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See detailGrupurile informale : primii pasi in actiunea colectiva
Teclu, Codrat Alin ULg

in Lambru, Mihaela; Vamescu, Ancuta; Kivu, Mircea (Eds.) Romania 2010 : Sectorul neguvernamental - profil, tendinte, provocari (2010)

L'ouvrage se propose de dresser un portrait quantitatif et qualitatif du secteur non-gouvernemental roumain 10 ans après la dernière grande enquête sur le sujet. Les principaux défis des ONG sont ... [more ▼]

L'ouvrage se propose de dresser un portrait quantitatif et qualitatif du secteur non-gouvernemental roumain 10 ans après la dernière grande enquête sur le sujet. Les principaux défis des ONG sont également abordés. Notre contribution sur les groupes informels de citoyens se trouve en pp. 90-93. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des potentialités de la vision artificielle pour la reconnaissance optique des semences immatures de chicorée industrielle (Cichorium intybus L.)
Ooms, David ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(1), 253-263

La production commerciale de semences de chicorée industrielle (Cichorium intybus L.) implique l'élimination des semences (cypsèles) non viables de la récolte à l’aide de méthodes non destructives. Dans ... [more ▼]

La production commerciale de semences de chicorée industrielle (Cichorium intybus L.) implique l'élimination des semences (cypsèles) non viables de la récolte à l’aide de méthodes non destructives. Dans ce cadre, deux techniques basées sur la vision artificielle sont étudiées pour reconnaître les semences non viables : la vision couleur et l’imagerie fluorescente. L’analyse de 1500 semences de la variété Nausica en vision en couleur ne permet de détecter que les semences desséchées ou non développées. Ceci est attribué à la très grande variabilité de la couleur, de la forme et de la texture des semences testées. L’imagerie fluorescente est alors envisagée, en vue d’analyser sur les différentes parties des semences (le péricarpe, la zone d’émergence de l’apex radiculaire et les pappi) la répartition de la chlorophylle, qui est un indicateur de la maturité des semences. La faible teneur en chlorophylle et la grande quantité de semences à trier imposent d’utiliser un dispositif de mesure très sensible. Un dispositif d'imagerie de la fluorescence chlorophyllienne de semences est ainsi proposé. Sa particularité consiste à pouvoir modifier le spectre de la source lumineuse (dans le but d’optimiser la sensibilité) et à enregistrer l’évolution de la répartition de la fluorescence en fonction du temps. Le dispositif fournit des images de la répartition de la fluorescence chlorophyllienne sur les cypsèles de chicorée. Il pourrait permettre de réaliser des mesures à plus grande échelle, reliant les attributs de fluorescence avec le pouvoir germinatif et l’état de maturité des semences. [less ▲]

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See detailSprouty1, a new target of the angiostatic agent 16K prolactin, negatively regulates angiogenesis
Sabatel, Céline ULg; Cornet, Anne ULg; Tabruyn, Sébastien ULg et al

in Molecular Cancer (2010), 9(1), 231

BACKGROUND:Disorganized angiogenesis is associated with several pathologies, including cancer. The identification of new genes that control tumor neovascularization can provide novel insights for future ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND:Disorganized angiogenesis is associated with several pathologies, including cancer. The identification of new genes that control tumor neovascularization can provide novel insights for future anti-cancer therapies. Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the MAPK pathway, might be one of these new genes. We identified SPRY1 by comparing the transcriptomes of untreated endothelial cells with those of endothelial cells treated by the angiostatic agent 16K prolactin (16K hPRL). In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential function of SPRY1 in angiogenesis.RESULTS:We confirmed 16K hPRL induced up-regulation of SPRY1 in primary endothelial cells. In addition, we demonstrated the positive SPRY1 regulation in a chimeric mouse model of human colon carcinoma in which 16K hPRL treatment was shown to delay tumor growth. Expression profiling by qRT-PCR with species-specific primers revealed that induction of SPRY1 expression by 16K hPRL occurs only in the (murine) endothelial compartment and not in the (human) tumor compartment. The regulation of SPRY1 expression was NF-kappaB dependent. Partial SPRY1 knockdown by RNA interference protected endothelial cells from apoptosis as well as increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, capillary network formation, and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. SPRY1 knockdown was also shown to affect the expression of cyclinD1 and p21 both involved in cell-cycle regulation. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of SPRY1 as an inhibitor of ERK/MAPK signaling and to a possible explanation of its effect on cell proliferation.CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these results suggest that SPRY1 is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de la substitution du tourteau d’arachide par la fève de coton conventionnel en production de poulet de chair au Sénégal
Diaw, Mamadou Tandiang; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Tropicultura (2010), 28(3), 139-147

A study has been conducted on 400 chicks to evaluate conventional cottonseed kernels on broilers production. Groundnut cake has been substituted by cottonseed kernels at 0, 25, 50 and 75% levels ... [more ▼]

A study has been conducted on 400 chicks to evaluate conventional cottonseed kernels on broilers production. Groundnut cake has been substituted by cottonseed kernels at 0, 25, 50 and 75% levels. Cottonseed kernel incorporation decreased significantly (p< 0.001) the growing parameters, feed intake, feed efficiency and nutrients digestibility of the experimental diets. This reduction was proportional to the level of substitution. The study suggests that only the level of gossypol in cottonseed kernels limits their incorporation in broilers diets and that this by-product should be excluded from the formulation in broilers production or that its level of incorporation should be limited to a maximal level of 10% when production duration is not a constraint for breeders. [less ▲]

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See detailLymphangiogenesis: in vitro and in vivo models
Bruyère, Françoise; Noël, Agnès ULg

in FASEB Journal (2010), 24(1), 8-21

Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels from preexisting ones, is an important biological process associated with diverse pathologies, such as metastatic dissemination and graft ... [more ▼]

Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels from preexisting ones, is an important biological process associated with diverse pathologies, such as metastatic dissemination and graft rejection. In addition, lymphatic hypoplasia characterizes lymphedema, usually a progressive and lifelong condition for which no curative treatment exists. Much progress has been made in recent years in identifying molecules specifically expressed on lymphatic vessels and in the setting up of in vitro and in vivo models of lymphangiogenesis. These new tools rapidly provided an abundance of information on the mechanisms underlying lymphatic development and the progression of diseases associated with lymphatic dysfunction. In this review, we describe the common in vitro and in vivo models of lymphangiogenesis that have proven suitable for investigating lymphatic biology and the interactions occurring between lymphatic vessels and other cells, such as immune cells and cancer cells. Their rationales and limitations are discussed and illustrated by the most informative findings obtained with them. [less ▲]

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See detailIcone d'amore: immagini nuziali e ritratti coniugali tra Quattro e Cinquecento
Bugini, Mariaelena ULg

Scientific conference (2010)

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See detailBreakdown of within- and between-network resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.
Boveroux, Pierre ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Anesthesiology (2010), 113(5), 1038-53

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows investigating whole-brain connectivity changes ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows investigating whole-brain connectivity changes during pharmacological modulation of the level of consciousness. METHODS: Low-frequency spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations were measured in 19 healthy volunteers during wakefulness, mild sedation, deep sedation with clinical unconsciousness, and subsequent recovery of consciousness. RESULTS: Propofol-induced decrease in consciousness linearly correlates with decreased corticocortical and thalamocortical connectivity in frontoparietal networks (i.e., default- and executive-control networks). Furthermore, during propofol-induced unconsciousness, a negative correlation was identified between thalamic and cortical activity in these networks. Finally, negative correlations between default network and lateral frontoparietal cortices activity, present during wakefulness, decreased proportionally to propofol-induced loss of consciousness. In contrast, connectivity was globally preserved in low-level sensory cortices, (i.e., in auditory and visual networks across sedation stages). This was paired with preserved thalamocortical connectivity in these networks. Rather, waning of consciousness was associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between visual and auditory networks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results shed light on the functional significance of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging. They suggest that propofol-induced unconsciousness could be linked to a breakdown of cerebral temporal architecture that modifies both within- and between-network connectivity and thus prevents communication between low-level sensory and higher-order frontoparietal cortices, thought to be necessary for perception of external stimuli. They emphasize the importance of thalamocortical connectivity in higher-order cognitive brain networks in the genesis of conscious perception. [less ▲]

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See detailLe contrat d'échange et la loi Breyne, note sous Civ. Gand, 7 avril 2009
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Entreprise et le Droit (L') = Tijdschrift voor Aannemingsrecht (2010)

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See detailLocal Cooperativity in an Amyloidogenic State of Human Lysozyme Observed at Atomic Resolution.
Dhulesia, A.; Cremades, N.; Kumita, J. R. et al

in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2010)

The partial unfolding of human lysozyme underlies its conversion from the soluble state into amyloid fibrils observed in a fatal hereditary form of systemic amyloidosis. To understand the molecular ... [more ▼]

The partial unfolding of human lysozyme underlies its conversion from the soluble state into amyloid fibrils observed in a fatal hereditary form of systemic amyloidosis. To understand the molecular origins of the disease, it is critical to characterize the structural and physicochemical properties of the amyloidogenic states of the protein. Here we provide a high-resolution view of the unfolding process at low pH for three different lysozyme variants, the wild-type protein and the mutants I56T and I59T, which show variable stabilities and propensities to aggregate in vitro. Using a range of biophysical techniques that includes differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate that thermal unfolding under amyloidogenic solution conditions involves a cooperative loss of native tertiary structure, followed by progressive unfolding of a compact, molten globule-like denatured state ensemble as the temperature is increased. The width of the temperature window over which the denatured ensemble progressively unfolds correlates with the relative amyloidogenicity and stability of these variants, and the region of lysozyme that unfolds first maps to that which forms the core of the amyloid fibrils formed under similar conditions. Together, these results present a coherent picture at atomic resolution of the initial events underlying amyloid formation by a globular protein. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure and properties of a complex of alpha-synuclein and a single-domain camelid antibody.
De Genst, Erwin J; Guilliams, Tim; Wellens, Joke et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2010), 402(2), 326-43

The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein to form fibrillar amyloid structures is intimately associated with a variety of neurological disorders, most notably Parkinson's ... [more ▼]

The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein to form fibrillar amyloid structures is intimately associated with a variety of neurological disorders, most notably Parkinson's disease. The molecular mechanism of alpha-synuclein aggregation and toxicity is not yet understood in any detail, not least because of the paucity of structural probes through which to study the behavior of such a disordered system. Here, we describe an investigation involving a single-domain camelid antibody, NbSyn2, selected by phage display techniques to bind to alpha-synuclein, including the exploration of its effects on the in vitro aggregation of the protein under a variety of conditions. We show using isothermal calorimetric methods that NbSyn2 binds specifically to monomeric alpha-synuclein with nanomolar affinity and by means of NMR spectroscopy that it interacts with the four C-terminal residues of the protein. This latter finding is confirmed by the determination of a crystal structure of NbSyn2 bound to a peptide encompassing the nine C-terminal residues of alpha-synuclein. The NbSyn2:alpha-synuclein interaction is mediated mainly by side-chain interactions while water molecules cross-link the main-chain atoms of alpha-synuclein to atoms of NbSyn2, a feature we believe could be important in intrinsically disordered protein interactions more generally. The aggregation behavior of alpha-synuclein at physiological pH, including the morphology of the resulting fibrillar structures, is remarkably unaffected by the presence of NbSyn2 and indeed we show that NbSyn2 binds strongly to the aggregated as well as to the soluble forms of alpha-synuclein. These results give strong support to the conjecture that the C-terminal region of the protein is not directly involved in the mechanism of aggregation and suggest that binding of NbSyn2 could be a useful probe for the identification of alpha-synuclein aggregation in vitro and possibly in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailMieux traiter le diabète : combattre l’inertie et améliorer l’adhésion au traitement.
SCHEEN, André ULg; PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg

in Association belge du diabète (2010), 53

Le diabète est une maladie chronique par excellence. Comme beaucoup d’autres maladies chroniques, le diabète, qu’il soit de type 1 ou plus encore de type 2, est d’origine complexe, combinant l’infl uence ... [more ▼]

Le diabète est une maladie chronique par excellence. Comme beaucoup d’autres maladies chroniques, le diabète, qu’il soit de type 1 ou plus encore de type 2, est d’origine complexe, combinant l’infl uence de facteurs génétiques et environnementaux. Le but du traitement est de corriger au mieux l’hyperglycémie chronique, mais aussi d’autres facteurs de risque (hypertension artérielle, hypercholestérolémie,…), de façon à prévenir la survenue de complications, garantir une bonne qualité de vie et améliorer l’espérance de vie. [less ▲]

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See detailZero Energy Retrofit Case Study of a Chalet in Ain-Sukhna, EGYPT
Attia, Shady ULg

in Conference proceedings of American Solar Energy Society - 2010 (2010)

This paper presents the results of combined economic and computational study of different integrated passive and active design strategies for the Red Sea Coastline of Egypt. A chalet, located in Ain ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of combined economic and computational study of different integrated passive and active design strategies for the Red Sea Coastline of Egypt. A chalet, located in Ain-Sukhna is selected as a case study for the zero energy retrofit. The aim of the study is to investigate the potential of achieving thermal comfort and delivering electrical demands for existing buildings on site. The Red Sea Coastline of Egypt has a semi arid climate with an annual total irradiation above 2409 bankable kWh/m2 per year with approximately 3300 hours of full sunshine. Moreover, the annual monthly averages of wind speed in this region range from 5.0 to 7.1 m/s. Therefore, different passive and active design strategies are discussed and compared to reach an annual net zero energy demand for the existing building stock. In order to achieve zero energy retrofit certain strategies are examined. For example, internal loads reduction, envelope retrofitting in addition to the installation of solar water heater, photovoltaic and small-scale wind turbine. Based on a month-by–month demand analysis, internal loads and envelope performance are analyzed in order to explore the existing economical potential. Simulation software TRNSYS is used to predict the annual net zero energy performance for a chalet at Ain-Sukhna. The final result of this study compares the potential and constraints of each strategy and rank them based on economical feasibility. For the considered location and weather conditions the Chalet can provide thermal comfort for occupants and meets the zero energy objectives. The research also proofs that some strategies applied for retrofitting are economical rewarding with a payback period ranging from 2 to 7 years. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of the effect of flip bucket splitters on plunge pool geometry
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in RWTH - IWW (Ed.) Mitteilungen - 15. Deutsches Talsperrensymposium - Talsperren im Wandel (2010)

Flip buckets are common hydraulic structures aiming at deflecting high velocity flows to a free jet trajectory. Systematic experimental tests have been performed to assess the influence on energy ... [more ▼]

Flip buckets are common hydraulic structures aiming at deflecting high velocity flows to a free jet trajectory. Systematic experimental tests have been performed to assess the influence on energy dissipation and the plunge pool geometry of varied repartitions of splitters along the flip bucket width. In particular, it is shown that some configurations can create more erosion than a continuous channel without flip bucket. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Countries facing Global Warming: a Post-Kyoto Assessment. Round-table Debate
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in De Dapper, Morgan; Swinne, Danielle; Ozer, Pierre (Eds.) Developing Countries facing Global Warming: a Post-Kyoto Assessment. (2010)

This paper reports the results of a round-table debate organized by the Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences (RAOS) on Developing Countries facing Global Warming: a Post-Kyoto Assessment (Brussels, 13 June ... [more ▼]

This paper reports the results of a round-table debate organized by the Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences (RAOS) on Developing Countries facing Global Warming: a Post-Kyoto Assessment (Brussels, 13 June, 2009) to highlight the view of developing countries on adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. The participants convened to discuss the various aspects of climate change impacts and adaptation in developing countries preceding the Copenhagen Conference (UNFCCC COP 15) in December 2009. Here, we summarize the point of view of the two invited speakers representing developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailClean Development Mechanisms (CDM) and Sustainable Development in South Countries
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in De Dapper, Morgan; Swinne, Danielle; Ozer, Pierre (Eds.) Developing Countries facing Global Warming: a Post-Kyoto Assessment. (2010)

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows emission reduction (or emission removal) projects in developing countries to earn Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of ... [more ▼]

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows emission reduction (or emission removal) projects in developing countries to earn Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2. These CERs can be traded and sold, and used by industrialized countries to meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The mechanism stimulates sustainable development and emission reductions, while giving industrialized countries some flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction limitation targets. Accepted projects must qualify through a rigorous and public registration and issuance process designed to ensure real, measurable and verifiable emission reductions that are additional to what would have occurred without the project. Between November 2004 and May 2009, the mechanism has registered 1,653 projects and is anticipated to currently produce CERs amounting to 303 106 tonnes of CO2 equivalent yearly. The mechanism is extremely interesting since it is the first global, environmental investment and credit scheme of its kind, providing a standardized emissions offset instrument. However the geographical distribution of the CDM projects is revealing very large differences in between developing countries since China, India, Brazil and South-Korea totalise 82 % of the CERs while Africa only represents 3,3% of the total. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline least-squares policy iteration for reinforcement learning control
Busoniu, Lucian; Ernst, Damien ULg; De Schutter, Bart et al

in Proceedings of the 2010 American Control Conference (2010)

Reinforcement learning is a promising paradigm for learning optimal control. We consider policy iteration (PI) algorithms for reinforcement learning, which iteratively evaluate and improve control ... [more ▼]

Reinforcement learning is a promising paradigm for learning optimal control. We consider policy iteration (PI) algorithms for reinforcement learning, which iteratively evaluate and improve control policies. State-of-the-art, least-squares techniques for policy evaluation are sample-efficient and have relaxed convergence requirements. However, they are typically used in offline PI, whereas a central goal of reinforcement learning is to develop online algorithms. Therefore, we propose an online PI algorithm that evaluates policies with the so-called least-squares temporal difference for Q-functions (LSTD-Q). The crucial difference between this online least-squares policy iteration (LSPI) algorithm and its offline counterpart is that, in the online case, policy improvements must be performed once every few state transitions, using only an incomplete evaluation of the current policy. In an extensive experimental evaluation, online LSPI is found to work well for a wide range of its parameters, and to learn successfully in a real-time example. Online LSPI also compares favorably with offline LSPI and with a different flavor of online PI, which instead of LSTD-Q employs another least-squares method for policy evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vignette thérapeutiqu de l'étudiant Diagnostic différentiel étiologique des oedmes
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(11), 655-661

Oedema is a frequent disorder and the easily detectable consequence of an increase of fluid located in the interstitial tissue. It could be localized or generalized and related either to a primary ... [more ▼]

Oedema is a frequent disorder and the easily detectable consequence of an increase of fluid located in the interstitial tissue. It could be localized or generalized and related either to a primary disturbance of hemodynamics at the capillary level, due to a modification of the Starling’s law components with secondary water and saline retention, or to a primary retention of salt and water linked to a kidney abnormality. Generalized forms are pitting oedema, most often painless, white, bilateral and symmetric, distributed at the lower part of the body (localisation according to the gravitation law). They are different in their characteristics from localized oedema or lymphoedema which are tough. We propose a diagnostic approach based on medical history, clinical examination which allows a confident medical diagnosis and so an adapted therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailAb initio calculation of H + He+ charge-transfer cross section for plasma physics
Loreau, Jérôme; Sodoga, Komi; Lauvergnat, David et al

in Physical Review. A (2010), 82

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Weather on Traffic Intensity
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Weather, Climate and Society (2010), 2(1), 6068

This paper focuses on the effect of weather conditions on daily traffic intensities (the number of cars passing a specific segment of a road). The main objective is to examination whether or not weather ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the effect of weather conditions on daily traffic intensities (the number of cars passing a specific segment of a road). The main objective is to examination whether or not weather conditions uniformly alter daily traffic intensities in Belgium, or in other words whether or not road usage on a particular location determines the size of the impacts of various weather conditions. This general examination is a contribution that allows policymakers to assess the appropriateness of countrywide versus local traffic management strategies. In addition, a secondary goal of this paper is to validate findings in international literature within a Belgian context. To achieve these goals, the paper analyzes the effects of weather conditions on both upstream (toward a specific location) and downstream (away from a specific location) traffic intensities at three traffic count locations typified by a different road usage. Perhaps the most interesting results of this study for policymakers are the heterogeneity of the weather effects between different traffic count locations, and the homogeneity of the weather effects on upstream and downstream traffic at specific locations. The results also indicate that snowfall, rainfall, and wind speed diminish traffic intensity, and high temperatures increase traffic intensity. Further generalizations of the findings might be possible by studying weather impacts on local roads and by shifting the focus of research toward travel behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailEthique de l’information clinique et consentement des patients
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

Report (2010)

Le projet de recherche REGM (Enregistrement de morbidité) du Service Public Fédéral Belge de la Santé Publique (SPF-SP) se propose d’étudier la faisabilité de la constitution de base de données de ... [more ▼]

Le projet de recherche REGM (Enregistrement de morbidité) du Service Public Fédéral Belge de la Santé Publique (SPF-SP) se propose d’étudier la faisabilité de la constitution de base de données de morbidité en médecine générale en Belgique. Dans ce cadre la question du consentement des patients (et des médecins) est bien sur centrale et préalable à tous développements ultérieurs. On examine ici les conditions de réalisations d’un tel consentement du patient et les différentes formes qu’il peut prendre. Des expériences sont relatées qui permettent de prendre la mesure des enjeux. Une recommandation est formulée pour un consentement différencié, distinct et dynamique qui se fait l’écho de la relation de confiance médecin patient dont il est la traduction. [less ▲]

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