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See detailPotential antimalarial activity of indole alkaloids
Frederich, Michel ULg; Tits, Monique ULg; Angenot, Luc ULg

in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (2008), 102(1), 11-19

New antimalarial treatments are now urgently required, following the emergence of resistance to the most used drugs. Natural products contribute greatly to the therapeutic arsenal in this area, including ... [more ▼]

New antimalarial treatments are now urgently required, following the emergence of resistance to the most used drugs. Natural products contribute greatly to the therapeutic arsenal in this area, including artemisinin and quinine (and atovaquone, semi-synthetic). Among the natural products, indole alkaloids represent an interesting class of compounds. Screening carried out to date has revealed several substances active in vitro under the micromolar range and with a good selectivity index. This review covers the indole alkaloids with high antiplasmodial activity (in vitro and in vivo) isolated from natural sources, and is organized according to the different chemical structures of the alkaloids. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact des séminaires de formations certificatifs sur les attitudes et pratiques évaluatives des enseignants en 1er bac
Leduc, Laurent ULg

in Mottier Lopez, Lucie; Dizerens, Yann-Eric; Marcoux, Géry (Eds.) et al Entre la régulation des apprentissages et le pilotage des systèmes: évaluations en tension. Actes du 20e colloque de l'ADMEE-Europe (2008, January)

Créé par obligation décrétale avec pour mission de « conseiller, encadrer et former les enseignants en charge des étudiants de première génération », le Centre de Didactique Supérieure (CDS) de l’Académie ... [more ▼]

Créé par obligation décrétale avec pour mission de « conseiller, encadrer et former les enseignants en charge des étudiants de première génération », le Centre de Didactique Supérieure (CDS) de l’Académie Universitaire Wallonie-Europe a développé pour ses encadrants universitaires de première année de bachelier un catalogue d’offre de formations à deux vitesses. En effet, dans le prolongement de « Séances thématiques présentielles », activités de sensibilisation à diverses problématiques de Pédagogie Universitaire articulées autour de témoignages d’enseignants et d’exposés d’experts, ont été conçus des « Séminaires de suivi en ligne », séquences d’apprentissage certificatives, impliquant de la part des participants la réalisation d’un dispositif pédagogique adapté à une difficulté identifiée. La présente communication décrit la procédure mise en œuvre afin d’évaluer, pour trois de ces séminaires virtuels (intitulés respectivement « Améliorer la maîtrise du français », « Accroître la motivation des étudiants » et « Concevoir des simulations d’examens »), leur impact sur le niveau d’appropriation par chacun des enseignants certifiés par le CDS des principes de la Triple Concordance Objectifs-Méthodes-Evaluation et de la nécessité de définir les objectifs d’apprentissage à atteindre par les étudiants. A cette fin, des données qualitatives collectées au cours de focus interviews individuelles ont été traitées à l’aide d’une grille d’analyse construite à partir d’éléments empruntés à l’aphorisme de Conrad Lorenz, à la taxonomie de David Krathwohl et au modèle de Rolland Viau. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore... Revue des principaux auto-anticorps
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(1), 43-9

Auto-immune diseases represent the 3rd cause of morbidity after cardiovascular and oncologic diseases. They often occur in young subjects. Their presence is not synonymous of disease and must be ... [more ▼]

Auto-immune diseases represent the 3rd cause of morbidity after cardiovascular and oncologic diseases. They often occur in young subjects. Their presence is not synonymous of disease and must be associated to clinical signs to be pathological. However, their discovery can require a complement of investigations and the possibility of a follow-up because some auto-antibodies are predictive of disease. This paper is concerned with the main autoantibodies that can be picked out at the laboratory of immunology. Some technical explanations and INAMI rules are explained too. [less ▲]

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See detailA general review and description of the poultry production in Vietnam
Stéphanie Desvaux; Vu Dinh Ton; Phan Dang, Thang ULg et al

in Stéphanie Desvaux; Vu Dinh Ton (Eds.) A general review and description of the poultry production in Vietnam (2008)

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See detailLa profesión en el ámbito panhispánico
Arencibia, Lourdes; de Miguel, Olivia; Michel Modenessi, Alfredo et al

in Attrache, Ismael (Ed.) Vasos comunicantes: revista de ACE traductores, 39. Número dedicado a las XV Jornadas en torno a la traducción literaria, Tarazona, 2007 (2008)

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See detailEl castellano de la traducción
Sáenz, Miguel; Michel Modenessi, Alfredo; Willson, Patricia ULg

in Ehrenhaus, Andrés (Ed.) Vasos comunicantes: revista de ACE traductores, 39. Número dedicado a las XV Jornadas en torno a la traducción literaria, Tarazona, 2007 (2008)

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See detailVers plus d'autonomie. Dynamique des apprentissages : le transfert
Jancart, Sylvie ULg

Learning material (2008)

Travail intégré présenté en vue de l'obtention du certificat de réussite à la formation CAPAES

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See detailLes Grillons, muses de la Gorgebleue à miroir blanc (Luscinia svecica cyanecula) ?
Metzmacher, Maxime ULg

in Parcs & Réserves (2008), 63

For several authors, Bluethroat Luscinia svecica cyanecula would imitate orthoptera’s stridulations, in particular Gryllidae. Sonagrams presented here suggest similarities between some motives of its song ... [more ▼]

For several authors, Bluethroat Luscinia svecica cyanecula would imitate orthoptera’s stridulations, in particular Gryllidae. Sonagrams presented here suggest similarities between some motives of its song and the stridulations of three Gryllidae.However, these pictures don’t absolutely refute the assumption of a sound convergence between the sound emissions of these insects and Bluethroat’s song. [less ▲]

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See detailOverview of the Emergence and Evolution of Social Enterprise
Borzaga, Carlo; Defourny, Jacques; Galera, Giulia et al

in EMES (Ed.) Social Enterprise : A New Model for Poverty Reduction and Employment Generation, (2008)

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See detailProgrammes verticaux: stratégies d'approvisionnement en médicaments
Kiba, Alice; Franckh, Marc ULg

Report (2008)

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See detailThermo-plasticity of fine-grained soils at various saturation states: Application to nuclear waste disposal
François, Bertrand ULg

Doctoral thesis (2008)

Soil is a particulate material that may undergo irreversible strain as the relative positions of the constituent particles change. That irreversible behaviour may be induced not only by an external stress ... [more ▼]

Soil is a particulate material that may undergo irreversible strain as the relative positions of the constituent particles change. That irreversible behaviour may be induced not only by an external stress variation but also by temperature or suction changes. The geomaterials that will be involved in the confinement of radioactive waste in deep geological formations will be submitted to strong thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical modifications. Those modifications may produce a significant change of the characteristics of the confinement barrier. A safety assessment of such facilities must be performed that considers the potential thermo-plasticity effects in the confining soil. Following the need for understanding and quantifying such effects, a constitutive model that deals with the thermo-mechanical modelling of unsaturated soils is proposed. In light of elastoplasticity, this model is based on the relevant temperature and suction effects on the mechanical behaviour of fine-grained soils, as observed in experiments. In addition, an experimental program has been undertaken in order to corroborate and to extend the existing results. Finally, the developed constitutive model has been properly implemented in a finite element code in order to study the behaviour of the soils that confine the nuclear waste. Therefore, this work addresses the issue from three different directions: a constitutive, experimental, and numerical point of view. (i) Constitutive study. The elaboration of a thermo-plastic constitutive model for unsaturated soils is done in a systematic manner. Starting from a hardening plasticity model for isothermal and saturated conditions, the constitutive relations are progressively extended to non-isothermal conditions and then to unsaturated states. For the more advanced model, a generalized effective stress framework is adopted, which includes a number of intrinsic thermo-hydro-mechanical connections, to represent the stress state in the soil. Two coupled constitutive aspects are used to fully describe the soil behaviour. The mechanical constitutive part is built on concepts of bounding surface theory and multi-mechanism plasticity, while water retention characteristics are described using elasto-plasticity to reproduce the hysteretic response and the effect of temperature and dry density on the soil's water retention properties. The theoretical formulation is supported by comparisons with experimental results. (ii) Experimental study. Aiming at a better understanding of the non-isothermal mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils, a series of oedometric compression tests under controlled temperatures and suction conditions has been carried out on a silty material. The characteristics and the calibrations of the experimental apparatus are presented. The main results are interpreted in light of the proposed constitutive framework. The compressibility of the soil tested appears not to be affected by the temperature, but it decreases with a suction increase. As far as the preconsolidation stress is concerned, the results show a decrease of the yield limit with increasing temperature, while a suction increase tends to enhance this limit. Finally, an analytical expression is proposed to describe the evolution of the preconsolidation stress with respect to temperature and suction. (iii) Numerical study. In the issue of nuclear waste disposal, the quantification of the temporal and spatial distributions of the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena that occur in the confining soils requires that numerical simulations be carried out under imposed boundary conditions. To this end, the last part of this work presents finite element modelling results of several in-situ or laboratory simulation tests through using the developed constitutive model that was implemented in an advanced finite element code. The parameters of the different materials involved in the simulated experiments are determined by means of an extensive literature analysis on their thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical characteristics. The simulation results are interpreted in light of the elasto-thermoplasticity of saturated and unsaturated soils, which emphasizes the significant role of thermo-plastic processes in the global thermo-hydromechanical response of the confining materials. In that sense, this work supplies, in a systematic and progressive manner, constitutive explanations that may help to provide a better understanding of what the effects of thermo-plasticity in soils involved in the confinement of nuclear waste are. [less ▲]

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See detailSivers function in constituent quark models
Scopetta, S.; Courtoy, Aurore ULg; Fratini, F. et al

in World scientific (2008)

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See detailHigh-Precision Spectroscopy of Pulsating Stars
Aerts, C.; Hekker, S.; Desmet, M. et al

in Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics, Proceedings of the ESO/Lisbon/Aveiro Conference held in Aveiro, Portugal, 11-15 September 2006. (2008)

We review methodologies currently available to interprete time series of high-resolution high-S/N spectroscopic data of pulsating stars in terms of the kind of (non-radial) modes that are excited. We ... [more ▼]

We review methodologies currently available to interprete time series of high-resolution high-S/N spectroscopic data of pulsating stars in terms of the kind of (non-radial) modes that are excited. We illustrate the drastic improvement of the detection treshold of line-profile variability thanks to the advancement of the instrumentation over the past two decades. This has led to the opportunity to interprete line-profile variations with amplitudes of order m/s, which is a factor 1000 lower than the earliest line-profile time series studies allowed for. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Chemical Composition of B-type Pulsators: Some Unexpected Results
Morel, Thierry ULg; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Aerts, C.

in Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics (2008)

We present a project aimed at self-consistently deriving the physical parameters and chemical composition of massive pulsators (β, Cephei stars, Slowly Pulsating B stars) based on high-resolution optical ... [more ▼]

We present a project aimed at self-consistently deriving the physical parameters and chemical composition of massive pulsators (β, Cephei stars, Slowly Pulsating B stars) based on high-resolution optical spectra. Such data will be essential for a proper theoretical interpretation of their oscillation spectrum, but may also contribute in a broader context to our understanding of mixing and diffusion processes in B-type stars. As an illustration, our first results reveal the existence of core-processed material at the surface of some slowly-rotating β, Cephei stars which is not predicted by current evolutionary models including rotation. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiology and Genetics of Pituitary Tumours
Daly, Adrian ULg

Doctoral thesis (2008)

To have a full understanding of a disease, it is necessary to at least know how frequently it occurs, its clinical features and by what means it is caused. In the case of pituitary adenomas, data in the ... [more ▼]

To have a full understanding of a disease, it is necessary to at least know how frequently it occurs, its clinical features and by what means it is caused. In the case of pituitary adenomas, data in the literature on the epidemiology of these tumors is conflicting, with some studies suggesting a high frequency, others that they occur rarely in the clinical setting. In parallel, the understanding of the pathophysiology of endocrine tumors like pituitary adenomas has advanced greatly with the advent of molecular genetic techniques. However, much remains unclear regarding pathophysiology. A valuable avenue for studying the causes of endocrine tumors has been to focus on the familial setting. With respect to pituitary adenomas, apart from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC), the field of familial pituitary tumors is poorly understood. Indeed, apart from familial acromegaly, there have been virtually no studies on other pituitary adenomas occurring in the familial setting. The aims of the work described in this thesis were based on addressing aspects of the epidemiology and genetics of pituitary tumors. Firstly, the disconnect between the prevalence rates for pituitary adenomas from autopsy/radiology studies (incidentalomas being very common) and cancer registries/population data (rare) was studied. An intensive, comprehensive, case-finding study of the prevalence of pituitary adenomas was performed in three tightly-defined geographical areas in the Province of Liège. In this study, which involved a population of more than 70,000 people, diagnosed pituitary adenomas were sought in collaboration with the entire group of community medical practitioners in the study areas, and the demographics and clinical, hormonal, radiological and pathological features of all patients were confirmed independently. On a fixed date, it was found that clinically diagnosed pituitary adenomas occurred with a prevalence of 1 case per 1064 individuals residing within the geographic boundaries of the study. These results report a clinical prevalence of pituitary adenomas that is 3.5 to 5 times higher than previous population/registry estimates. It suggests that clinically relevant pituitary adenomas occur frequently in the everyday clinical setting, which may have important implications for health resource allocations. Also, it is possible to undertake detailed, comprehensive, crosssectional epidemiological studies in well-defined geographic areas, and this methodology can be applied internationally Studying the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas outside of MEN1 and CNC was the next aim of the work described. Up to this time, only the familial occurrence of acromegaly had been reported with any frequency in the literature. An international study was undertaken to assess whether isolated pituitary adenomas of all types could occur in the familial setting, a suspicion raised in Liège over the past decade. This study demonstrated that familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) occur in about 2% of pituitary adenoma populations, and 64 FIPA families were characterized clinically. The study demonstrated for the first time that all phenotypes of pituitary adenomas can occur together in families; some families exhibit only one phenotype among affected members (homogeneous FIPA kindreds), others have multiple tumor types among affected family members (heterogeneous FIPA). In FIPA families, pituitary tumors were more aggressive and tended to occur at a younger age than sporadic pituitary adenomas. FIPA families display a high degree of familiality, suggesting a dominant mode of inheritance. Subsequent studies were performed on the genetic and pathological features of pituitary adenomas, particularly those occurring as FIPA. The discovery of a novel gene, aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein ( AIP), mutations in which were associated with isolated pituitary adenomas, led us to undertake the first such genetic studies in FIPA. AIP mutations account for a minority (15%) of FIPA families and 50% of familial acromegaly kindreds in FIPA. This suggests that other genetic causes for FIPA also exist. In AIP mutation carrying FIPA families, tumors were larger and had a younger age at diagnosis than non- AIP mutated FIPA kindreds. A series of 9 novel AIP mutations were identified, the majority of which led to predicted loss of vital ligand and receptor interacting regions of the AIP protein. AIP mutations in FIPA were associated with multiple pituitary adenoma types, including acromegaly, prolactinomas, mixed growth hormone/prolactin secreting adenomas and non-secreting tumors. It was also found that the same AIP mutation was responsible for different pituitary adenoma types in two separate FIPA families. A detailed follow-up study of an individual FIPA kindred with an AIP mutation found for the first time that non-pituitary tumor-associated endocrine abnormalities (elevated circulating insulin-like growth factor-1) occur in AIP mutation carriers. A detailed analysis of germline and somatic DNA from a large international European cohort of sporadic (non-familial) pituitary adenoma cases showed that AIP mutations occur rarely in this setting. In conclusion, the work undertaken has provided new understanding of the true prevalence of clinically-relevant pituitary adenomas in the population, in addition to codifying and characterizing FIPA, a new clinical entity that represents a potentially valuable area for genetic and clinical studies involving the function of AIP and other as yet unidentified associated genetic causes. [less ▲]

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See detailTornades, vents exceptionnels et constructions
Denoël, Vincent ULg

Learning material (2008)

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See detailApplication of a three-field natural neighbour method in elastoplasticity
Li, Xiang; Cescotto, Serge ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg

in Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM8) (2008)

The natural neighbour method can be considered as one of the many variants of the meshless methods. Classically, the development of these methods is based on the virtual work principle: a set of nodes are ... [more ▼]

The natural neighbour method can be considered as one of the many variants of the meshless methods. Classically, the development of these methods is based on the virtual work principle: a set of nodes are distributed over the domain to be studied and the displacement field is discretized with the help of interpolation functions that are not based on the finite element concept but only based on the nodes. In the present paper, we use a new approach based on the Fraeijs de Veubeke (FdV) functional [1] and initially developed for linear elasticity [2]. It uses separate discretizations of the displacements, stresses and strains. The method of [2] is extended to the case of geometrically linear but materially non linear solids and it is shown that, in the absence of body forces, the calculation of integrals over the area of the domain is avoided and that the derivatives of the nodal shape functions are not required, which constitutes an advantage over classical meshless and finite elements methods. [less ▲]

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See detailDisorders of mitochondrial function
Debray, François-Guillaume ULg; Lambert, M.; Mitchell, G. A.

in Current Opinion in Pediatrics (2008), 20(4), 471-482

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See detailINTAKE OF DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs CONSUMING HOME PRODUCED VERSUS COMMERCIAL EGGS
Sioen, Isabelle; Bilau, Maaike; Van Overmeire, Ilse et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2008)

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