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See detailPROGNOSTIC VALUE OF AMPS METHOD IN ALS PATIENTS
WANG, François-Charles ULg; GERARD, Pascale ULg; BOUQUIAUX, Olivier ULg et al

in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & Other Motor Neuron Disorders (2005)

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See detailMétamorphoses du flux : fleuve et logos héraclitéens chez Platon
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Revue de Philosophie Ancienne (2005), (1), 55-76

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See detailRationalising Lysozyme Amyloidosis: Insights from the Structure and Solution Dynamics of T70N Lysozyme
Johnson, Russell J.K.; Christodoulou, John; Dumoulin, Mireille ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2005), 352

T70N human lysozyme is the only known naturally occurring destabilised lysozyme variant that has not been detected in amyloid deposits in human patients. Its study and a comparison of its properties with ... [more ▼]

T70N human lysozyme is the only known naturally occurring destabilised lysozyme variant that has not been detected in amyloid deposits in human patients. Its study and a comparison of its properties with those of the amyloidogenic variants of lysozyme is therefore important for understanding the determinants of amyloid disease. We report here the X-ray crystal structure and the solution dynamics of T70N lysozyme, as monitored by hydrogen/deuterium exchange and NMR relaxation experiments. The X-ray crystal structure shows that a substantial structural rearrangement results from the amino acid substitution, involving residues 45–51 and 68–75 in particular, and gives rise to a concomitant separation of these two loops of up to 6.5 Å. A marked decrease in the magnitudes of the generalised order parameter (S2) values of the amide nitrogen atom, for residues 70–74, shows that the T70N substitution increases the flexibility of the peptide backbone around the site of mutation. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange protection factors measured by NMR spectroscopy were calculated for the T70N variant and the wild-type protein. The protection factors for many of backbone amide groups in the β-domain of the T70N variant are decreased relative to those in the wild-type protein, whereas those in the α-domain display wild-type-like values. In pulse-labelled hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments monitored by mass spectrometry, transient but locally cooperative unfolding of the β-domain of the T70N variant and the wild-type protein was observed, but at higher temperatures than for the amyloidogenic variants I56T and D67H. These findings reveal that such partial unfolding is an intrinsic property of the human lysozyme structure, and suggest that the readiness with which it occurs is a critical feature determining whether or not amyloid deposition occurs in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailMOTOR UNIT INVOLVEMENT IN PLS, ALS AND KENNEDY’S DISEASE
WANG, François-Charles ULg; Le Forestier, Nadine; GERARD, Pascale ULg et al

in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & Other Motor Neuron Disorders (2005)

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See detailDesign of statistical measures for the assessment of image segmentation schemes
Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg; Barnich, Olivier ULg

in International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP 2005) (2005)

Image segmentation is discussed for years in numerous papers, but assessing its quality is mainly dealt with in recent works. Quality assessment is a primary concern for anyone working towards better ... [more ▼]

Image segmentation is discussed for years in numerous papers, but assessing its quality is mainly dealt with in recent works. Quality assessment is a primary concern for anyone working towards better segmentation tools. It both helps to objectively improve segmentation techniques and to compare performances with respect to other similar algorithms. In this paper we use a statistical framework to propose statistical measures capable to describe the performances of a segmentation scheme. All the measures rely on a ground-truth segmentation map that is supposed to be known and that serves as a reference when qualifying the results of any segmentation tool. We derive the analytical expression of several transition probabilities and show how to calculate them. An important conclusion from our study, often overlooked, is that performances can be content dependent, which means that one should adapt a measure to the content of an image. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Plantage, Leeuwarden: Look and feel
Attia, Shady ULg; Huffschmid, Daniel

in Dam, van,, F.; Noorman (Eds.) Grounds for Change:Bridging energy Planning and spatial design strategies (2005)

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See detailEvaluation des puissances spécifiques de rivières de moyenne et de haute Belgique
Petit, François ULg; Hallot, Eric ULg; Mols, J. et al

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2005)

Specific stream powers were calculated at more than 70 discharge stations along rivers with catchments between 10 and 2500 km². In order to calculate the stream power, bankfull discharge, average slope ... [more ▼]

Specific stream powers were calculated at more than 70 discharge stations along rivers with catchments between 10 and 2500 km². In order to calculate the stream power, bankfull discharge, average slope and width were calculated at each station. The relationship between, on one hand, the size of the catchments and the bankfull discharge and, on the other, the size of the catchments and the width of the channels were highlighted. These allow several regional differentiations to be highlighted. With regard to the specific stream power, there is a clear contrast between the rivers from the South and the North Ardenn which show an East-West gradient of decreasing stream power. Rivers from Condroz and Entre-Vesdre-et-Meuse have intermediary values. Rivers from Hesbaye have very low stream powers. Stream power values partly account for the evolution of the river bed dynamics : in Hesbaye, where the rivers have low stream power (less than 15 W/m²), the river’s course is rather stable for a few centuries. In the South Ardenn (stream power lower than 30 W/m²), meanders are quite active and the meandering cycle is longer than a century. In the Entre-Verdre-et-Meuse (stream power between 30 and 40 W/m²), meanders are active and the river is able to readjust following anthropogenic constructions (deflectors). However, our observations deviate from threshold values proposed in the literature. Thus, the Geer (Hesbaye) is able to readjust and to create a secondary meandering following log-jams edifications, despite a stream power lower than 15 W/m². In the rivers such as the Ourthe in Famenne, despite rather high stream power values (higher than 50 to 70 W/m²), the meandering cycle is longer than a century. But, still in Famenne, braided channels are observed whereas the stream powers are clearly lower than the threshold proposed in the literature (stream power higher then 100 W/m²). Finally, in Ardenn, when we reach a threshold of 100 W/m², rivers develop an active low sinuosity system in place of an active free meander system. This active low sinuosity system is comparable to a step-pool system. [less ▲]

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See detailModulatory function of the H3 histaminergic receptor system in addiction: an example with cocaine and ethanol
Brabant, Christian ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg et al

Poster (2005)

The histaminergic neurotransmission is involved in many biological functions, including the modulation of arousal, fluid balance, food intake, reinforcement and learning. Recently, the results of several ... [more ▼]

The histaminergic neurotransmission is involved in many biological functions, including the modulation of arousal, fluid balance, food intake, reinforcement and learning. Recently, the results of several studies have also suggested that the central histaminergic system, and particularly the H3 receptors, plays a role in drug addiction. For example, in animal experiments, the administration of H3 agonists and antagonists modulate the self-administration of various drugs including cocaine, amphetamine and alcohol. In the present studies, we used the locomotor stimulant effects of drugs as an index of their abuse potential (most of addictive drugs stimulate locomotor activity, at least at some doses, and this effect is often considered as an intrinsic feature of drug addiction). In two independent experiments, we tested the effects of thioperamide, a histamine H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, on the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine and ethanol. Our results show that thioperamide modulates the locomotor stimulant effects of both cocaine and ethanol. However, this modulatory effect was surprisingly opposite in direction depending upon the tested drug. Whereas thioperamide potentiated the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine, it prevented the hyperactivity induced by 2 g/kg ethanol in mice. In the brain, H3 receptors is both a histamine autoreceptor modulating the synaptic release of histamine and a heteroreceptor that modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine and GABA. It is therefore likely that the modulatory action of thioperamide on cocaine and ethanol stimulant effects involves different neurotransmitter system. This conclusion is supported by our preliminary results on knock-out mice genetically devoid of histamine. In such knock-out mice, ethanol retains its stimulant properties, suggesting that histamine release is not involved in this effect. In contrast, these knock-out mice showed a reduced cocaine-induced hyperactivity, indicating that histamine release play a significant role in the stimulant effect of cocaine. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of centrally versus peripherally administered ethanol in C57BL/6J and CD1 mice
Tambour, Sophie ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Behavioural Pharmacology (2005), 16

Locomotor activation is often reported to occur after a systemic administration of low doses of ethanol in most mouse strains, as for example outbred CD1 mice. However, in some strains of mice, such as ... [more ▼]

Locomotor activation is often reported to occur after a systemic administration of low doses of ethanol in most mouse strains, as for example outbred CD1 mice. However, in some strains of mice, such as the inbred C57BL/6J mice, and in rats, systemic injections of ethanol typically induce only a depression of the locomotor activity. Recently, Correa et al. (2003) showed that direct infusions of ethanol in the brain ventricles of rats induced locomotor stimulant effects. These authors suggested that some undefined peripheral effects of ethanol may mask its central stimulant effects when ethanol is administered intraperitoneally. The aim of the present study was to investigate the locomotor effects of either intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular ethanol administrations in two strains of mice, outbred CD1 and inbred C57BL/6J, that are respectively characterized by the presence and absence of a locomotor stimulant response to ethanol. The results showed that ethanol at moderate and high doses induced locomotor depressant effects in C57BL/6J mice whatever the route of ethanol administration. In contrast, ethanol induced a biphasic effect on locomotor activity in CD1 mice with a stimulant response at low doses followed by a significant sedation. Such a response to ethanol was observed after both peripheral and central administrations of ethanol. The results of the present study demonstrate that the locomotor effects of ethanol in mice are not affected by the route of administration, i.e. peripheral or central. In these rodents, there is no evidence that unidentified peripheral effects of ethanol mask the stimulant ethanol effects. [less ▲]

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See detailAcetaldehyde and the central effects of alcohol: Beyond the discrepancies between animal and human studies
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2005), 40(Suppl.1), 23

Whereas human studies keep reporting evidence that acetaldehyde accumulation prevents alcohol drinking and alcoholism, animal studies support a rewarding rather than aversive role for acetaldehyde. In ... [more ▼]

Whereas human studies keep reporting evidence that acetaldehyde accumulation prevents alcohol drinking and alcoholism, animal studies support a rewarding rather than aversive role for acetaldehyde. In recent years, the reinforcing properties of acetaldehyde were demonstrated in various rodent strains and using different experimental methods. These results led to the hypothesis that acetaldehyde might be involved in the addictive properties of alcohol. The most recent experimental studies suggest that the apparent discrepancies between animal and human studies might be due to the localization of acetaldehyde accumulation. Whereas peripheral acetaldehyde accumulation leads to adverse reactions and prevents alcohol drinking, brain acetaldehyde is believed to be primarily reinforcing in both rodents and humans. In addition to its possible role in the reinforcing properties of alcohol, there is also evidence that acetaldehyde is involved in many other behavioral effects of ethanol. This presentation reviews the latest results about the behavioral properties of acetaldehyde. In both CD1 and C57BL/6J mice, acetaldehyde induces locomotor depressant, sedative and amnesic effects. These effects are observed when acetaldehyde is administered either in the periphery or directly into the brain. In contrast to previous studies in rats, we found no evidence of the stimulant effects of acetaldehyde over a wide range of doses, whether injected in the periphery or administered intracerebroventricularly. Additional studies with cyanamide, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor leading to peripheral and central acetaldehyde accumulations after ethanol administration, also confirm the role of acetaldehyde in the locomotor depressant, sedative and amnesic effects of ethanol. However, a key issue remains to be addressed in order to demonstrate the role of acetaldehyde in alcohol abuse. To date, it remains uncertain whether pharmacologically relevant acetaldehyde concentrations are formed in the brain after alcohol consumption in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of Disease - Bacterial Toxins and their Interaction with Host Cells
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 15-23

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See detailGenetics and Regulation of Bacterial Virulence - Towards the Molecular Version of Koch’s Postulates
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 24-32

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See detailColonisation of the Mucosae - Adherence Factors and their Interaction with Host Cells
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 5-14

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See detailMaladies infectieuses et micro-organismes : de la préhistoire aux postulats de Koch - grande et petite histoire
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 3-4

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See detailRegulation of Virulence Gene Expression by “Quorum-sensing” - Science or Science-fiction ?
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149C(Special issue), 33-40

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See detailQuelques réflexions sur la compétence internationale du juge de paix en matière familiale
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2005)

In Belgian family law practice, spouses may seize the justice of peace of disputes which require immediate attention. The justice of peace has special jurisdiction to issue urgent and preliminary relief ... [more ▼]

In Belgian family law practice, spouses may seize the justice of peace of disputes which require immediate attention. The justice of peace has special jurisdiction to issue urgent and preliminary relief in marital disputes. In this paper, I examine how this special jurisdiction is affected by the Brussels IIbis Regulation (Regulation 2201/2003) of the EU. In particular the question arises whether the justice of peace may simply refer to Article 20 of this Regulation in order to justify the exercise of jurisdiction, or whether the justice of peace should examine each head of relief sought by the plaintiff, with a view to determine whether the relief sought indeed falls within the ambit of the Regulation. I also examine how the requirements of territoriality, as construed by the Court of Justice, may be interpreted in the context of marital disputes. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluations génétiques laitières: changement de base
Félix, Alain; Vanderick, Sylvie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Article for general public (2005)

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See detailLes abris artificiels: un outil pour les inventaires herpétologiques et le suivi des populations de reptiles
Graitson, Eric ULg; Naulleau, Guy

in Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France (2005), 115

We present a bibliographic review on the use of artificial shelters to obtain herpetological species check-lists in Western Europe. The methodologies in the different studies are compared. Three different ... [more ▼]

We present a bibliographic review on the use of artificial shelters to obtain herpetological species check-lists in Western Europe. The methodologies in the different studies are compared. Three different kinds of listing are distinguished: qualitative, semi-qualitative, and quantitative. Comparisons across studies show that the use of shelter-plates highly favours the detection of at least five species (Anguis fragilis, Coluber viridiflavus, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe longissima, and Natrix natrix). Plates also allow the detection of juvenile individuals more reliably than the visual searching method. Shelter use increases with time. More variation was found in the detection of Viperids, Lacertids and some amphibians. For these species, artificial shelter use is useful for qualitative listings but the procedure should be improved for quantitative listings. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception of aphid infested tomato plant volatiles by the predator Episyrphus balteatus
Verheggen, François ULg; Arnaud, Ludovic; Capella, Quentin et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2005)

In a tritrophic interaction including tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller), the herbivore Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the predator Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer), the perception of the tomato ... [more ▼]

In a tritrophic interaction including tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller), the herbivore Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the predator Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer), the perception of the tomato plants produced volatile organic compounds (VOC) by Episyrphus balteatus is investigated. In a first step, an odour sampling device has been set up aiming the headspace collection of the tomato plant VOC and their adsorption on Tenax adsorbent cartridges (Supelco®). Following desorption is held using a thermodesorption injector (Gerstel®) coupled with GC-MS. Intact and aphid infested plants are studied for their VOC emissions, as well as the comparison of the VOC emission of different tomato cultivars. These VOC consist mainly in mono- and sesquiterpenes (such as - and -pinene ; -humulene ; …) as well as in C6-volatiles like hexenal in case of infestation by herbivores Once the tomato plants VOC identified and quantified, they are tested for their perception by Episyrphus balteatus using electroantennography (EAG). Accordingly, an EAG device has been installed and configured for the study of VOC using Diptera antennas. The monoterpenes limonene and linalool showed high EAG activity whereas other terpenes like cymene seem to be inactive. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimations of the Influence of the Non-Linearity of the Aerodynamic Coefficients on the Skewness of the Loading
Denoël, Vincent ULg; Degée, Hervé ULg

in Proceedings of the 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Wind Engineering (2005)

This paper is devoted to the non linear quasi-steady aerodynamic loading. A linear approximation is often used to compute the response of structures to buffeting forces. Some researchers have however ... [more ▼]

This paper is devoted to the non linear quasi-steady aerodynamic loading. A linear approximation is often used to compute the response of structures to buffeting forces. Some researchers have however shown that it is possible to account for the non linearity of this loading. This non linearity can come (i) from the squared velocity or (ii) from the shape of the aerodynamic coefficients (as functions of the wind angle of attack). In this paper, we show that this second origin can have significant implications on the design of the structure, particularly when the non linearity of the aerodynamic coefficient is important (obvious, isn’t it?) or when the transverse turbulence is important. This paper is devoted to the non linear quasi-steady aerodynamic loading. A linear approximation is often used to compute the response of structures to buffeting forces. Some researchers have however shown that it is possible to account for the non linearity of this loading. This non linearity can come (i) from the squared velocity or (ii) from the shape of the aerodynamic coefficients (as functions of the wind angle of attack). In this paper, we show that this second origin can have significant implications on the design of the structure, particularly when the non linearity of the aerodynamic coefficient is important (obvious, isn’t it?) or when the transverse turbulence is important. [less ▲]

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