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See detailReproductive Strategies Of Tribolium Flour Beetles
Arnaud, Ludovic; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Lallemand, Stéphane et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2005), 5(33),

Although, beetles of the genus Tribolium first evolved as saprophylic insects, they have adapted to the stored products environment for several thousand years. In this study reproductive strategies are ... [more ▼]

Although, beetles of the genus Tribolium first evolved as saprophylic insects, they have adapted to the stored products environment for several thousand years. In this study reproductive strategies are described for eight species of Tribolium that are known to occur in this environment. Experiments were conducted under the same conditions for every species, and several life history traits, including egg mass, adult mass, developmental time and fecundity were examined and compared among these species. Common reproductive strategies were not found among the different species and univariate analysis highlighted strong differences between the species for most of the traits investigated. Some species showed reproductive traits that are likely to give a fitness advantage in the environment of stored products. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed the detection of different sub-groups with respect to their reproductive strategy. Adult mass and egg-to-adult developmental time discriminated between groups. Intraspecific allometric relationships were further investigated but only a few correlations appeared to be significant. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic de l'intoxication aiguë par les insecticides organophosphorés basé sur la détermination de l'activité cholinestérasique
Turcant, Alain; Dehon, Betty; Ganière-Monteil, Catherine et al

in Annales de Toxicologie Analytique (2005), XVII(3), 207-210

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See detailEquiper des filières durables? L'élevage Bio en Belgique
Stassart, Pierre M ULg; Jamar, Daniel

in Natures Sciences Sociétés (2005), 13(4), 413-420

Résumé – L’agriculture biologique est actuellement à un tournant de son développement : sollicitée de plus en plus fréquemment pour entrer dans une filière de type long, elle apparaît comme « sous-équipée ... [more ▼]

Résumé – L’agriculture biologique est actuellement à un tournant de son développement : sollicitée de plus en plus fréquemment pour entrer dans une filière de type long, elle apparaît comme « sous-équipée »,se confrontant ainsi d’autant plus durement à une filière conventionnelle qui, elle, est « suréquipée ». Les auteurs analysent ce déplacement difficile en se référant au débat anglo-saxon sur la « conventionnalisation ». Ensuite, plutôt que de l’analyser en termes de « conversion de système de production », ils proposent la notion de « référentiel » qui envisage et compare l’équipement des deux filières en termes de normes, de connaissances et d’images. Cette grille de lecture permet à la fois de comprendre le caractère non questionné et non questionnable de la filière conventionnelle et de mettre en évidence la fragilité de la filière bio à se maintenir comme alternative durable. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction d’un marché alternatif de viande bovine fermière
Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in Economie Rurale (2005), (286-287), 28-43

Food quality standards can be analysed as results of a convention process. This paper focuses on a beef farm production and commercialisation chain. It analyses the confrontation between a farmer’s ... [more ▼]

Food quality standards can be analysed as results of a convention process. This paper focuses on a beef farm production and commercialisation chain. It analyses the confrontation between a farmer’s project and the industrial norms that are ruling the Belgian beef market. This confrontation leads to a kind of hybridation of quality definition, but the paper shows how quality definition is closely linked with the kind of underlying commitments. Principles and criteria of collective organisation are modelling quality standards in such a way that flexibility and sensitivity to mutual demands are more important that stability and generalisation. [less ▲]

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See detailCaryl Phillips: A Master of Ambiguity
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Ledent, Bénédicte (Ed.) The Caryl Phillips Bibliography (2005)

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See detailReview of Chris Abani's Graceland and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple Hibiscus
Tunca, Daria ULg

in Wasafiri (2005), 45(Summer), 81-83

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See detailMise en évidence de la résilience de la végétation sahélienne par télédétection basse résolution au Niger à la suite d’épisodes de sécheresse.
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Sokpon, Nestor et al

in Belgeo (2005), 2005(4), 499-516

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are ... [more ▼]

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are well suited to this task. Here, we use time series of NOAA AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and rainfall data. In this study, trend analysis is used to identify areas within the biomes from 1981 to 1999 in Niger with apparent land degradation in semi-arid areas. It appears that most of Niger (82,5%) recorded increasing rainfall while only 78,9 % experienced increasing in integrated vegetation index (iNDVI). However, the combination of the two variables through the ratio iNDVI/RR shows a widespread reduction of the rain-use efficiency with highly significant trend for the stations grouped by bioclimatic area (p<10-6) during the studied period (1981-1999). These negative trends suggest a progressive diminution of the vegetation productivity as highlighted by the lowering of the iNDVI/RR ratio. This situation suggested a consistently environmental degradation and that desertification processes continued during the last two decades over most of the Sahelian belt of Niger. [less ▲]

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See detailIncertitudes sur l'habitus
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Archives Européennes de Sociologie = European Journal of Sociology = Europaisches Archiv für Soziologie (2005), XLVI(3), 469-494

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives ... [more ▼]

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives intermédiaires de Lahire et Corcuff qui, sans omettre de pointer des impasses, ont bien vu l’intérêt du concept d’habitus « singulier ». Après avoir repris leurs approches, nous proposerons une définition « fictionnelle » de cet habitus afin de rendre ce paradigme opérationnel sur des terrains pour lesquels sa capacité heuristique est faible (comme les nouveaux mouvements sociaux). Bourdieu was the founder of a structuralist paradigm which is now often applied by some sociologists and strongly criticised by others. We are interested here in the intermediate attempts of Lahire and Corcuff. Without omitting to notice some dead ends, they understood the interest of the "singular" habitus concept. After following their approach, we propose a "fictional" definition of this habitus in order to make this paradigm operational in areas where its heuristic capacity is low (like the new social movements). [less ▲]

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See detailLa phénoménologie de merleau-ponty : vers une pensée du consensus
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Etudes Phénoménologiques (2005), 41-42

L’histoire de la phénoménologie au 20e siècle s’est élaborée essentiellement autour de la question du sujet héritée de la modernité philosophique. On peut aujourd’hui distinguer a posteriori deux ... [more ▼]

L’histoire de la phénoménologie au 20e siècle s’est élaborée essentiellement autour de la question du sujet héritée de la modernité philosophique. On peut aujourd’hui distinguer a posteriori deux traditions de pensée s’opposant l’une à l’autre par les réponses qu’elles ont voulu lui donner. D’une part, l’initiateur du mouvement phénoménologique que fut Husserl suggère une philosophie qui maintienne l’Ego transcendantal kantien au cœur de la réflexion en lui concédant la priorité sur le monde. La conscience de cet Ego est en effet à l’origine du sens donné au monde qui l’entoure et autrui, dans ce monde, ne se verra octroyer le statut de sujet que par projection analogique depuis cette même conscience. Nous voudrions montrer que ce courant « subjectiviste » a fortement imprégné certains des paradigmes sociologiques qui ont cherché à travailler sur le thème du conflit. Cet article voudrait avancer l’hypothèse que, conjointement à une phénoménologie « subjectiviste » qui a trouvé à se décliner de la sorte empiriquement dans les sociologies du conflit (en se rapprochant fortement de la pensée de Sartre), s’est développée une autre tradition qui pourrait, pour sa part, inspirer une sociologie du compromis encore inexistante. Pour Merleau-Ponty, le monde culturel dans lequel je vis est imprégné de significations qui ne sont pas le fruit de ma conscience mais celui des communautés historiques où elle évolue. Selon nous, sa pensée peut dès lors inaugurer une sociologie dans laquelle le sens donné au monde est le fait d’un consensus « transcendantal » passé entre les différents sujets constituants ma communauté présente et celles qui l’ont précédé. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic mass spectra classification using decision tree based ensemble methods.
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; De Seny, Dominique ULg et al

in Bioinformatics (2005), 21(14), 3138-45

MOTIVATION: Modern mass spectrometry allows the determination of proteomic fingerprints of body fluids like serum, saliva or urine. These measurements can be used in many medical applications in order to ... [more ▼]

MOTIVATION: Modern mass spectrometry allows the determination of proteomic fingerprints of body fluids like serum, saliva or urine. These measurements can be used in many medical applications in order to diagnose the current state or predict the evolution of a disease. Recent developments in machine learning allow one to exploit such datasets, characterized by small numbers of very high-dimensional samples. RESULTS: We propose a systematic approach based on decision tree ensemble methods, which is used to automatically determine proteomic biomarkers and predictive models. The approach is validated on two datasets of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight measurements, for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The results suggest that the methodology can handle a broad class of similar problems. [less ▲]

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See detailLa maternité des déesses grecques et les déesses-mères : entre mythe, rite et fantasme
Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Clio : Histoire, Femmes et Sociétés (2005), 21

The first part shows how, in the Hesiodic Theogony, the word « mother » is applied to goddesses who construct a specific attachment to their children, above and beyond the genealogical link. The second ... [more ▼]

The first part shows how, in the Hesiodic Theogony, the word « mother » is applied to goddesses who construct a specific attachment to their children, above and beyond the genealogical link. The second part considers why at Elis, Athena was called « mother », comparing this situation with Athens. A brief conclusion comes back to the historiographical illusion of a generic « Mothergoddess » in the Greek world. [less ▲]

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See detailNew evidence regarding hormone replacement therapies is urgently required. Transdermal postmenopausal hormone therapy differs from oral hormone therapy in risks and benefits
Modena, M. G.; Sismondi, P.; Mueck, A. O. et al

in Maturitas (2005), 52(1), 1-10

Controversies about the safety of different postmenopausal hormone therapies (HTs) started 30 years ago and reached a peak in 2003 after the publication of the results from the Women Health Initiative ... [more ▼]

Controversies about the safety of different postmenopausal hormone therapies (HTs) started 30 years ago and reached a peak in 2003 after the publication of the results from the Women Health Initiative (WHI) trial and the Million Women Study (MWS) [Writing group for the women's health initiative investigations. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:321–33; Million women study collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the million women study. Lancet 2003;362:419–27]. The single HT formulation used in the WHI trial for non hysterectomized women—an association of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE–0.625 mg/day) and a synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA–2.5 mg/day)—increases the risks of venous thromboembolism, cardiovascular disease, stroke and breast cancer. The MWS, an observational study, showed an increased breast cancer risk in users of estrogens combined with either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), norethisterone, or norgestrel. It is unclear and questionable to what extent these results might be extrapolated to other HRT regimens, that differ in their doses, compositions and administration routes, and that were not assessed in the WHI trial and the MWS. Significant results were achieved with the publication of the WHI estrogen-only arm study [Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:1701–1712] in which hormone therapy was reserved to women who had carried out hysterectomy. What emerged from this study will allow us to have some important argument to develop. [less ▲]

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See detailSegment and combine approach for Biological Sequence Classification
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Blanco Cuesta, Antia; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Proc. IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (CIBCB 2005) (2005)

This paper presents a new algorithm based on the segment and combine paradigm, for automatic classification of biological sequences. It classifies sequences by aggregating the information about their ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new algorithm based on the segment and combine paradigm, for automatic classification of biological sequences. It classifies sequences by aggregating the information about their subsequences predicted by a classifier derived by machine learning from a random sample of training subsequences. This generic approach is combined with decision tree based ensemble methods, scalable both with respect to sample size and vocabulary size. The method is applied to three families of problems: DNA sequence recognition, splice junction detection, and gene regulon prediction. With respect to standard approaches based on n-grams, it appears competitive in terms of accuracy, flexibility, and scalability. The paper also highlights the possibility to exploit the resulting models to identify interpretable patterns specific of a given class of biological sequences. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of diatomaceous earth formulations admixed with grain against populations of Tribolium castaneum
Arnaud, Ludovic; Lan, H. Tran Thi; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Stored Products Research (2005), 41(2), 121-130

The efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control stored-products Coleoptera on stored grain was examined against several populations of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Four ... [more ▼]

The efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control stored-products Coleoptera on stored grain was examined against several populations of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Four commercially available DE formulations were tested: INSECTO(R), Perma-Guard(TM), Protect-It(R) and the diatomite used for the production of Dryacide(R), each at six concentrations (100-1000ppm). A great variation of efficacy was observed among the DE formulations tested. Protect-It at concentrations up to 400 ppm was found to be the most effective formulation to control red flour beetle populations. However, a concentration of 1000 ppm of Protect-It was necessary to control all adults of all populations. Most T castaneum populations, except one from Ivory Coast (Asm), were more than 90% controlled with INSECTO and Dryacide DE at 600 ppm. At this concentration, about 88% and 22% Asm adults died with INSECTO and Dryacide DE, respectively. Perma-Guard was the least efficient DE formulation to control T castaneum adults with three populations exhibiting some survival at 1000 ppm. Reduced susceptibility to DE was observed in two populations, Asm and Lab susceptible from Kansas (Lab-S). As neither population had been previously exposed to DE, it is suggested that red flour beetles may naturally vary in susceptibility to DE. In addition, it was found that some populations can be satisfactorily controlled with some DE formulations but not with others. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFrasnian carbonate buildups of southern Belgium: the Arche and Lion members interpreted as atolls
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Demany, B.; Coen-Aubert, M.

in Geologica Belgica (2005), 8(1-2), 69-91

The facies architecture, sedimentary dynamics and paleogeographic evolution were reconstructed for a number of Frasnian buildups developed on a carbonate platform on the south side of the Dinant ... [more ▼]

The facies architecture, sedimentary dynamics and paleogeographic evolution were reconstructed for a number of Frasnian buildups developed on a carbonate platform on the south side of the Dinant Synclinorium (Belgium). Bed-by-bed sampling and detailed petrography were complemented by magnetic susceptibility analysis, allowing for high-precision lateral correlation. Six facies were recognised in the buildups, each characterized by a specific range of textures and assemblage of organisms: grey, pinkish or greenish limestone, with stromatactis, corals and stromatoporoids (facies A3-L3); grey limestone with corals, peloids and dasycladales (facies A4-L4); grey, microbial limestone (facies A5-L5); grey limestone with dendroid stromatoporoids (facies A6-L6); grey, laminar fenestral limestone, (facies A7-L7); grey, bioturbated limestone (facies A8-L8). The time-equivalent off -buildup sediments include a large amount of transported material that originally came from the buildups. Sedimentological evidence suggests that facies A3-L3 developed between the storm wavebase and the fairweather wavebase, in a oligophotic environment. This facies contains lenses of facies A5-L5, with stromatolitic coatings and Renalcis-rich thrombolitic bushes. These lenses were developed in greatest abundance closest to the fairweather wavebase, and they became anastomosing. Facies A6-L6 was developed in an environment with slightly restricted water circulation; there is a steady transition between this facies and the fenestral limestone A7-L7, which were deposited in a moderately protected subtidal to intertidal area. Facies A8-L8 developed at subtidal depths in a quiet, lagoonal environment. The buildups started with the development of facies A3-L3, with microbial lenses and algal facies becoming progressively more abundant upwards. Above about 20m in each buildup, more protected facies are found in the buildup’s central part. This atoll-like geometry suggests the development of restricted sedimentation in this central area, sheltered by bindstone or floatstone facies. The initial development of the lower part of a buildup during a transgression and subsequent highstand would have been followed by reefal growth along the edge of the buildup during the succeeding lowstand; an atoll crown would then have started to develop during the following transgressive stage. The presence of restricted facies can be seen as the consequence of the balance between sea level rise and reef growth. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation raisonnable des gonadotrophines exogènes dans le contrôle de la reproduction
Drion, Pierre ULg

in Folia Veterinaria (2005)

De nombreuses substances pharmacologiques (tableau 1) incluant des stéroïdes, des peptides et des glycoprotéines potentiellement immunogènes sont fréquemment utilisées dans les programmes thérapeutiques ... [more ▼]

De nombreuses substances pharmacologiques (tableau 1) incluant des stéroïdes, des peptides et des glycoprotéines potentiellement immunogènes sont fréquemment utilisées dans les programmes thérapeutiques ou de gestion de la reproduction chez les animaux domestiques et dans les programmes de procréation assistée chez l'homme. De nombreuses investigations non invasives ont été menées dans différentes espèces en vue de récolter des informations objectives sur les effets secondaires possibles d'administrations répétées de gonadotrophines exogènes, tels la présence d'anticorps circulants et la diminution de la réponse biologique aux traitements. De manière synthétique, il apparaît que l'exposition répétée d'un animal à une molécule gonadotrope exogène, entraîne chez celui-ci la formation d'anticorps spécifiques dirigés contre cette molécule. Cependant, les taux de liaison des anticorps plasmatiques aux gonadotrophines injectées ne suffisent pas à expliquer l'intégralité d'une modification des performances de reproduction. La littérature portant sur les programmes d'immunisation contre les stéroïdes ou l'inhibine -utilisés pour améliorer les performances de reproduction- constitue une bonne illustration du contrôle multifactoriel de telles régulations et de la difficulté à obtenir les effets souhaités. [less ▲]

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See detailEndogenous erythropoietin in the anemia of chronic disorders
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Weiss, W.; Gordeuk, V. R.; Hershko, C. (Eds.) Anemia of chronic disease (2005)

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See detailErythropoietic agents and iron
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Aapro, M.; Bokemeyer, C.; Ludwig, H. (Eds.) ESO Scientific Updates, Vol. 6 (2nd ed). Anaemia in cancer (2005)

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