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See detailNouveaux outils de diagnostic in-vitro des allergies
Gadisseur, Romy ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg

Conference (2009, May 29)

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See detailGBS Training Course Specimen collection and culture procedure
Melin, Pierrette ULg

Scientific conference (2009, May 29)

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See detailLe travail peut-il rendre malade?
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

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See detailVaricella vaccination in Europe – taking the practical approach
Bonanni, Paolo; Breuer, Judith; Gershon, Anne A. et al

in BMC Medicine (2009), 7(26), 1-38

Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice ... [more ▼]

Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice resulting in complications. The hospitalisation rate for varicella in Europe ranges from 1.3 to 4.5 per 100,000 population/year and up to 10.1% of hospitalised patients report permanent or possible permanent sequelae (for example, scarring or ataxia). However, in many countries the epidemiology of varicella remains largely unknown or incomplete. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece) have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines). Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for routine childhood programmes in Europe. Although European countries are faced with challenges or uncertainties that may have delayed implementation of a childhood vaccination programme, many of these concerns remain hypothetical and with new opportunities offered by combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, reassessment may be timely. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece) have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella [MMRV] vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of MMRV vaccines). Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for routine childhood programmes in Europe. Although European countries are faced with challenges or uncertainties that may have delayed implementation of a childhood vaccination programme, many of these concerns remain hypothetical and with new opportunities offered by combined MMRV vaccines, reassessment may be timely. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting of Expanded Metal Sheets under Cyclic Shear Loadings
Phung Ngoc, Dung ULg; Degée, Hervé ULg; Plumier, André ULg

in National Conference of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (2009)

Abstract: With the aims at determining the mechanical properties of Expanded Metal Sheet under seismic excitations, the research on Expanded Metal Sheet has been implementing at University of Liege ... [more ▼]

Abstract: With the aims at determining the mechanical properties of Expanded Metal Sheet under seismic excitations, the research on Expanded Metal Sheet has been implementing at University of Liege. Firstly, the square and rectangular sheets worked in monotonic shear loading was thoroughly studied by E.Pecquet[1]. In his study, there are three approaches used to determine the mechanic behavior of expanded metal sheets monotonically loaded in shear, that is, analytical models, numerical simulations and experimental investigations were performed and compared simultaneously. Secondly, the same dimensions of the sheets will be studied under cyclic shear loading. In this research, non-linear numerical stimulations and experimental investigation will be used to determine the properties of expanded metal sheets under cyclic shear loads. The analytical models will be proposed with the aims at modeling the sheets in Reinforced Concrete Frames, the next step of this study. Numerical stimulations are implemented with FINELG, a non linear finite element code. Expanded Metal Sheet Experiments under reverse loading are to be carried out at Laboratory of University of Liege. Experimental Investigations will be compared with numerical stimulations to propose an analytical model, hysteric loop for this type of material under cyclic loading. [less ▲]

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See detailUne approche reposante (RESTful) des aspects opérationnels de la rétroconversion du Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (FEW)
Briquet, Cyril; Renders, Pascale ULg

Conference (2009, May 28)

Les articles du Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (FEW) seront bientôt enrichis d'un balisage (XML) sémantique par une séquence d'algorithmes. Nous proposons un modèle éditorial distribué (“à la ... [more ▼]

Les articles du Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (FEW) seront bientôt enrichis d'un balisage (XML) sémantique par une séquence d'algorithmes. Nous proposons un modèle éditorial distribué (“à la Wikipedia”) des corrections manuelles à apporter aux articles qui ne peuvent être automatiquement balisés. En outre, de manière à rendre totalement transparent pour les contributeurs le maintien de la consistance et de la synchronisation des trois quarts de million de documents considérés, nous proposons une plate-forme web de rétroconversion basée sur une architecture logicielle reposante (RESTful, cf. article Wikipedia sur REST). [less ▲]

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See detailConception d'algorithmes de rétroconversion
Renders, Pascale ULg; Briquet, Cyril

Conference (2009, May 28)

Rétroconvertir un ouvrage imprimé consiste à le transformer, de la manière la plus automatisée possible, en un ouvrage informatisé. Dans le cas d'un dictionnaire tel que le Französisches Etymologisches ... [more ▼]

Rétroconvertir un ouvrage imprimé consiste à le transformer, de la manière la plus automatisée possible, en un ouvrage informatisé. Dans le cas d'un dictionnaire tel que le Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (FEW), il s'agit en outre de l'enrichir d'un balisage XML qui permette des consultations ciblées. Le noyau de l'opération est constitué de 37 algorithmes dits "de rétroconversion" qui balisent chacun un type d'information "cible" du dictionnaire. Cet article présente, en guise d'exemple, la mise au point de l'algorithme qui reconnaît et balise le(s) signataire(s) d'un article du FEW. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à l’étude de l’activité antivirale et du mécanisme moléculaire de la MX1 bovine
Baise, Etienne ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Summary Type I interferons (IFNs a/b) induce the synthesis of many factors belonging to the innate immune system which is known to play an essential role as the first defence line against the viral ... [more ▼]

Summary Type I interferons (IFNs a/b) induce the synthesis of many factors belonging to the innate immune system which is known to play an essential role as the first defence line against the viral infection. Among these contributors, the MX protein (a member of the large GTPase family) along with the double stranded (ds) RNA dependent protein kinase R (PKR) and the 2’5’ oligoadenylate synthetase/Rnase L system, has been shown to be one of the most efficient among the murine and the human species. The bovine counterpart of the MX system was, at the beginning of this work, described at the sole gene level (the CDS sequence) but its functional capacity was still totally unexplored. Accordingly, our first aim was to assess the ability of the bovine GTPase we called boMX1 to inhibit viruses infecting cattle. A Vero cell line (V103) conditionally expressing the boMX1 was established. To proof the concept, we firstly tested the inhibition of a canonical virus on this field, the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) which was confirmed to be as sensitive to boMX1 as previously shown to MXA (Homo sapiens). In a second step, we focused our investigation on the activity of boMX1 against two Paramyxoviridae viruses, the boRSV and the boPI3, both of these being sensitive to IFNs as reported in the literature and furthermore confirmed by our previous in vitro experiments. Although boMX1 was expected to be the most important factor of the type I interferon resistance recorded against boPI3 and boRSV, our study has shown that the bovine protein was not able to block these viruses belonging to the Respirovirus genus. Conversely, the famous Orthomyxoviridae virus member, Influenza A was shown to be almost completely inhibited in cells expressing boMX1. The inhibitory potential of boMX1 was so strong it could only be measured upon the replacement of the low pathogenic H1N1 strain used in the first assays by the hypervirulent H7N7 one. In this case, the protection rate was as high as 108. Typically, the value found for the human counterpart MXA is in the range of 103 – 104 and according to our knowledge, none of the MX proteins investigated so far have never been shown to be so effective against Influenza A. In the wave of these results, the well-known avian H5N1 Influenza A strain has been tested in vitro and in vivo. All the data reinforced the concept of a very high anti-Influenza A activity for BoMX1. A such important antiviral effect appeared as an opportunity to initiate an experimental approach of the largely unknown underlying mechanism(s) of the MX antiviral activity. Our first objective was to identify the “primum movens” of the inhibition mechanism. Therefore, we followed the kinetic of the infection in V103 expressing or not the boMX1 during one single cycle. The evidence of an important activity of the bovine GTPase in the first hours post-infection led us to identify at the RNA level which replication step was the first to be blocked. Following the collected results, we adapted a primer extension method to quantify the genomic viral RNA (vRNA) early entry in the induced and non induced cell cultures. Finally, we tested a first interaction hypothesis between the boMX1 and a potential interacting protein sister. [less ▲]

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See detailLimits imported from economics
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

Conference (2009, May 28)

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See detailRegulatory T cells in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and after allogeneic transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning
Humblet-Baron, Stéphanie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Etude des Treg dans la physiopathologie du syndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich et étude de la reconstitution des Treg dans les greffes de cellules souches hématopoïétiques après un conditionnement ... [more ▼]

Etude des Treg dans la physiopathologie du syndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich et étude de la reconstitution des Treg dans les greffes de cellules souches hématopoïétiques après un conditionnement nonmyéloablateur. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum Computers: A Brief Overview
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2009)

A promising technology is the “quantum computers,” and this paper gives a general overview about this subject.

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See detailLa justice réparatrice en milieu carcéral : plasticité d’une fonction et malléabilité d’un concept criminologique
Dubois, Christophe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Although it is recognized as being inhuman by some people and inefficient by others, prison only seldomly serves as a gathering political objective. The ministerial circular of 4 October 2000, which is ... [more ▼]

Although it is recognized as being inhuman by some people and inefficient by others, prison only seldomly serves as a gathering political objective. The ministerial circular of 4 October 2000, which is implementing « restorative justice » in Belgian prisons, seems however to be an outstanding case in this matter as it includes prison in the political program. The new “restorative” discourse carried out by this circular creates a new role of “restorative justice consultant” and plans to assign one in each prison. The purpose of this book is to describe, analyze and account for the concrete practices through which this political discourse tends to take some social forms. Through an ethnographic work, the new “restorative” practices will be depicted and replaced in a policy and organizational analysis based on four case studies. [less ▲]

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See detailBlack-grass Resistance to Herbicides: Three Years of Monitoring in Belgium
Henriet, François; Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2009, May 19)

Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides HUDS.) is a common weed of cereal crops widely spread in Northern Europe. Even if the first Belgian case of resistance was reported in 1996, until now, Belgium was ... [more ▼]

Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides HUDS.) is a common weed of cereal crops widely spread in Northern Europe. Even if the first Belgian case of resistance was reported in 1996, until now, Belgium was quite spared of this problem and only a few restricted areas were con-cerned: the Polders, the marshland of the Escaut River and the Fosses-la-Ville region. About 90 seed samples were collected trough the South part of Belgium and in the Polders during July 2006, 2007 and 2008. These populations were tested in greenhouse conditions by spraying plantlets with herbicides of three modes of action. The herbicides used were photo-synthesis inhibitor, ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors. Susceptible and resistant standard populations (Rohtamsted and Peldon) were included in the test in order to validate it and to permit wild populations classification according to “R” rating system. Populations showed differences of susceptibility to photosynthesis inhibitor, ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors. For each herbicide mode of action, it was possible to find at least one population in each resistance class of the “R” rating system. Furthermore, it appeared that resistance was not confined to restricted areas listed above anymore. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of realtime spray drift using RTDrift Gaussian advection-diffusion model
Lebeau, Frédéric ULg; Verstraete, Arnaud ULg; Schiffers, Bruno ULg et al

in Spanoghe, Pieter (Ed.) COMMUNICATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (2009, May 19)

A spray drift model was developed to deliver real time information to the pesticide applicator. The sprayer is equipped with sensors to deliver real time measurement of operational parameters as spray ... [more ▼]

A spray drift model was developed to deliver real time information to the pesticide applicator. The sprayer is equipped with sensors to deliver real time measurement of operational parameters as spray pressure, boom height, horizontal boom movements and geolocalization. The spray droplet size spectrum as a function of pressure was characterized using PDI measurements. Wind speed and direction were measured using a sprayer mounted 2-D ultrasonic anemometer. For each successive boom position, a diffusion-advection Gaussian tilting plume model is used to compute the spray drift deposits downwind. Drift is computed independently for each droplet classes and each nozzle based on the operating parameters. Field trials were performed on a test plot in various wind conditions. The ground drift was measured for different drift distances using fluorimetry analysis. Results show that drift deposits are mainly affected by wind speed and direction what was correctly accounted for by the model. Short distance drift deposits values were overestimated by the model while long distance drift was underestimated. It appears that this most probably origins from embarked wind speed measurements and diffusion parameter. It is concluded that a treatment of embarked wind speed and diffusion measurement should be used to minimize these errors. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of two protein extraction protocols for Pichia anomala proteome analysis.
Bajji, Mohammed; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Mauro, Sergio et al

Poster (2009, May 19)

Pichia anomala (strain Kh6) was isolated from the surface of apple fruits and selected for its high and reliable biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum. Its main modes of ... [more ▼]

Pichia anomala (strain Kh6) was isolated from the surface of apple fruits and selected for its high and reliable biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum. Its main modes of action have until now been studied using essentially microbiological and molecular approaches. The study continues now using the proteomic approach and considering the in situ P. anomala/B. cinerea/apple interaction. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) is one of the most powerful tools used for proteomic analysis. It combines two sequential separation steps, the first dimension via isoelectric focusing (IEF) and the second one by SDS PAGE. Although recent advances in 2-D PAGE, the extraction of the whole proteome and the removal of interfering contaminants still limit its application. Sample preparation constitutes indeed a critical influential step for IEF which in turn affects 2-D gel quality. The objective of the present work was thus to develop an effective protein extraction protocol designed for 2-D PAGE analysis of the proteome of P. anomala strain Kh6. As a starting point, two contrasting protein extraction protocols were chosen to be evaluated in terms of protein yield and one-dimensional (1-D) SDS PAGE and 2-D PAGE gel patterns. The first protocol uses a urea/thiourea-based lysis buffer whereas the second protocol utilizes a hot SDS-based lysis buffer with an additional precipitation step. The comparison model used consisted of apples treated with strain Kh6 alone (K) and apples first treated with Kh6 and then inoculated with B. cinerea conidia (KB). Growth kinetics of strain Kh6 on wounded apples was determined and found to be not affected by the presence of B. cinerea conidia. Proteins were extracted from yeast pellets collected at both the exponential and stationary phases of strain Kh6 growth on apples. The evaluation of both extraction protocols indicates that more proteins were extracted with the SDS protocol and, according to 1-D assays, higher molecular weight proteins were obtained with the ‘urea/thiourea’ protocol and, regardless of the protocol used, more bands were obtained during the exponential phase. 2-D assays are currently underway and the corresponding results will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of accase target-site resistant Alopecurus myosuroides huds (black-grass) in Belgian populations
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Bodson, Bernard ULg

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2009, May 19)

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. The first case of ... [more ▼]

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. The first case of resistance in Belgium was reported in 1996 by Robert Bulcke (Eelen et al., 1996). Yet the resistance mechanism was not specified. Since then, no more information was published about the evolution Belgium, while research continued in the United Kingdom and in France. Moreover, during the last decade, progress in molecular biology allowed to highlight the mechanism of target-site resistance. A simple PCR method allows to detect the mutation conferring resistance to herbicide. After two years of resistance monitoring in Belgium, mostly in the Walloon part, some populations have been clearly identified as highly resistant to ACCase inhibitor. These populations have been tested by molecular biology so as to detect the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) involved in this case. The method employed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction Allele Specific Assays (PASA: Délye, 2002a) for the mutation Ile-1781-Leu that confers a target-site resistance to ACCase inhibitors. Those analyses were performed on plant material issued from bioassays, either in glasshouses or in Petri dishes. Leaves have been collected from plants which survived a fenoxaprop-P treatment applied in a glasshouse single dose assay. Seedlings from resistant populations grown in Petri dishes containing either fenoxaprop-P or cycloxydim provided the second type of sample. Ile1781 mutants were discovered within three populations. Each mutant plant was heterozygote. Five of those samples have been sequenced to confirm PASA results and everyone was matching. Moreover, they were all issued from Petri dishes containing cycloxydim, known to be unaffected by enhanced metabolism, confirming that theses populations are indeed target-site resistant. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of the supercritical fluid technology to prepare efficient nanocomposite foams for environmental protection purpose
Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Huynen, Isabelle et al

Conference (2009, May 19)

This work reports on the preparation of novel nanocomposite foams that are efficient broadband microwave absorbers. Carbon nanotubes are first successfully dispersed into PCL and PMMA by melt blending ... [more ▼]

This work reports on the preparation of novel nanocomposite foams that are efficient broadband microwave absorbers. Carbon nanotubes are first successfully dispersed into PCL and PMMA by melt blending. Then, foaming is promoted by supercritical CO2 by depressurization. Regular cellular structures are obtained in both cases with cells size around 10-50µm. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency of these materials are then evaluated and compared to the non-foamed nanocomposites. [less ▲]

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