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See detailThe contribution of primary care to health and health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a critical review of major primary care initiatives.
Kruk, Margaret Elizabeth; Porignon, Denis ULg; Rockers, Peter C. et al

in Social science & medicine (1982) (2010), 70(6), 904-11

It has been 30 years since the Declaration of Alma Ata. During that time, primary care has been the central strategy for expanding health services in many low- and middle-income countries. The recent ... [more ▼]

It has been 30 years since the Declaration of Alma Ata. During that time, primary care has been the central strategy for expanding health services in many low- and middle-income countries. The recent global calls to redouble support for primary care highlighted it as a pathway to reaching the health Millennium Development Goals. In this systematic review we described and assessed the contributions of major primary care initiatives implemented in low- and middle-income countries in the past 30 years to a broad range of health system goals. The scope of the programs reviewed was substantial, with several interventions implemented on a national scale. We found that the majority of primary care programs had multiple components from health service delivery to financing reform to building community demand for health care. Although given this integration and the variable quality of the available research it was difficult to attribute effects to the primary care component alone, we found that primary care-focused health initiatives in low- and middle-income countries have improved access to health care, including among the poor, at reasonably low cost. There is also evidence that primary care programs have reduced child mortality and, in some cases, wealth-based disparities in mortality. Lastly, primary care has proven to be an effective platform for health system strengthening in several countries. Future research should focus on understanding how to optimize the delivery of primary care to improve health and achieve other health system objectives (e.g., responsiveness, efficiency) and to what extent models of care can be exported to different settings. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of admission plasma D-dimer concentration with diagnosis and outcome in horses with colic.
Cesarini Latorre, Carlota ULg; Monreal, L.; Armengou, L. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(6), 1490-7

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathies detected in horses with gastrointestinal problems seem to be associated with poor outcome. Plasma D-Dimer concentration is a sensitive test for assessing coagulopathies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathies detected in horses with gastrointestinal problems seem to be associated with poor outcome. Plasma D-Dimer concentration is a sensitive test for assessing coagulopathies. HYPOTHESIS: Plasma D-Dimer concentration tested on admission is related to diagnosis and outcome in horses with colic. ANIMALS: Four hundred and ninety three horses referred for evaluation of abdominal pain. METHODS: Prospective observational clinical study. Horses were grouped according to diagnosis (medical and surgical intestinal obstructions, ischemic disorders with and without intestinal resection, enteritis, peritonitis), outcome (survivors, nonsurvivors), and number of coagulopathies (normal profile, 1 or 2 coagulopathies, subclinical disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC]). Blood samples were collected on admission and plasma D-Dimer concentration, clotting times (PT and aPTT), and antithrombin activity were determined. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+) were calculated for evaluation of D-Dimer cut-off values, which were later tested in a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Horses with enteritis or peritonitis had significantly (P<.001) higher plasma D-Dimer concentrations and more severe coagulopathies on admission than horses with other diagnoses. Nonsurvivors also had significantly (P<.001) higher plasma D-Dimer concentrations at presentation than did survivors, and those horses with subclinical DIC on presentation had an odds ratio (OR) 8.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-22.5, P<.001) for nonsurvival. Finally, D-Dimer concentrations>4,000 ng/mL had a LR+ of 5.9 and an OR 8.8 (95% CI, 4.5-17.1, P<.001) for nonsurvival. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Plasma D-Dimer concentration measured on admission can be used to facilitate diagnosis and outcome prediction in horses with colic. A potential cut-off value for nonsurvival was found at approximately 4,000 ng/mL. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-molecular-weight heparin dosage in newborn foals.
Armengou, L.; Monreal, L.; Delgado, M. A. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(5), 1190-5

BACKGROUND: Heparin is used in humans as prophylaxis of hypercoagulable states and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, babies need a higher heparin dose than do adults. Septic neonate ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Heparin is used in humans as prophylaxis of hypercoagulable states and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, babies need a higher heparin dose than do adults. Septic neonate foals are at high risk of hypercoagulable state and DIC, and there is limited objective information about heparin dose for equine neonates. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether neonate foals require higher dosages of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) than adults. ANIMALS: Eighteen healthy and 11 septic neonate foals. METHODS: Experimental and clinical studies. Firstly, healthy foals were randomly distributed in 2 groups, 1 receiving 50 IU/kg SC of dalteparin and the 2nd group receiving 100 IU/kg SC of dalteparin, once daily for 3 days. Blood samples were collected before and 3, 6, 27, and 51 hours after the 1st LMWH administration. Plasma antifactor-Xa activity was measured, together with hemostatic and hematologic parameters used to assess the risk of bleeding. Subsequently, septic foals were treated blindly either with placebo (saline) or 100 IU/kg of dalteparin for 3 days. Plasma antifactor-Xa activity and other hemostatic parameters were determined before and after treatment. RESULTS: Plasma antifactor-Xa activity in healthy foals was below prophylactic activity when using the adult dosage (50 IU/kg), whereas prophylactic activities were achieved when using the double dosage (100 IU/kg). No hemorrhagic events and erythrocyte-related complications were observed with either dosage. In the clinical study, only 4/6 septic foals had plasma antifactor-Xa activity adequate for prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Equine neonates require higher dosages of LMWH compared with adults to reach prophylactic heparinemia. [less ▲]

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See detailDetrimental effect of temperature increase on the fitness of an amphibian (Lissotriton helveticus)
Galloy, Valérie ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2010), 36(2), 179-183

Increases of global temperatures have resulted in measurable shifts in the distribution, phenology and survival of some plant and animal species. However, the mechanisms showing links between global ... [more ▼]

Increases of global temperatures have resulted in measurable shifts in the distribution, phenology and survival of some plant and animal species. However, the mechanisms showing links between global warming and biodiversity declines remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether a key parameter of fitness, i.e. offspring number, could be affected by a temperature increase. To this end, we compared egg-laying traits at naturally occurring temperatures (14 °C, 18 °C and 22 °C) in palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus. Our study suggests that water temperature increase has a negative effect on the fecundity of female newts. Females lay half as many eggs at high temperatures as they do at low temperatures, which results in a lower number of hatchlings. This study shows that global warming would affect amphibian populations. It complements other studies in pointing out that changes in phenology may not be driven only by warmer earlier temperatures but also by counter-selection during late-breeding, particularly in long-term breeders such as newts. More experimental studies should be carried out to understand the complex consequences of global warming and the proximate mechanisms of amphibian decline. [less ▲]

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See detailUveal inflammation in septic newborn foals.
Leiva, M.; Pena, T.; Armengou, L. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(2), 391-7

BACKGROUND: Septicemia in humans is described as a leading cause of uveitis, which eventually can induce blindness. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Uveal inflammatory findings could be related to sepsis severity ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Septicemia in humans is described as a leading cause of uveitis, which eventually can induce blindness. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Uveal inflammatory findings could be related to sepsis severity in newborn foals and might be used as an indirect indicator for survival. ANIMALS: Seventy-four septic foals, 54 nonseptic foals, and 42 healthy foals. METHODS: Prospective observational clinical study. A detailed blinded, ophthalmic examination was performed by boarded ophthalmologists on all admitted newborn foals. Foals were grouped as septic (when blood culture resulted positive or the sepsis score was > or =14), nonseptic, and controls. Based on blood culture results, the septic group was subdivided into bacteremic and nonbacteremic foals. RESULTS: Blood culture was performed in 62/74 septic foals, from which 35 (56%) were bacteremic and 27 (44%) were non-bacteremic. Anterior uveitis was diagnosed in a significantly (P < .005) higher number of septic/bacteremic foals (14/35, 40%) than in septic/nonbacteremic foals (5/27, 19%), nonseptic foals (4/54, 7%), and control foals (0%). Anterior chamber fibrin was only observed in 4/14 (29%) septic/bacteremic foals with anterior uveitis. Anterior uveitis was also associated with posterior uveitis in 6/35 (19%) septic/bacteremic foals. The diagnosis of uveitis was related to nonsurvival (P = .001, odds ratio = 6.2, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-18.2). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Anterior uveitis is highly prevalent in septic newborn foals, especially in those with a positive blood culture, and it should be considered as a survival prognostic factor. [less ▲]

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See detailLes défis du droit romain et du droit privé comparé
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Gosselin, Antoinette; Langevin, Caroline; Wautelet, Patrick (Eds.) L'avenir de la recherche: Réflexions à l'occasion des leçons inaugurales 2010 (2010)

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See detailEnvironnement et Migrations
Gemenne, François ULg

in Hommes & Migrations (2010), 1284

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See detailLa carte sanitaire de la ville de Lubumbashi, Republique Democratique du Congo. Partie II: analyse des activites operationnelles des structures de soins.
Chenge, Mukalenge; Van der Vennet, Jean; Porignon, Denis ULg et al

in Global health promotion (2010), 17(3), 75-84

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See detailNew Transfer Functions for Correcting Turbulent Water Vapour Fluxes
De Ligne, Anne ULg; Heinesch, Bernard ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg

in Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2010), 137(2), 205-221

We address the problem of the high-frequency correction of water vapour fluxes measured by eddy covariance with a closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA). Different transfer functions are compared and ... [more ▼]

We address the problem of the high-frequency correction of water vapour fluxes measured by eddy covariance with a closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA). Different transfer functions are compared and evaluated at a forested (Vielsalm, Belgium) and an agricultural (Lonz,e, Belgium) site. Classical functions, usually applied to correct CO2 fluxes (Gaussian, Lorentzian), are found to be unsuited to water vapour cospectral corrections, being characterised by too sharp a decrease at high frequency. Two other functions characterised by a lower decreasing slope are found to better fit experimental transfer functions. They were calibrated and validated on experimental transfer functions and their dependency on air humidity is parameterised. On this basis, new correction coefficients are estimated. The coefficients are found to be larger than those based on the classical functions, even when the dependency of the latter on air humidity is taken into account. The difference amounts to 10 at the forested site and to 5 larger at the crop site. The study highlights the necessity of characterising the water transfer function shape and taking it into account in the correction factor at each site equipped with a closed path IRGA. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Field Transfer Methods between two meshes
Bussetta, Philippe ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Proceedings of "IV European Conference on Computational Mechanics" (2010)

In many cases, the numerical computation of mechanical problem with Finite Element Method has to transfer some information between two different meshes. For example, if a remeshing is needed or if several ... [more ▼]

In many cases, the numerical computation of mechanical problem with Finite Element Method has to transfer some information between two different meshes. For example, if a remeshing is needed or if several meshes are used (e.g. one for a thermal problem and another one for a mechanical problem). In spite of the research on the Transfer Methods, none of them has been so far clearly established as the best. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Many problems can happen during the field transfer, like the minimization of the numerical diffusion, the value of the field on the boundaries, etc. This paper compares on the one hand the performances of the Field Transfer Method by classical interpolation with on the other hand one using Mortar Elements. The comparison of the two methods is based on two indicators: the numerical diffusion and the evaluation of the field on the boundaries. In this paper, only the continuous fields are considered. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of the effect of flip bucket splitters on plunge pool geometry
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Wasserwirtschaft (2010), 4

Flip buckets are common hydraulic structures aiming at deflecting high velocity flows to a free jet trajectory. Systematic experimental tests have been performed to assess the influence on energy ... [more ▼]

Flip buckets are common hydraulic structures aiming at deflecting high velocity flows to a free jet trajectory. Systematic experimental tests have been performed to assess the influence on energy dissipation and the plunge pool geometry of varied repartitions of splitters along the flip bucket width. In particular, it is shown that some configurations can create more erosion than a continuous channel without flip bucket. [less ▲]

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See detailQui dispose des dispositifs de médiation ?
Servais, Christine ULg

in Questions de Communication (2010), 10

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See detailModave/Vierset-Barse : poursuite du dégagement du système d'entrée de la fortification du "Rocher du Vieux Château", Pont-de-Bonne
Delye, Emmanuel ULg; Gilson, Simon-Pierre

in Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2010), 17

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See detailTreatment and assessment of the CO2-exchange at a complex forest site in Thuringia, Germany
Rebmann, Corinna; Zeri, Marcelo; Lasslop, Gitta et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2010), 150(5), 684-691

Eddy covariance measurements were carried out at the Wetzstein site in Thuringia, Germany since December 2001. Soon after the start of the measurements night-time fluxes well above average CO2-fluxes ... [more ▼]

Eddy covariance measurements were carried out at the Wetzstein site in Thuringia, Germany since December 2001. Soon after the start of the measurements night-time fluxes well above average CO2-fluxes measured in temperate forest ecosystems were detected which could not be explained by biological processes but were valid with respect to standard quality criteria. The Wetzstein site is part of the CarboEurope-IP flux-network and the CO2-exchange of this spruce forest is of general ecological interest as the site is typical for central European spruce forest ecosystems at mountainous elevation. Additional investigations were made in order to identify the causes for the large difference between the flux balance and the inventory based NEP. Specific weather patterns and micrometeorological situations were identified during which a decoupling of the flows above and below the canopy leads to additional CO2-effluxes at the tower site which are not part of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at night. Rejecting data from these periods and gap-filling thereafter results in yearly sums of NEE, GPP and TER which are in better agreement with the biometric measurements at the tower site and comparable to other spruce forest sites. In this process ecosystem respiration was determined not only from extrapolation of nighttime data but also from flux partitioning based on day-time data using the hyperbolic light response function. It can be shown that flux measurements at this complex site need to be treated in a modified procedure compared to what is generally performed, namely extrapolating ecosystem respiration from night-time data. Using multiple data sources and applying a careful filtering of the data, confidence in the estimates of the carbon balance components increased. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of a mass consistent flow model to study the CO2 mass balance of forests
Canepa, Elisa; Georgieva, Emilia; Manca, Giovanni et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2010), 150(5), 712-723

The reconstruction of the wind field is one of the main issues in the mass conservation approach for calculation of CO2 advection in forest ecosystems and still remains a challenging problem. In the ... [more ▼]

The reconstruction of the wind field is one of the main issues in the mass conservation approach for calculation of CO2 advection in forest ecosystems and still remains a challenging problem. In the current study, we present an advancement of this approach: the use of a mass consistent flow model (WINDS) which takes into account measured wind data and simulates the 3-D flow field, while imposing airmass conservation in the control volume. We apply the WINDS model to alculate half hourly mean total advective flux terms at the CarboEurope-IP site of Renon (Bozen/Bolzano Autonomous Province), in Northern Italy. The data used refer to six time periods of one day representing three different meteorological conditions observed during the ADVEX campaign from April to September 2005. Current results are compared with results obtained in two other studies for the same time periods. One of these studies is based on the mass conservation approach as well, but applies only interpolations to reconstruct the wind field; the other study makes use of tilt correction (sectorwise planar fit method) for the vertical wind component. In the present study, the effect of the wind field reconstruction method on the estimation of the advective fluxes is discussed. The possibility of using reduced input wind data (i.e. number of towers) for WINDS is also investigated. The results suggest that the representativeness of wind tower measurements is of primary importance for estimating CO2 advection terms and their uncertainty in complex terrain. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of periods with strong and coherent CO2 advection over a forested hill
Zeri, Marcelo; Rebmann, Corinna; Feigenwinter, Christian et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2010), 150(5), 674-683

Horizontal and vertical advective fluxes of CO2 measured during the CarboEurope-IP advection experiment (ADVEX) at the Wetzstein spruce forest site in Thuringia, Germany, were related to wind direction ... [more ▼]

Horizontal and vertical advective fluxes of CO2 measured during the CarboEurope-IP advection experiment (ADVEX) at the Wetzstein spruce forest site in Thuringia, Germany, were related to wind direction, stratification regime and friction velocity u*. Measurements of wind speed and direction carried out at one of the slopes of the ridge revealed the existence of reverse flow below the canopy on the downwind side. This uphill flowoccurred concurrently with the advective fluxes measured at the top of the hill. Such result is in agreement with recent modeling works that support the existence of advection at low hills covered with a canopy. Another experimental evidence that suggest a link between advection at this site with the flow over the hill came from the analysis of the horizontal gradient of CO2 inside the volume formed by the ADVEX towers. It was observed that CO2 accumulated near the downwind side of the crest for cross-ridge flows, what is consistent with another modeling work of the transport of scalars across a low hill covered with a canopy. [less ▲]

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See detailLight-front interpretation of Proton Generalized Polarizabilities
Gorchtein, M.; Lorce, Cédric ULg; Pasquini, B. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2010), 104

We extend the recently developed formalism to extract light-front quark charge densities from nucleon form factor data to the deformations of these quark charge densities when applying an external ... [more ▼]

We extend the recently developed formalism to extract light-front quark charge densities from nucleon form factor data to the deformations of these quark charge densities when applying an external electric field. We show that the resulting induced polarizations can be extracted from proton generalized polarizabilities. The available data for the generalized electric polarizability of the proton yield a pronounced structure in its induced polarization at large transverse distances, which will be pinned down by forthcoming high precision virtual Compton scattering experiments. [less ▲]

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