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See detailJean Le Blond, premier traducteur français de l'Utopie
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

in Lettres Romanes (2005), LIX(3-4), 187-210

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See detailConserving local goats breeds and traditional pastoralism in Southern France
Bertaglia, Marco; Mormont, Marc ULg; Trometter, Michel

in Agricoltura Mediterranea (2005), 135(2), 77-94

Extensive livestock productions is historically linked to local, traditional breeds. Both these production systems and traditional breeds have markedly declined or even disappeared in some areas, as a ... [more ▼]

Extensive livestock productions is historically linked to local, traditional breeds. Both these production systems and traditional breeds have markedly declined or even disappeared in some areas, as a result of global trends toward intensification, specialisation and abandonment of marginal areas. More recently, interest in the preservation of livestock biodiversity has been revived. Concern over the livelihood of marginal rural areas and landscape management accompanies the political debate over rare breeds. Parallel to institutional activity, and in many cases as forerunners, social actors have undertaken action to avoid both breed extinction and the loss of pastoralist traditions. In this paper, we present the findings of a qualitative survey of local goat husbandry in Southern France. Non-directive interviews of extension experts and breeders of two local goat breeds, the Rove and the Provençal, revealed a strong link between the breeders’ perception of local breeds/pastoralism and their broader worldview. Most breeders are “back-to-the-landers”. Their choice to raise local breeds in the pastoralist way is linked to a vision of society as a whole. Their account is interpreted as the will to resist to mainstream discourse and practice of rural development in marginal areas. [less ▲]

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See detailDe quelques aspects de droit pénal social et de procédure pénale susceptibles d'être rencontrés par le juge social ou le juge répressif
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Derre, Sylvie

in Revue Belge de Sécurité Sociale (2005), 2

On pourrait penser que les incidences du droit pénal social se limitent aux procédures menées devant les juridictions répressives. S’il est vrai que son terrain de prédilection demeure la sanction de ... [more ▼]

On pourrait penser que les incidences du droit pénal social se limitent aux procédures menées devant les juridictions répressives. S’il est vrai que son terrain de prédilection demeure la sanction de comportements pénalement répréhensibles, le droit pénal social présente toutefois différentes facettes. Ainsi, si la responsabilité pénale des personnes morales et les condamnations d’office prévues par la loi du 27 juin 1969 concernant la sécurité sociale des travailleurs relèvent des préoccupations immédiates du juge répressif, la notion de subordination, les amendes administratives ou encore l’autorité de chose jugée du pénal sur le civil, pour ne citer que ces trois exemples, procèdent de la pratique habituelle du juge civil. L'article a, dès lors, pour but de mettre en lumière plusieurs sujets qui, de près ou de loin, se ramifient au domaine répressif tout en ayant comme objectif d’appréhender la doctrine, la jurisprudence et la législation actuelles. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of pro-oxidant agents on the morula-blastocyst transition in bovine embryos.
Feugang, Jean-Magloire; Donnay, Isabelle; Mermillod, Pascal et al

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (2005), 71(3), 339-46

Exposing day 5 bovine morulae to reactive oxygen species induces a delayed degeneration of some blastocysts on day 8 post-insemination (pi) but without affecting the blastocyst rates. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

Exposing day 5 bovine morulae to reactive oxygen species induces a delayed degeneration of some blastocysts on day 8 post-insemination (pi) but without affecting the blastocyst rates. The aim of this study was to characterize the resisting and the degenerating population of blastocysts. The kinetics of degeneration of the embryos exposed to the two pro-oxidant agents: 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was evaluated using time-lapse cinematography. With both agents the first signs of degeneration appeared at day 7.5 pi but the duration of the degeneration process was shorter in presence of AAPH than BSO (4.2 vs. 12.5 hr, ANOVA, P < 0.05). The resisting blastocysts derived from morulae with a larger diameter (mean diameter: 161 vs. 154 microm, ANOVA, P < 0.05) and showed an earlier cavitation (135 vs. 142 hpi, P < 0.05) than the degenerating ones. The profile of protein neosynthesis at day 7 was not affected by the treatment. The proportion of male embryos was more important in the resisting than in the degenerating population (70 vs. 55%, chi2, P < 0.05) especially when the stress was induced by AAPH. The quality of the resisting embryos, measured by the total cell number and the rate of apoptosis, did not seem to be affected when compared to control embryos. In conclusion, resistance to oxidative stress seems related to the kinetics of development and/or the sex of the embryos. Resisting embryos apparently display a quality similar to untreated embryos. [less ▲]

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See detailPorcine embryo development and fragmentation and their relation to apoptotic markers: a cinematographic and confocal laser scanning microscopic study.
Mateusen, Bart; Van Soom, Ann; Maes, Dominiek G D et al

in Reproduction (Cambridge, England) (2005), 129(4), 443-52

Porcine embryo selection prior to transfer is mainly influenced by morphological criteria. However, the relationship between embryonic morphology, developmental potential and cell death by apoptosis in ... [more ▼]

Porcine embryo selection prior to transfer is mainly influenced by morphological criteria. However, the relationship between embryonic morphology, developmental potential and cell death by apoptosis in porcine embryos is still unclear. The aim of this study was to establish embryo quality parameters for in vivo fertilised porcine embryos based on timing of development in vitro, embryo morphology and the presence of apoptosis. The kinetics of development and morphological parameters were investigated in a time-lapse cinematographic experiment. Possible links between embryo morphology and apoptosis were examined via a confocal laser scanning experiment, analysing nuclear changes, annexin V and terminal dUTP nick-end labelling. The timing of early cleavages was firmly linked to embryo developmental competence in vitro. Attainment of at least the 5-cell stage before 77 h post insemination and attainment of the morula stage before 102 h post insemination significantly increased the odds for reaching the early blastocyst stage. Overall, a negative effect of fragmentation percentage and fragmentation pattern on subsequent embryonic development was observed, but the developmental potential of embryos experiencing slight fragmentation (0-5%) was not different from embryos without fragmentation. Correlations detected between developmental arrest and fragmentation, and fragmentation and apoptosis were 0.60 and 0.87 (P < 0.05) respectively. Only a minority of the embryos arrested between the 1- and 4-cell stage displayed biochemical characteristics of apoptosis. Consequently, a significant correlation (0.57) between developmental arrest and apoptosis could only be established for embryos arrested after embryonic genome activation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of polyadenylation inhibition on meiosis progression in relation to the polyadenylation status of cyclins A2 and B1 during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes.
Traverso, Juan M; Donnay, Isabelle; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (2005), 71(1), 107-14

The control of protein synthesis during maturation in oocytes is mainly exerted through cytoplasmic polyadenylation of stored mRNAs. We first analyzed the polyadenylation status of cyclins A2 and B1 ... [more ▼]

The control of protein synthesis during maturation in oocytes is mainly exerted through cytoplasmic polyadenylation of stored mRNAs. We first analyzed the polyadenylation status of cyclins A2 and B1 during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes, using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends-Polyadenylation Technique (RACE-PAT). An inconstant elongation of the poly(A) tail was observed for cyclin A2 transcripts after maturation, while a constant lengthening was observed for cyclin B1, occurring during the first 12 hr of incubation. We then evaluated the effects of the polyadenylation inhibitor 3'-deoxyadenosine (3'-dA), on polyadenylation and nuclear maturation. The presence of 0.02 mM 3'-dA during the whole incubation period or from 6 hr after its beginning completely prevented meiosis progression in 100% of the oocytes. Polyadenylation of cyclin B1 was also completely prevented when 3'-dA was added at 0 hr, and greatly reduced when added at 6 hr. When 3'-dA was added at 12 hr, around metaphase I (MI), 46.9% of the oocytes have reached metaphase II (MII, vs. 78.8% in the control group) at 24 hr. The use of the same concentration of 3'-deoxyguanosine (3'-dG), that impairs transcription but not polyadenylation, did not affect cyclins polyadenylation, nor nuclear maturation, whatever was the timing of addition. These results suggest that the polyadenylation of cyclin B1 could be related to the first peak of activity of MPF, occurring around MI (10-12 hr after the onset of the maturation period). They also show that, in our culture conditions, inhibition of polyadenylation prevents meiosis progression, especially up to the MI stage, while inhibition of transcription does not. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of antral follicle size on oocyte characteristics and embryo development in the bovine.
Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg; Vigneron, Celine; Ribaucour, Fabrice et al

in Theriogenology (2005), 63(3), 841-59

The developmental competence of bovine oocytes isolated from antral follicles of different sizes was assessed in three European laboratories (Belgium, UCL; Denmark, DIAS; France, INRA). Using the same ... [more ▼]

The developmental competence of bovine oocytes isolated from antral follicles of different sizes was assessed in three European laboratories (Belgium, UCL; Denmark, DIAS; France, INRA). Using the same protocol for in vitro production of embryos, the oocytes isolated from follicles with a diameter > or = 6 mm always gave a higher blastocyst rate than oocytes from follicles < 4 mm (UCL: 42% versus 14%, DIAS: 50% versus 35%, INRA: 39% versus 22%; P < 0.05). Blastocyst cell number was not affected by follicle size. Several parameters were investigated for these oocytes. The energy metabolism of cumulus-oocyte-complexes and of denuded oocytes was assessed by the oxygen and pyruvate uptake and by lactate release both at the beginning and the end of the maturation. No effect of follicle size could be detected but lactate release increased after maturation. The global profile of transcripts, the pattern of protein neosynthesis and the kinetics of meiosis resumption were not affected by follicle size. The developmental kinetics of derived embryos was also analysed. Whatever the follicle size, viable embryos had a shorter first and third embryonic cell cycle. Among the viable embryos, the size of the follicle interfered with the fourth cell cycle duration. A higher percentage of blastocysts issued from large follicle presented a short fourth cell cycle (9h) (35% versus 6%; P < 0.05). Beside, blastocysts derived from small follicles had a delayed cavitation and expansion. Thereby, a higher developmental competence for oocytes from follicle > or = 6 mm versus < 4 mm was demonstrated in three laboratories although no differences could be displayed directly at the oocyte level. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Blood Pressure Level and Best Measurement Procedure in Hemodialysis Patients
Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Vascular Health and Risk Management (2005), 1(3), 235-244

Hypertension occurs frequently among hemodialysis (HD) patients and can be due to many factors, such as salt intake, elevated sympathetic tone, and uremic toxins. It is responsible for the high ... [more ▼]

Hypertension occurs frequently among hemodialysis (HD) patients and can be due to many factors, such as salt intake, elevated sympathetic tone, and uremic toxins. It is responsible for the high cardiovascular risk associated with renal disease. Generally, in HD patients, while there is an elevation of systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP seems to decrease, and the resultant effect is high pulse pressure, which can have a deleterious effect on the cardiovascular system. Although controversial, in the HD population the relationship between BP and risk of death seems to be U shaped, probably because of pre-existing cardiac disease in patients with the lowest BP. In chronic kidney disease, BP lower than 130/80 mmHg is recommended, but an appropriate target for BP in the HD population remains to be established. Moreover, there is no consensus regarding which routine peridialysis BP (pre- or post-dialysis BP, or both) can ensure the diagnosis of hypertension in this population. Ambulatory BP monitoring remains the gold standard to quantify the integrated BP load applied to the cardiovascular system. As well, home BP assessment could contribute to improve the definition of an optimal BP in the HD population. An ideal goal for post-dialysis systolic BP seems to be a value higher than 110 mmHg and lower than 150 mmHg. However, HD patients are generally old and often have cardiac complications, so a reasonable pre-dialysis target systolic BP could be 150 mmHg. It is prudent to suggest that an improvement in BP control is necessary in the HD population, first by slow and smooth removal of extracellular volume (dry weight) and thereafter by the use of appropriate antihypertensive medication. [less ▲]

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See detailNote on topology optimization of continuum structures including self-weight
Bruyneel, Michael; Duysinx, Pierre ULg

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2005), 29(4), 245-256

This paper proposes to investigate topology optimization with density-dependent body forces and especially self-weight loading. Surprisingly the solution of such problems cannot be based on a direct ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes to investigate topology optimization with density-dependent body forces and especially self-weight loading. Surprisingly the solution of such problems cannot be based on a direct extension of the solution procedure used for minimum-compliance topology optimization with fixed external loads. At first the particular difficulties arising in the considered topology problems are pointed out: non-monotonous behaviour of the compliance, possible unconstrained character of the optimum and the parasitic effect for low densities when using the power model (SIMP). To get rid of the last problem requires the modification of the power law model for low densities. The other problems require that the solution procedure and the selection of appropriate structural approximations be revisited. Numerical applications compare the efficiency of different approximation schemes of the MMA family. It is shown that important improvements are achieved when the solution is carried out using the gradient-based method of moving asymptotes (GBMMA) approximations. Criteria for selecting the approximations are suggested. In addition, the applications also provide the opportunity to illustrate the strong influence of the ratio between the applied loads and the structural weight on the optimal structural topology. [less ▲]

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See detailEst-il possible de faire de la pédagogie par compétences une alliée de l’équité à l’école ?
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2005), (21-22), 41-63

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See detailJudicial Remedies Under EC Competition Law: Complex Issues Arising from the Modernization Process
Petit, Nicolas ULg; Geradin, Damien

in Fordham Corporate Law (2005)

Article 230 EC allows any natural or legal person to institute proceedings against a decision addressed to that person or against a decision which, although in the form of a regulation or a decision ... [more ▼]

Article 230 EC allows any natural or legal person to institute proceedings against a decision addressed to that person or against a decision which, although in the form of a regulation or a decision addressed to another person, is of direct and individual concern to the former . Private parties thus frequently rely on this provision to challenge acts adopted by the European Commission (hereafter the Commission ) in accordance with the powers granted to it in the field of competition law. While this particular subject has generated extensive scholarly analysis, the last decade of reforms of EC competition law often cited as the modernisation process makes it particularly necessary to re-examine this topic. Two major developments in the field of competition law give rise to novel and complex questions with regard to judicial review pursuant to Article 230 EC. First, the reforms introduced by virtue of the modernisation of the implementation of EC competition rules have generated a proliferation of new acts whose legal character (and therefore by implication the possibility to challenge these new acts before the European Court of Justice hereafter, the ECJ and the Court of First Instance hereafter, the CFI ) is not necessarily clear. This is the case, for example, of the multitude of soft law instruments (notices, guidelines, etc.) which the Commission adopted with a view to clarifying its decisional practice, as well as new binding acts envisaged by Regulation 1/2003 such as findings of inapplicability and decisions to remove a case from a National Competition Authority. Second, the increased emphasis on the use of economic analysis following the successive reforms of the rules pertaining to horizontal and vertical agreements and merger control has transformed competition law into a technically complex subject matter whereby economists are stealing a lead over lawyers. The corollary of this development could be to limit the scope of judicial review exercised by generalist EC and national courts. Indeed, faced with having to make complex evaluations involving the weighing up of anti-competitive restrictions and efficiency gains, the generalist judge could quickly find himself lost. Therefore, the more opaque and complex a particular case is, the wider the Commission s discretion in its decision making becomes. Certain recent judgments of the CFI concerning the annulment of Commission prohibition decisions in merger control, however, put this danger into perspective. Apart from the above-mentioned developments, it is equally worth highlighting the proliferation of litigation running in parallel to annulment actions. Such litigation calls for, first and foremost, a re-examination and revision of the fines imposed by the Commission under Articles 81 and 82 EC. Subsequent to successful annulment actions, such litigation also encompasses actions for compensation of the losses incurred by the firm(s) subjected to unlawful Commission decisions. The recent case Holcim v. Commission or the request lodged by Mytravel after the Airtours judgment illustrate the development of such litigation in the field of competition law. Against this background, the developments that follow intend to provide a critical analysis of annulment actions against Commission decisions in the field of competition law in the aftermath of the modernisation process. This study is made up of seven parts. Part II identifies those acts that can be the subject of an annulment action within the meaning of Article 230 EC. Part III reviews and analyses the rules laying down who is entitled to initiate an annulment action. Part IV recalls the modalities for an annulment action. Part V evokes the parallel actions (revision of fines) and subsequent actions for indemnity following an annulment action. Part VI evaluates the effectiveness of the Community annulment action procedure in the light of the principles laid down by the CFI and ECJ as regards judicial review. Part VII provides a brief conclusion. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining Non-stably Infinite, Non-first Order Theories
Fontaine, Pascal; Gribomont, Pascal ULg

in Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science (2005), 125(3), 37-51

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See detailThe Links between Academic Research and Public Policies in the Field of Migration and Ethnic Relations: Selected National Case Studies – Thematic Introduction
Martiniello, Marco ULg; Florence, Eric ULg

in International Journal on Multicultural Societies (2005), 7(1), 3-10

Migration issues are often thought and debated in terms of societal security. The association of migration with a series of social ills such as crime, urban disorder, unemployment, etc. in the mass media ... [more ▼]

Migration issues are often thought and debated in terms of societal security. The association of migration with a series of social ills such as crime, urban disorder, unemployment, etc. in the mass media and in some political statements is common to many countries. In these conditions, the task of social and political scientists is very delicate and complex, as they are asked to produce objective knowledge about a highly politicised set of issues. Could their work not contribute to the over-dramatisation of migration, even though their aim may be exactly the opposite? Is there not a risk for the results of their work to be misinterpreted in order to fit political strategies? [less ▲]

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See detailLe français en crise et en cause dans l'enseignement supérieur au Maroc (synthèse)
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Jaafar, Khalid (Ed.) Actes des Journées d'études : "Langue, Communication et Informatique" (2005)

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See detailLong range seasonal movements of northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in the barbel zone of the River Ourthe (River Meuse basin, Belgium).
Ovidio, Michaël ULg

in Aquatic telemetry: advances and applications (2005)

In order to study the annual activity cycle and reproductive ecology of northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in the River Ourthe (Belgian Ardenne), 6 fish (579-742mm FL, 1605-4090g, 2 females and 4 males) were ... [more ▼]

In order to study the annual activity cycle and reproductive ecology of northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in the River Ourthe (Belgian Ardenne), 6 fish (579-742mm FL, 1605-4090g, 2 females and 4 males) were captured by electric fishing in November 2000 and January 2001. They were surgically implanted with a radio-transmitter and tracked for 149 to 349 days in a 30-km river stretch. During the pre-spawning period in winter, most movements were between distinct holding areas spaced from 40 to 550 m. All the pike began the upstream spawning migration between 8 February and 30 March 2001, when the mean water temperature varied from 6.7°C to 8.7 °C and the water flow from 52 to 199 m3s-1. The six pike travelled upstream, over distances ranging from 0.75 km to 15.7 km to reach their potential spawning sites. Pike arrived on their potential spawning sites between the 13 February and the 02 April 2001 and remained there from 5 to 25 days when the daily mean water temperature ranged from 2.9 to 10.0 °C. The six pike moved downstream after spawning and showed similar behaviour to those observed prior to spawning, but the distances between holding areas were more extended than during the winter pre-spawning period. When considering the entire tracking period, the longitudinal extension of the activity domains ranged 1 421 to 24 798 m (mean 12,050 m). This exploratory study provided original observations on northern pike movements in a barbel zone of the River Meuse basin. Results contrasted with the widely established view of pike being a sedentary predator and provides data on its behaviour throughout the annual cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailSnail diversity in small water bodies and its potential implication on the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Belgium
Caron, Yannick ULg; Lasri, Saadia; Gillardin, V. et al

Conference (2005)

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See detailPhotobiologie cutanée.
Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60 Suppl 1

The integration of the various cell reactions with ultraviolet light is modulated by the phototypes. It is responsible for photo-immunological processes and for photocancerogenesis.

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See detailGaia, lumière et biosphère.
Hermanns, Jean-François ULg; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60 Suppl 1

Some aspects of life are tightly bound to light exposure. Photosynthesis, chronobiology and various manifestations of the socio-cultural behaviour are typical examples.

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Mycobacteries atypiques et mésothérapie.
Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(1), 7-10

Cutaneous infections due to atypical mycobacteria are varied. Their prevalence appears on the rise. The contamination comes from the environment following a breaking, even minimal, of the cutaneous ... [more ▼]

Cutaneous infections due to atypical mycobacteria are varied. Their prevalence appears on the rise. The contamination comes from the environment following a breaking, even minimal, of the cutaneous barrier. Mesotherapy, particularly when performed using a mechanical device, is a well recognized iatrogenic origin of this type of microorganism inoculation [less ▲]

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