the ratio of the transition probabilities for these bands. Results: The integrated emission rates for the OH (2-0) and (1-0) bands were measured to be 100 ± 40 and 880±90 kR respectively, both peaking at an altitude of 96 ± 2 km near midnight local time for the considered orbit. The measured ratio of the O2(a-X) (0-0) and (0-1) bands is 78 ± 8. Conclusions: Photochemical model calculations suggest the observed OH emission is produced primarily via the Bates-Nicolet mechanism, as on the Earth. The observed ratio of the intensities of the O2(a-X) (0-0) and (0-1) bands implies the ratio of their transition probabilities is 63±6. [less ▲]

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