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See detailPour une formation des futurs instituteurs à une autre didactique des sciences à l'école primaire
Brouwir, Christine ULg; Hindryckx, Marie-Noëlle ULg; Stegen, Pierre

in Herphelin, Martine (Ed.) Actes du 2° congrès des chercheurs en éducation : L'école, dans quel(s) sens? (2002)

Cette recherche s’inscrit en réponse aux constats alarmants concernant l’enseignement des sciences en Communauté française de Belgique.: il s’agit notamment d’une certaine désaffection des jeunes pour des ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche s’inscrit en réponse aux constats alarmants concernant l’enseignement des sciences en Communauté française de Belgique.: il s’agit notamment d’une certaine désaffection des jeunes pour des formations à caractère scientifique ; des performances insuffisantes de nos étudiants, lors des tests internationaux comparatifs ; d’un malaise des enseignants face à la mise en place d'activités scientifiques à caractère expérimental dans les classes primaires et de l’utilisation insuffisante des nombreuses ressources existantes en sciences. Pour expliquer ces constats, un diagnostic souvent posé concerne le déficit quantitatif et qualitatif de l’enseignement des sciences expérimentales. Ce double déficit se constate dès le primaire. Il renvoie à un manque de formation à l’approche expérimentale des instituteurs en fonction aujourd’hui. L’objet de la recherche collaborative est d’étudier les difficultés rencontrées par les normaliens dans la mise en place d’activités à caractère scientifique. La question centrale de cette recherche peut être formulée de la manière suivante : « Comment incorporer, dans le curriculum de formation des futurs instituteurs, des mises en situation favorisant le développement de leur capacité à construire des activités d’apprentissage faisant intervenir des démarches expérimentales ? ». Pour apporter des éléments de réponse à cette question, nous avons privilégié l’hypothèse de travail suivante : l’amélioration des compétences scientifiques des élèves passe nécessairement par une meilleure formation des enseignants. Pour concrétiser cette hypothèse, nous avons fait délibérément le choix d’agir au niveau de la formation initiale des enseignants (construction d'un module de formation). [less ▲]

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See detailLes lithométéores au Niger: mise au point.
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Würzburger Geographische Arbeiten (2002), (97), 7-32

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See detailDe la philosophie à la sociologie en compagnie de Pierre Bourdieu
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie (2002), 1-4

La compréhension adéquate des influences de Pierre Bourdieu peuvent nous permettre de diversifier sa pensée comme il diversifiait lui-même celle des autres. On sait qu’il utilise Wittgenstein dès l ... [more ▼]

La compréhension adéquate des influences de Pierre Bourdieu peuvent nous permettre de diversifier sa pensée comme il diversifiait lui-même celle des autres. On sait qu’il utilise Wittgenstein dès l'élaboration de son vocabulaire critique défiant les « prénotions » et les préjugés condamnés comme étant le fruit d'une sociologie spontanée et profane qui mine le jugement objectif. Mais il le quitte au moment où celui-ci manifeste le désir de revenir « au point de vue du sens commun ». Il semble bien que nous ayons alors affaire à « une quête fervente de l'ordinaire et du familier » à laquelle Bourdieu ne se référera plus.. En tenir compte peut nous permettre d’ouvrir le dialogue avec la sociologie pragmatique de Luc Boltanski et Laurent Thévenot. A la suite de Bourdieu, c’est alors en partie avec eux qu’on peut prolonger véritablement l’exigence wittgensteinienne : étudier les « exemples primitifs des langages communs ». Ces sociologies, on le sait, accueillent a priori le discours des acteurs comme le fruit d’un travail interprétatif cohérent. Qu’ils soient « justes » ou non par rapport à l’état du monde n’est pas l’essentiel. L’enjeu n’est plus d’évaluer leur valeur de vérité par rapport à la réalité - ce qu’autorise la pensée de Bourdieu - mais d’approcher « des sujets parlants ordinaires [… ]co-énonciateurs du discours intervenant en permanence dans la construction du sens » . Tous sont capables de construire et de déconstruire leurs pratiques et ce jeu de construction-déconstruction revêt un intérêt en soi. Il s’agit moins de nier le fait qu’un langage quelconque puisse être pétri d’illusions que de chercher à en saisir la portée significative. En définitive, les objectifs de ces paradigmes sont à la fois différents et tout à fait complémentaires. Il faut à présent chercher à saisir correctement les objets sociologiques ambigus qu’une sociologie hybride permettrait d’éclairer. C'est ce que nous nous suggérons de le présent article. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential heat shock gene hsp70-1 response to toxicants revealed by in vivo study of lungs in transgenic mice
Wirth, Delphine; Christians, Elisabeth; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Cell Stress & Chaperones (2002), 7(4), 387-395

Members of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) family have been considered to respond to a large variety of stressful conditions. But it was suggested that, in pulmonary cells, Hsp response depends more closely ... [more ▼]

Members of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) family have been considered to respond to a large variety of stressful conditions. But it was suggested that, in pulmonary cells, Hsp response depends more closely on the type of stimulus. The lungs are critical organs potentially subjected to air pollution affecting respiratory function and, therefore, these organs are of particular interest with regard to the stress response. To investigate the stress dependence of Hsp70 response in lungs, we created transgenic mice where the firefly luciferase reporter gene is under the control of the murine hsp70-1 promoter and exposed them to different sublethal toxic conditions. For each condition, the level of transgene induction and pulmonary toxicity were assessed. We found that hsp70-1 promoter was stimulated by heat shock and Cadmium but not by ozone, paraquat, and parathion, even if these chemicals induced respiratory distress and lung inflammation. Similar observations were made when expression of the endogenous hsp70-1 gene was analyzed, indicating that our transgenic model was accurately detecting hsp70-1 induction. Thereby, it appeared that hsp70-1 response is selective and depends on signaling pathways triggered by the toxicants rather than by their pathologic toxicity per se. Furthermore, because all the chemicals used in our study have been previously described to increase the level of oxidative stress, it indicates that there is no direct and simple correlation between hsp70-1 response and the level of oxidative stress, but more specific oxidative patterns should be involved in Hsp regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased fecundity of malathion-specific resistant beetles in absence of insecticide pressure
Arnaud, Ludovic; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Assie, Lazare Komenan et al

in Heredity (2002), 89(6), 425-429

Despite that resistance frequency is assumed to decline when selective pressure is relaxed, the stability of resistance frequency has been observed in some insects in the absence of insecticide. In the ... [more ▼]

Despite that resistance frequency is assumed to decline when selective pressure is relaxed, the stability of resistance frequency has been observed in some insects in the absence of insecticide. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the first case of malathion-resistance was reported in the early 1960s. The malathion-specific resistant phenotype has now almost completely replaced the susceptible one in red flour beetle populations. In the present study, several life-history traits that could influence the fitness of the insects were compared between insecticide-susceptible and malathion-specific resistant populations of the red flour beetle. On average, egg fertility and egg-to-adult development time did not differ between susceptible and resistant populations. However, the fecundity of resistant females was greater than that of susceptible ones. Generally, differences in development time between insecticide resistant and susceptible populations are considered as having more effect on fitness than do differences in fecundity. However, the observed increased female fecundity may participate, in combination with the previously observed increased male reproductive success, to the development and the stability of malathion-specific resistance in T. castaneum. [less ▲]

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See detailAccelerated Fatigue Testing Methodology of Luminaires on Electro-Dynamic Shaker
Marin, Frédéric; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Marville, Christian

Conference given outside the academic context (2002)

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See detailCOST Action F3 on Structural Dynamics: Benchmarks for Structural Health Monitoring
Worden, K.; Molina, F.; Pascual, R. et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2002)

This paper is concerned with the results from the COST Action F3 Working Group Two benchmarking exercise in Structural Health Monitoring. Data from two large-scale structures were modelled for the ... [more ▼]

This paper is concerned with the results from the COST Action F3 Working Group Two benchmarking exercise in Structural Health Monitoring. Data from two large-scale structures were modelled for the purposes of damage detection, location and quantification. Several analysis papers have been submitted for a special issue of Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing and the conclusions of each are summarised here, together with more general conclusions arising from the concerted effort. [less ▲]

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See detailTexture analysis of cylindrical cup during deep-drawing process
Flores, Paulo; Duchene, Laurent ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Yang, D. Y.; Oh, S. I.; Huh, H. (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th international conference NUMISHEET 2002 (2002)

This paper presents the simulation of a deep-drawing process using three different constitutive laws: strain rate space yield locus description with an isotropic hardening law, strain rate space yield ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the simulation of a deep-drawing process using three different constitutive laws: strain rate space yield locus description with an isotropic hardening law, strain rate space yield locus description with a combined (isotropic and kinematic) hardening law, and stress space yield locus description with an isotropic hardening law. To take into consideration material anisotropy, the yield locus is computed from the crystallographic texture using Taylor's model, a dual plastic potantial and combined hardening law taking into account the dislocations microstructures. The results obtained by these three constitutive laws are compared with experimental ones. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite element thermo-mechanical model of continuous steel casting
Pascon, Frédéric ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Kiuchi, M.; Nishimura, H.; Yanagimoto, J. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Advanced Technology of Plasticity (2002)

Problems in continuous casting of steel are numerous and have been leading producers to find ever more efficient solutions. Wa have developed a thermomechanical model of continuous casting, using a non ... [more ▼]

Problems in continuous casting of steel are numerous and have been leading producers to find ever more efficient solutions. Wa have developed a thermomechanical model of continuous casting, using a non-linear finite element code. Since a complete 3D discretization seemed impossible, the model has been based on a generalized plane strain state (2D1/2) and it includes at the same time thermal exchanges, mechanical behaviour of steel at very high temperature, the ferrostatic pressure and contact between the strand and the machine. This paper presents some results of two industrial applications. First results tend to prove the importance of some process factors (such as the mould taper) and local defects of the machine on the quality of cast products, according with observations. [less ▲]

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See detailA parallel computing model for the acceleration of a finite element software
Moto Mpong, Serge; de Montleau, Pierre; Godinas, André et al

in Arabnia, H. R. (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications (2002)

This paper presents the parallelization model used for the non-linear finite element software LAGAMINE. The proposed model is based on the use of a coarse grain approach for the parallelization of the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the parallelization model used for the non-linear finite element software LAGAMINE. The proposed model is based on the use of a coarse grain approach for the parallelization of the assembly of the stiffness matrix. For the solver of the generated linear problem, we used a parallel direct solver of Gauss type. Finally, we present a discussion of the results of our approach on an example of depp drawing. [less ▲]

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See detailIntragranular and intergranular behaviour of multifilamentary Bi-2223/Ag tapes
Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg; Crate, David et al

in Physica C: Superconductivity (2002), 372(Part 2), 970-973

This communication aims at reporting the superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes determined by using various measuring techniques. First. the original samples have been characterized by electrical ... [more ▼]

This communication aims at reporting the superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes determined by using various measuring techniques. First. the original samples have been characterized by electrical resistance, AC susceptibility. and DC magnetization. The transport (intergranular) critical Current vs. magnetic field was also determined at T = 77 K using pulsed currents up to 40 A. Next. the same combination of experiments as performed oil bent tapes in order to bring out relevant information concerning the strength of the intergranular coupling. The results show that intergranular and intragranular currents differ by at least one order of magnitude, Finally, additional magnetic measurements were carried out in order to determine the anisotropy ratio Jc(ab)/Jc(c), which was found to lie around 30. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation with CD8-depleted or CD34-selected peripheral blood stem cells.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Baudoux, Etienne ULg; Frere, Pascale ULg et al

in Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research (2002), 11(2), 301-14

To decrease the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) observed after nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NMSCT), we studied the feasibility of CD8-depleted or CD34-selected NMSCT followed ... [more ▼]

To decrease the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) observed after nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NMSCT), we studied the feasibility of CD8-depleted or CD34-selected NMSCT followed by CD8-depleted preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) given in incremental doses on days 40 and 80. Fourteen patients with high-risk malignancies and an HLA-identical sibling (n = 8) or alternative donor (n = 6) but ineligible for a conventional transplant were included. Nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen consisted in 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) alone, 2 Gy TBI and fludarabine (previously untreated patients) or cyclophosphamide and fludarabine (patients who had previously received > or =12 Gy TBI). Patients 1-4 (controls) received unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and DLI and patients 5-14 CD8-depleted or CD34-selected PBSC followed by CD8-depleted DLI. Post-transplant immunosuppression was carried out with cyclosporine A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Initial engraftment was seen in all patients, but 1 patient (7%) later rejected her graft. The actuarial 180-day incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was 75% for patients 1-4 versus 0% for patients 5-14 (p = 0.0019). Five of 14 patients were in complete remission (CR) 180 days after the transplant and 6/14 had partial responses. The 1-year survival rate was 69%, and nonrelapse and relapse mortality rates were 16 and 18%, respectively. We conclude that CD8-depleted or CD34-selected NMSCT followed by CD8-depleted DLI is feasible and considerably decreases the incidence of acute GVHD while preserving engraftment and apparently also the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Further studies are needed to confirm this encouraging preliminary report. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictive factors for response of anemia to recombinant human erythropoietin
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Nowrousian, M. R. (Ed.) Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in clinical oncology (2002)

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See detailStability of recombinant 2 S albumin allergens in vitro
Murtagh, Gareth; Dumoulin, Mireille ULg; Alcocer, Marcos et al

in Biochemical Society Transactions (2002), 30

Two well known 2 S albumins, Ber e 1 from brazil nut and sunflower 2 S albumin 8 (SFA-8), have been expressed in a eukaryotic system and purified. Analysis of recombinant versions of Ber e 1 and SFA-8 ... [more ▼]

Two well known 2 S albumins, Ber e 1 from brazil nut and sunflower 2 S albumin 8 (SFA-8), have been expressed in a eukaryotic system and purified. Analysis of recombinant versions of Ber e 1 and SFA-8 revealed them to be significantly more resistant to digestion by pepsin than BSA, and to be stable for up to 30 min in simulated gastric fluid. Unfolding monitored by CD indicated that both proteins were also very resistant to denaturation induced by heat and low pH. These results suggest that, although the ability of 2 S albumins to reach the circulatory system may be a prerequisite for the allergenicity of this group of proteins, stability is just one of a number of characteristics that provoke a selective immune response. [less ▲]

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See detailLe mélèze, un bois de qualité aux multiples usages
Charron, Stéphane; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Jourez, Benoît ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (61), 37-41

Réputé pour son aspect esthétique, sa résistance mécanique et sa durabilité naturelle, le mélèze est une essence polyvalente, apte à de multiples usages tant intérieurs qu’extérieurs. Pourtant ... [more ▼]

Réputé pour son aspect esthétique, sa résistance mécanique et sa durabilité naturelle, le mélèze est une essence polyvalente, apte à de multiples usages tant intérieurs qu’extérieurs. Pourtant, l’industrie de la transformation belge ne s’y est pas beaucoup intéressée. <br />Plusieurs explications peuvent être évoquées : faibles volumes commercialisés, mauvaise réputation en raison de quelques expériences malheureuses, <br />etc. Actuellement, les préjugés s’estompent et la demande en bois de mélèze est croissante. [less ▲]

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See detailChoisir un scénario sylvicole pour les mélèzes
Pauwels, D.; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (61), 17-24

Le choix du traitement sylvicole à appliquer à un peuplement forestier est une démarche qui peut s’avérer très complexe si l’on tient compte des délais entre la plantation et la récolte du peuplement ... [more ▼]

Le choix du traitement sylvicole à appliquer à un peuplement forestier est une démarche qui peut s’avérer très complexe si l’on tient compte des délais entre la plantation et la récolte du peuplement final, de l’évolution des filières de transformation, ou encore de la multiplicité des objectifs que peut poursuivre le gestionnaire forestier. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion forestière durable en Région wallonne, intégration d'indicateurs appropriés à l'inventaire permanent
Lecomte, H.; Koestel, G.; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

Book (2002)

The permanent forest inventory used in Wallonie since 1994 has been launched, as many others, to support a regional forest policy and evaluate wood forest products. To take into account criteria and ... [more ▼]

The permanent forest inventory used in Wallonie since 1994 has been launched, as many others, to support a regional forest policy and evaluate wood forest products. To take into account criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management, especially proposed by the Helsinki conference, some aspects of the methodology have been adapted and new variables have been collected in the field of ecological parameters (soil, lesser vegetation, ecosystem and species diversity, biomass, global carbon budget, forest health, physical environmental factors). This paper provides some insight into the way used to collect, through a regional permanent forest inventory, a large amount of components dealing with forest sustainability. An important database provides useful baseline information for fu-ture management decisions and can be considered as the best achieved tool for monitoring progress toward sustainable forest management at a regional level. [less ▲]

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See detailP2X(1)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 contributes to platelet secretion and aggregation induced by collagen.
Oury, Cécile ULg; Toth-Zsamboki, Emese; Vermylen, Jos et al

in Blood (2002)

This study shows that mild platelet stimulation with collagen rapidly releases ATP, which activates the P2X(1)-PKC-ERK2 pathway. This process enhances further degranulation of the collagen-primed granules ... [more ▼]

This study shows that mild platelet stimulation with collagen rapidly releases ATP, which activates the P2X(1)-PKC-ERK2 pathway. This process enhances further degranulation of the collagen-primed granules allowing platelet aggregation to be completed. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes the P(2X1del) variant lacking 17 amino acids in its extracellular domain represent a relevant functional ion channel in platelets?
Oury, Cécile ULg; Toth-Zsamboki, Emese; Vermylen, Jos et al

in Blood (2002)

In this letter, we questionned the existence of a ADP responsive P2X1 protein variant in platelets.

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