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See detailFormula-based estimates of the GFR: equations variable and uncertain.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cohen, Eric P.

in Nephron. Clinical Practice (2008), 110(1), 48-5354

Regarding the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the population, estimation of glomerular filtration rate is of importance. Creatinine-based formulas are thus useful as the first step of a prevention ... [more ▼]

Regarding the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the population, estimation of glomerular filtration rate is of importance. Creatinine-based formulas are thus useful as the first step of a prevention strategy. Several creatinine-based formulas have been published. Among these, the Cockcroft-Gault formula and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation are the most used by physicians. The latter may be automatically reported by laboratories and has thus great success. However, these formulas have limitations. First, the MDRD formulas are not applicable to all populations, notably the healthy one and the patients with abnormal weight (anorectic or obese). Second, we evoke the limitations in the precision of the formulas linked to analytical aspects. Indeed, these analytical limitations remain significant even if they are improved by creatinine standardization. Lastly, we briefly mention the potential impact of these limitations on the epidemiology and the staging of chronic kidney disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEmission of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere by sediments and open waters in two Tanzanian mangrove forests
Kristensen, Erik; Flindt, Mogens R.; Ulomi, Shadrack et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2008)

Carbon gas balance was evaluated in an anthropogenically impacted (Mtoni) and a pristine (Ras Dege) mangrove forest in Tanzania. Exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured for inundated and air-exposed ... [more ▼]

Carbon gas balance was evaluated in an anthropogenically impacted (Mtoni) and a pristine (Ras Dege) mangrove forest in Tanzania. Exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured for inundated and air-exposed sediments during day and night using in situ and laboratory incubations. In situ methane (CH4) emissions were measured in the dark during air exposure only. Emission of CO2 and CH4 from open waters (e.g. creeks) was estimated from diurnal measurements of CO2, partial pressure (pCO2) and CH4 concentrations. CO2 emission from darkened sediments devoid of biogenic structures was comparable during inundation and air exposure (28 to 115 mmol m–2 d–1) with no differences between mangrove forests. Benthic primary production was low with only occasional net uptake of CO2 by the sediments. Emissions of CH4 from air-exposed sediment were generally 3 orders of magnitude lower than for CO2. Presence of pneumatophores and crab burrows increased low tide emissions several fold. Emissions from open waters were dependent on tidal level and wind speed. Lowest emission occurred during high tide (1 to 6 mmol CO2 m–2 d–1; 10 to 80 μmol CH4 m–2 d–1) and highest during low tide (30 to 80 mmol CO2 m–2 d–1; 100 to 350 μmol CH4 m–2 d–1) when supersaturated runoff from the forest floor and porewater seepage reached the creek water. Based on global average primary production and measured gas emissions, the carbon gas balance of the 2 mangrove forests was estimated. The densely vegetated Ras Dege forest appears to be an efficient sink of greenhouse carbon gases, while extensive clear-cutting at the Mtoni forest apparently has reduced its capacity to absorb CO2, although it is seemingly still a net sink for atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon biogeochemistry of the Betsiboka Estuary (north-western Madagascar)
Ralison, Olivier Harifidy; Borges, Alberto ULg; Dehairs, Frank et al

in Organic Geochemistry (2008), 39

Madagascar’s largest estuary (Betsiboka) was sampled along the salinity gradient during the dry season to document the distribution and sources of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC, DOC) as ... [more ▼]

Madagascar’s largest estuary (Betsiboka) was sampled along the salinity gradient during the dry season to document the distribution and sources of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC, DOC) as well as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The Betsiboka was characterized by a relatively high suspended matter load, and in line with this, low DOC/POC ratios ( 0.4–2.5). The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was generally above atmospheric equilibrium (270–1530 ppm), but relatively low in comparison to other tropical and subtropical estuaries, resulting in low average CO2 emission to the atmosphere (9.1 ± 14.2 mmol m 2 d 1). Despite the fact that C4 vegetation is reported to cover >80% of the catchment area, stable isotope data on DOC and POC suggest that C4 derived material comprises only 30% of both pools in the freshwater zone, increasing to 60–70% and 50–60%, respectively, in the oligohaline zone due to additional lateral inputs. Sediments from intertidal mangroves in the estuary showed low organic carbon concentrations (<1%) and d13C values (average 19.8‰) consistent with important inputs of riverine imported C4 material. This contribution was reflected in d13C signatures of bacterial phospholipid derived fatty acids (i + a15:0), suggesting the potential importance of terrestrial organic matter sources for mineralization and secondary production in coastal ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailL'agonie du taratata auprès du clinicien.
Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

Le clinicien est à la croisée des chemins entre la rigueur scientifique et le taratata d’une certaine communication bien moins sérieuse. Dans ce contexte, la recherche de l’objectivité est primordiale ... [more ▼]

Le clinicien est à la croisée des chemins entre la rigueur scientifique et le taratata d’une certaine communication bien moins sérieuse. Dans ce contexte, la recherche de l’objectivité est primordiale dans les études cliniques. Nous résumons les aspects principaux des méthodes de dénombrement, de classement, de mesures paramétriques et d’évaluations sur échelles structurée ou non structurée. [less ▲]

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See detailNew therapeutic approaches in type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2008), 63

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive chronic disease resulting from a dynamic interaction between defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. New molecules have recently been launched and many others are ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive chronic disease resulting from a dynamic interaction between defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. New molecules have recently been launched and many others are under clinical investigation. Besides classical sulfonylureas and glinides, new insulin secretagogues are now available, which target the incretin gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Indeed, oral incretin enhancers acting as antagonists of the enzyme DPP-4 (dipeptidylpeptidase-4), - 2 - which inactivates natural GLP-1, and injectable incretin mimetics (exenatide) or analogues (liraglutide), which reproduce the actions of GLP-1 while resisting to DPP-4, represent new opportunities to stimulate insulin secretion, without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Among insulin sensitizers, metformin remains unequivocally the first drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, whereas promising drugs as thiazolidinediones (glitazones) were recently challenged because of various safety issues. When insulin is required, insulin analogues, both short-acting and basal ones, may offer some advantages regarding better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia, reduced risk of hypoglycaemia and/or lower weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes. Emphasis should be put on early detection and intensive management of type 2 diabetes, individualized glucose lowering treatments and goals, stepwise pharmacological strategy avoiding therapeutic inertia, and multiple cardiovascular risk-targeted approach. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite... certaines pathologies cutanées par le biais de l'immunité innée.
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

L’immunité innée repose sur une organisation biologique complexe qui a des implications certaines dans diverses pathologies, en particulier au niveau de la peau. Son fonctionnement dépend de deux piliers ... [more ▼]

L’immunité innée repose sur une organisation biologique complexe qui a des implications certaines dans diverses pathologies, en particulier au niveau de la peau. Son fonctionnement dépend de deux piliers principaux qui sont les récepteurs PRR (protein recognition receptor) et des peptides antimicrobiens. Chez l’homme, les principaux PRRs sont les Toll-like récepteurs (TLRs) et les peptides antimicrobiens majeurs comprennant les α- et β-défensines, et la cathélicidines. L’expression de ces composants de l’immunité innée est modulée par certains médicaments, ce qui représente un mode d’action qui était resté ignoré par le passé. [less ▲]

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See detailBlépharochalasis d'installation rapide.
El Fekih, N.; Kharfi, Monia; Fazaa, B. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

Le blépharochalasis est une affection rare caractérisée par des poussées oedémateuses des paupières aboutissant à une altération de leur structure fine et principalement à un relâchement cutané. Il est le ... [more ▼]

Le blépharochalasis est une affection rare caractérisée par des poussées oedémateuses des paupières aboutissant à une altération de leur structure fine et principalement à un relâchement cutané. Il est le plus souvent bilatéral et atteint préférentiellement les paupières supérieures. Nous rapportons l’observation d’une jeune fille de 11 ans, qui présente un blépharochalasis qui s’est installé 3 mois après des épisodes successifs pratiquement subintrants d’œdème palpébral. Le diagnostic a été étoffé par un examen histologique qui a montré une absence quasi totale de fibre élastique. Le blépharochalasis survient habituellement chez le sujet jeune. Deux formes cliniques sont classiquement décrites : la forme hypertrophique et la forme atrophique, observée chez notre patiente. L’atrophie des paupières s’installe progressivement sur plusieurs années suite à des poussées œdèmateuses qui durent quelques jours et qui surviennent 3 à 4 fois par an. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacological prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in The Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus (2008)

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See detailImpact thérapeutique du dépistage de l’ischémie myocardique silencieuse chez le sujet diabétique de type 2
Wallemacq, Caroline ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2008), 168(4), 1800-1804

Coronary artery disease is the major cause of mortality of type 2 diabetic subjects. Its early diagnosis to prevent progression and clinical events has intuitive appeal. Somehow, rationale for screening ... [more ▼]

Coronary artery disease is the major cause of mortality of type 2 diabetic subjects. Its early diagnosis to prevent progression and clinical events has intuitive appeal. Somehow, rationale for screening has not been clearly established. Screening should not modify the medical therapy because diabetic subjects have to be treated in a secondary prevention strategy. We have no data from randomized trials concerning a better outcome after revascularization in this specific population. The question how to select the high risk population to be screened has no response by now. SPECT and stress echocardiography seem valuable for screening but not for risk stratification. A large randomized clinical trial is required to confirm the cost-utility ratio of such a screening. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic and photometric variability of the O9.5Vp star HD93521
Rauw, Grégor ULg; De Becker, Michaël ULg; van Winckel, Hans et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 487(2), 659-670

Aims. The line profile variability and photometric variability of the O9.5Vp star HD93521 are examined in order to establish the properties of the non-radial pulsations in this star. Methods. Fourier ... [more ▼]

Aims. The line profile variability and photometric variability of the O9.5Vp star HD93521 are examined in order to establish the properties of the non-radial pulsations in this star. Methods. Fourier techniques are used to characterize the modulations of the He I lambda lambda 5876, 6678 and H alpha lines in several spectroscopic time series and to search for variations in a photometric time series. Results. Our spectroscopic data confirm the existence of two periods of 1.75 and 2.89 h. The line profiles, especially those affected by emission wings, exhibit also modulations on longer time scales, but these are epoch-dependent and change from line to line. Unlike previous claims, we find no unambiguous signature of the rotational period in our data, nor of a third pulsation period (corresponding to a frequency of 2.66 d(-1)). Conclusions. HD93521 very likely exhibits non-radial pulsations with periods of 1.75 and 2.89 h with l similar or equal to 8 +/- 1 and l similar or equal to 4 +/- 1 respectively. No significant signal is found in the first harmonics of these two periods. The 2.89 h mode is seen at all epochs and in all lines investigated, while the visibility of the 1.75 h mode is clearly epoch-dependent. Whilst light variations are detected, their connection to these periodicities is not straightforward. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-resolution optical spectroscopy of Plaskett's star
Linder, Natacha ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Martins, Fabrice et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 489(2), 713-723

Context. Plaskett's star (HD 47 129) is a very massive O + O binary that belongs to the Mon OB2 association. Previous work suggests that this system displays the Struve-Sahade effect although the ... [more ▼]

Context. Plaskett's star (HD 47 129) is a very massive O + O binary that belongs to the Mon OB2 association. Previous work suggests that this system displays the Struve-Sahade effect although the measurements of the secondary radial velocities are very difficult and give controversial results. Both components have powerful stellar winds that collide and produce a strong X-ray emission. Aims. Our aim is to study the physical parameters of this system in detail and to investigate the relation between its spectral properties and its evolutionary status. Methods. We present here analysis of an extensive set of high-resolution optical spectra of HD 47 129. We used a disentangling method to separate the individual spectra of each star. We derived a new orbital solution and discuss the spectral classification of both components. A Doppler tomography technique applied to the emission lines H alpha and He II gamma 4686 yields a Doppler map that illustrates the wind interactions in the system. Finally, an atmosphere code is used to determine the different chemical abundances of the system components and the wind parameters. Results. HD 47 129 appears to be an O8 III/I + O7.5 III binary system in a post RLOF evolutionary stage, where matter has been transferred from the primary to the secondary star. The He overabundance of the secondary supports this scenario. In addition, the N overabundance and C underabundance of the primary component confirm previous results based on X-ray spectroscopy and indicate that the primary is an evolved massive star. We also determined a new orbital solution, with M-P sin(3) i = 45.4 +/- 2.4 M-circle dot and M-S sin(3) i = 47.3 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot. Furthermore, the secondary star has a high rotational velocity (nu sin i similar to 300 km s(-1)) that deforms its surface, leading to a non-uniform distribution in effective temperature. This could explain the variations in the equivalent widths of the secondary lines with phase. We suggest that the wind of the secondary star is confined near the equatorial plane because of its high rotational velocity, affecting the ram pressure equilibrium in the wind interaction zone. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of theta Carinae
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 490(2), 801-806

Context. The peculiar hot star. Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary with a short period (2.2d). Aims. Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X ... [more ▼]

Context. The peculiar hot star. Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary with a short period (2.2d). Aims. Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods. We present the analysis of a 50 ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results. Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1-6 MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the 'canonical' value (log [L-X(0.1-10.)/L-BOL]similar to -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance, which may be solar-like. While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected in the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to < 5 R-circle dot, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mysterious Of?p class and the magnetic O-star theta(1) Ori C: Confronting observations
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Walborn, Nolan R.; Martins, Fabrice

in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (2008), 44(2), 331-340

In recent years, the stars of the Of?p category have revealed a wealth of peculiar phenomena: varying line profiles, photometric changes, and X-ray over-luminosity are only a few of their characteristics ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the stars of the Of?p category have revealed a wealth of peculiar phenomena: varying line profiles, photometric changes, and X-ray over-luminosity are only a few of their characteristics. Here we review their physical properties to facilitate comparisons among the Galactic members of this class. As one of them his been proposed to resemble the magnetic oblique rotator theta(1) Ori C, though with a longer period, this latter object is also included in our study to illuminate its similarities and differences with the Of?p category. [less ▲]

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See detailChandra monitoring of the very massive binary WR20a and the young massive cluster Westerlund 2
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 483(1), 171-182

Context. Westerlund 2 is a young and massive, obscured stellar cluster of our Galaxy. It harbors the most massive star with well-determined parameters, WR20a (82 + 83 M-circle dot), a dozen very early O ... [more ▼]

Context. Westerlund 2 is a young and massive, obscured stellar cluster of our Galaxy. It harbors the most massive star with well-determined parameters, WR20a (82 + 83 M-circle dot), a dozen very early O-type stars (O3-7), and a wealth of PMS stars. Although of clear significance, this star cluster has not been well-studied. Aims. The high-energy properties of this cluster, especially those of its early-type stars are examined in detail. The variability of the X-ray sources is investigated. Methods. A monitoring of the field was performed using three Chandra observations. This dataset probes daily as well as monthly to yearly timescales and provides the deepest X-ray view of the cluster to date. Results. The two Wolf-Rayet stars WR20a (WN6ha+WN6ha) and WR20b (WN6ha) were analyzed in detail. They are both luminous and display hard spectra, but WR20b does not appear to vary. In contrast, WR20a, a known eclipsing, colliding-wind binary, brightens in the X-ray domain during eclipses, i.e. when the collision is seen face-on. This can be explained by the properties of the wind-wind collision zone, whose high density leads to a large absorbing column (2 x 10(24) cm(-2)). All twelve O-type stars previously classified spectroscopically, two eclipsing binaries previously identified and nine newly-identified, O-type star candidates are detected in the high-energy domain; ten of those could be analyzed spectroscopically. Four are overluminous, but the others have typical LX/LBOL ratios, suggesting that several O-type objects are actually binaries. Variability at the similar to 2 sigma level is detected for a majority of the sources, of unknown origin for single objects. Faint, soft, diffuse emission pervades the entire field-of-view but no clear structure can be identified, even at the position of a blister proposed to correspond to the TeV source HESS J1023-575. The X-ray properties of PMS objects, in particular the brightest flaring ones, are also investigated. They provided an additional argument in favor of a large distance (similar to 8 kpc) for the cluster. [less ▲]

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See detailHD 148937: A multiwavelength study of the third galactic member of the Of?p class
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Walborn, Nolan R.; Rauw, Grégor ULg et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2008), 135(5), 1946-1957

Three Galactic O-type stars belong to the rare class of Of? p objects: HD 108, HD 191612, and HD 148937. The first two stars show a wealth of phenomena, including strong X-ray emission, light variability ... [more ▼]

Three Galactic O-type stars belong to the rare class of Of? p objects: HD 108, HD 191612, and HD 148937. The first two stars show a wealth of phenomena, including strong X-ray emission, light variability, and dramatic periodic spectral variability. We present here the first detailed optical and X-ray study of the third Galactic Of? p star, HD 148937. Spectroscopic monitoring has revealed low-level variability in the Balmer and He II lambda 4686 lines, but constancy at He I and C III lambda 4650. The H alpha line exhibits profile variations at a possible periodicity of similar to 7 days. Model atmosphere fits yield T-eff = 41000 +/- 2000 K, log(g) = 4.0 +/- 0.1, M-sph less than or similar to 10(-7) M-circle dot yr(-1), and an overabundance of nitrogen by a factor of 4. At X-ray wavelengths, HD 148937 resembles HD 108 and HD 191612 in having a thermal spectrum dominated by a relatively cool component (kT = 0.2 keV), broad lines (>= 1700 km s(-1)), and an order-of-magnitude overluminosity compared to normal O stars (log[L-X(unabs) / L-BOL]similar to -6). [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la fonction renale: une actualisation.
Froissart, Marc; Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Seronie-Vivien, Sophie et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2008), 66(3), 269-75

During the last years, GFR estimation has received substantial attention with a focus on comparing results of new formulas with GFR measurements, and standardization of creatinine assays. Calibration of ... [more ▼]

During the last years, GFR estimation has received substantial attention with a focus on comparing results of new formulas with GFR measurements, and standardization of creatinine assays. Calibration of creatinine should improve performances. However, frequently used equations have lower precision in high GFR populations. This is the reason why a continuous effort in improving predicting equations is still needed. The use of calibrated creatinine, the onset of new GFR markers such as cystatin C, and pooling data across many study populations are underway to develop better prediction. [less ▲]

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See detailReproducibility of GFR measured by chromium-51-EDTA and iohexol.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Froissart, Marc et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2008), 23(12), 4077-84078

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See detailCalcium chez les patients hemodialyses : calcemie totale ou calcium ionise ? Le laboratoire doit-il systematiquement fournir au clinicien une valeur de calcemie totale corrigee obtenue par calcul ?
Monfort, Mélanie ULg; Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2008), 66(5), 573-6

Ionized calcium is the only physiologically active form of calcium. Because of the variation of albumin, pH and haemoconcentration observed during haemodialysis session in patients with chronic renal ... [more ▼]

Ionized calcium is the only physiologically active form of calcium. Because of the variation of albumin, pH and haemoconcentration observed during haemodialysis session in patients with chronic renal failure, measure of total calcium does not reflect the real variation of ionized calcium. However, many formulae to correct total calcium by albumin have been proposed but none of them has been validated in dialysis patients. At present time, computing progress permit laboratory to systematically provide a value of corrected total calcium on protocols but is it really indicated? Our results showed that any of those formulae allows obtaining a value of total calcium that possesses a significant critical difference in relation to total calcium. Thus, correction formulae must be abandoned in aid of ionized calcium in haemodialysis patients. [less ▲]

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See detailActualite sur les effets de la vitamine D et l'evaluation du statut vitaminique D.
Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Prié, Dominique; Courbebaisse, Marie et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2008), 69(6), 501-10

Knowledge about vitamin D has greatly improved during the last few years. Vitamin D cannot any more be considered as exclusively necessary to prevent ricket/osteomalacia. Its role in the prevention of ... [more ▼]

Knowledge about vitamin D has greatly improved during the last few years. Vitamin D cannot any more be considered as exclusively necessary to prevent ricket/osteomalacia. Its role in the prevention of some osteoporotic fractures in the elderly (in association with calcium nutrition) is now well demonstrated and many epidemiologic and laboratory data argue for a role in the prevention of several diseases or anomalies (cancer, auto-immune diseases, cardiovascular events, sarcopenia...). A few intervention studies confirming some of these effects also exist. Vitamin D status can easily be assessed by measuring serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) level. However, many experts have claimed that the population-based reference values for 25OHD are too low and that the cut-off value below which vitamin D insufficiency can be present is somewhere between 20 and 40ng/mL with a clear tendency to target values above 30ng/mL (75nmol/L). The main consequences are that vitamin D insufficiency is highly frequent whereas the currently recommended supplementation doses are not sufficient. [less ▲]

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