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See detailEmbodiment effects in memory for facial identity and facial expression
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Lepper, Miriam; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Cognition & Emotion (2008), 22

Research suggests that states of the body, such as postures, facial expressions, and arm movements, play central roles in social information processing. This study investigated the effects of approach ... [more ▼]

Research suggests that states of the body, such as postures, facial expressions, and arm movements, play central roles in social information processing. This study investigated the effects of approach/avoidance movements on memory for facial information. Faces displaying a happy or a sad expression were presented and participants were induced to perform either an approach (arm flexion) or an avoidance (arm extension) movement. States of awareness associated with memory for facial identity and memory for facial expression were then assessed with the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. The results showed that performing avoidance movements increased Know responses for the identity, and Know/Guess responses for the expression, of valence-compatible stimuli (i.e., sad faces as compared to happy faces), whereas this was not the case for approach movements. Based on these findings, it is suggested that approach/avoidance motor actions influence memory encoding by increasing the ease of processing for valence-compatible information. [less ▲]

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See detailEndoprotheses coronaires pharmaco-actives chez les patients diabetiques.
Nyssen, Astrid; Legrand, Victor ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2008), 4(168), 1806-10

In diabetic patients, the use of drug-eluting stents (paclitaxel-PES or sirolimus-SES) reduces the risk of restenosis as compared to bare-metal stents. However, the risk of (very) late thrombosis is ... [more ▼]

In diabetic patients, the use of drug-eluting stents (paclitaxel-PES or sirolimus-SES) reduces the risk of restenosis as compared to bare-metal stents. However, the risk of (very) late thrombosis is higher with drug-eluting stents than with bare-metal stents. All together, the incidence of major cardiovascular events is reduced with drug-eluting stents, mainly resulting from a diminution of revascularisation procedures rather than from a reduction in myocardial infarcts or cardiovascular deaths. Attempts to compare SES and PES gave discordant results in both randomised trials and registries. Efficacious antiplatelet therapy in the long run is mandatory in all diabetic patients treated with drug-eluting stents. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle place pour une double ou triple inhibition du systeme renine-angiotensine-aldosterone ?
Legrand, Delphine ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2008), 4(168), 1792-7

The blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is helpful in the management of arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction and diabetic nephropathy. Such ... [more ▼]

The blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is helpful in the management of arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction and diabetic nephropathy. Such blockade can be obtained with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, a specific antagonist of angiotensin II AT1 receptors, an aldosterone receptor antagonist and/or a direct inhibitor of renin such as aliskiren. Various studies have demonstrated that a dual or even triple RAAS inhibition may offer a better cardiorenal protection, in refractory congestive heart failure and in nephropathy with proteinuria. However, in the ONTARGET study, the dual inhibition with ramipril plus telmisartan did not provide any additional benefit compared to ramipril alone in high-risk cardiovascular patients, but showed a worse tolerance profile. [less ▲]

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See detailRisque anesthesique lie a une neuropathie autonome cardiaque chez le patient diabetique.
Van Cauwenberge, Isabelle ULg; Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(7-8), 488-93

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated complication among diabetic patients. It affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and is often associated with other, autonomic or not ... [more ▼]

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated complication among diabetic patients. It affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and is often associated with other, autonomic or not, complications, which make the patient even more frail. Some autonomic clinical manifestations have a direct impact on perioperative morbidity and mortality. The most important ones consist in haemodynamic instability, rhythmic disorders, mainly related to increased QT interval, and finally a higher risk of cardiorespiratory arrest. Recommendations are proposed before, during and after surgery to reduce the incidence of these complications in high risk patients. A screening for autonomic neuropathy may be helpful to improve the management of patients with diabetes who undergo surgery requiring general anaesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailTransmission of lymphoma via organ transplantation
Detry, Olivier ULg

in American Journal of Transplantation (2008), 8

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See detailEffect of rimonabant on blood pressure in overweight/obese patients with/without co-morbidities: analysis of pooled RIO study results.
Ruilope, Luis M; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Journal of Hypertension (2008), 26(2), 357-67

OBJECTIVE: Rimonabant, the first selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blocker, has been shown to improve multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese patients. This analysis assessed ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Rimonabant, the first selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blocker, has been shown to improve multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese patients. This analysis assessed the impact of rimonabant on blood pressure in the pooled population from four large trials with similar design - the Rimonabant-In-Obesity (RIO) programme. METHODS: RIO-Europe (n = 1507) and RIO-North America (n = 3040) recruited overweight/obese patients, and RIO-Lipids (n = 1033) and RIO-Diabetes (n = 1045) recruited overweight/obese patients with untreated dyslipidaemia or type 2 diabetes, respectively. At study entry (screening), 37.2% (n = 2463) of patients had hypertension, 71.4% (n = 1757) of whom were taking an antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: After 1 year of treatment, mean change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline was -0.8 mmHg for rimonabant 20 mg versus +0.3 mmHg for placebo (P = 0.007); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased by -0.8 versus -0.3 mmHg (P = 0.029) respectively. In the subgroup of patients with high blood pressure at baseline, SBP change was -7.5 mmHg for rimonabant 20 mg versus -4.7 mmHg for placebo (P = 0.005); DBP change was -5.2 versus -3.0 mmHg (P < 0.001). Reductions were more pronounced in patients with dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. There was no effect of rimonabant 20 mg on blood pressure beyond that expected from weight loss alone. Overall, there was a similar incidence of adverse events (AEs) at 1 year in the placebo (81.8%) and rimonabant 20 mg (86.0%). The most common AEs occurring with rimonabant were nausea, dizziness, arthralgia and diarrhoea. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the rimonabant 20 mg group discontinued as a result of AEs (13.8%) versus placebo (7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Rimonabant 20 mg led to modest, but significant SBP and DBP reductions in overweight/obese patients. The effect of rimonabant on blood pressure appears to be mediated by weight loss. [less ▲]

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See detailStem cell factor and mesenchymal and neural stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Huntington's disease.
Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Blum, David; Cuvelier, Laetitia et al

in Molecular & Cellular Neuroscience [=MCN] (2008), 37(3), 454-70

Neural and mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed as alternative sources of cells for transplantation into the brain in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the endogenous factors controlling their ... [more ▼]

Neural and mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed as alternative sources of cells for transplantation into the brain in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the endogenous factors controlling their engraftment within the injured parenchyma remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate significant engraftment of undifferentiated exogenous mesenchymal or neural stem cells throughout the lesioned area in a rat model for Huntington's disease, as late as 8 weeks post-transplantation. We show that stem cell factor (SCF), strongly up-regulated within host cells in the damaged striatum, is able to activate the SCF receptor c-kit and its signaling pathway and to promote the migration and proliferation of mesenchymal and neural stem cells in vitro. Furthermore, c-kit receptor blockade alters neural stem cell distribution within the lesioned striatum. Host SCF expression is observed in atypical cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein and doublecortin in the lesioned striatum and in migrating doublecortin-positive progenitors. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SCF produced in situ in the lesioned striatum is an important factor in promoting the engraftment of stem cells within the lesioned brain. [less ▲]

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See detailPractical methods for measuring and managing operational risk in the financial sector: A clinical study
Chapelle, Ariane; Crama, Yves ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Banking and Finance (2008), 32

This paper analyzes the implications of the Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) for the assessment of operational risk. Through a clinical case study on a matrix of two selected business lines and two ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes the implications of the Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) for the assessment of operational risk. Through a clinical case study on a matrix of two selected business lines and two event types of a large financial institution, we develop a procedure that addresses the major issues faced by banks in the implementation of the AMA. For each cell, we calibrate two truncated distributions functions, one for “normal” losses and the other for the “extreme” losses. In addition, we propose a method to include external data in the framework. We then estimate the impact of operational risk management on bank profitability, through an adapted measure of RAROC. The results suggest that substantial savings can be achieved through active management techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailGeršgorin variations III: On a theme of Brualdi and Varga
Boros, Endre; Brualdi, Richard; Crama, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Linear Algebra and its Applications (2008), 428

Brualdi brought to Geršgorin Theory the concept that the digraph G(A) of a matrix A is important in studying whether A is singular. He proved, for example, that if, for every directed cycle of G(A), the ... [more ▼]

Brualdi brought to Geršgorin Theory the concept that the digraph G(A) of a matrix A is important in studying whether A is singular. He proved, for example, that if, for every directed cycle of G(A), the product of the diagonal entries exceeds the product of the row sums of the moduli of the off-diagonal entries, then the matrix is nonsingular. We will show how, in polynomial time, that condition can be tested and (if satisfied) produce a diagonal matrix D, with positive diagonal entries, such that AD (where A is any nonnnegative matrix satisfying the conditions) is strictly diagonally dominant (and so, A is nonsingular). The same D works for all matrices satisfying the conditions. Varga raised the question of whether Brualdi’s conditions are sharp. Improving Varga’s results, we show, if G is scwaltcy (strongly connected with at least two cycles), and if the Brualdi conditions do not hold, how to construct (again in polynomial time) a complex matrix whose moduli satisfy the given specifications, but is singular. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of numerical explicit schemes for impact problems
Nsiampa, Nestor; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in International Journal of Impact Engineering (2008), 35(12), 1688-1694

Explicit numerical schemes are used to integrate in time finite element discretization methods. Unfortunately, these numerical approaches can induce high-frequency numerical oscillations into the solution ... [more ▼]

Explicit numerical schemes are used to integrate in time finite element discretization methods. Unfortunately, these numerical approaches can induce high-frequency numerical oscillations into the solution. To eliminate or to reduce these oscillations, numerical dissipation can be introduced. The paper deals with the comparison of three different explicit schemes: the central difference scheme which is a nondissipative method, the Hulbert Chung dissipative explicit scheme and the Tchamwa-Wielgosz dissipative scheme. Particular attention is paid to the study of these algorithms’ behavior in problems involving high-velocity impacts like Taylor anvil impact and bullet-target interactions. It has been shown that Tchamwa-Wielgosz scheme is efficient in filtering the high-frequency oscillations and is more dissipative than Hulbert Chung explicit scheme. Although its convergence rate is only first order, the loss of accuracy remains limited to acceptable values. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of CO2 on particle size distribution and phytoplankton abundance during a mesocosm bloom experiment (PeECE II)
Engel, Anja; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U. et al

in Biogeosciences (2008), 5(2), 509-521

The influence of seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the size distribution of suspended particles (2-60 mu m) and on phytoplankton abundance was investigated during a mesocosm experiment at the ... [more ▼]

The influence of seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the size distribution of suspended particles (2-60 mu m) and on phytoplankton abundance was investigated during a mesocosm experiment at the large scale facility (LFS) in Bergen, Norway, in the frame of the Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment study (PeECE II). In nine outdoor enclosures the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater was modified by an aeration system to simulate past (similar to 190 mu atm CO2), present (similar to 370 mu atm CO2) and future (similar to 700 mu atm CO2) CO2 conditions in triplicates. Due to the initial addition of inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton blooms developed in all mesocosms and were monitored over a period of 19 days. Seawater samples were collected daily for analysing the abundance of suspended particles and phytoplankton with the Coulter Counter and with Flow Cytometry, respectively. During the bloom period, the abundance of small particles (< 4 mu m) significantly increased at past, and decreased at future CO2 levels. At that time, a direct relationship between the total-surface-to-total-volume ratio of suspended particles and DIC concentration was determined for all mesocosms. Significant changes with respect to the CO2 treatment were also observed in the phytoplankton community structure. While some populations such as diatoms seemed to be insensitive to the CO2 treatment, others like Micromonas spp. increased with CO2, or showed maximum abundance at present day CO2 (i.e. Emiliania huxleyi). The strongest response to CO2 was observed in the abundance of small autotrophic nano-plankton that strongly increased during the bloom in the past CO2 mesocosms. Together, changes in particle size distribution and phytoplankton community indicate a complex interplay between the ability of the cells to physiologically respond to changes in CO2 and size selection. Size of cells is of general importance for a variety of processes in marine systems such as diffusion-limited uptake of substrates, resource allocation, predator-prey interaction, and gravitational settling. The observed changes in particle size distribution are therefore discussed with respect to biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-annual variability of the carbon dioxide oceanic sink south of Tasmania
Borges, Alberto ULg; Tilbrook, B.; Metzl, N. et al

in Biogeosciences (2008), 5(1), 141-155

We compiled a large data-set from 22 cruises spanning from 1991 to 2003, of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) in surface waters over the continental shelf (CS) and adjacent open ocean (43 degrees to 46 ... [more ▼]

We compiled a large data-set from 22 cruises spanning from 1991 to 2003, of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) in surface waters over the continental shelf (CS) and adjacent open ocean (43 degrees to 46 degrees S; 145 degrees to 150 degrees E), south of Tasmania. Climatological seasonal cycles of pCO(2) in the CS, the subtropical zone (STZ) and the subAntarctic zone (SAZ) are described and used to determine monthly pCO(2) anomalies. These are used in combination with monthly anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) to investigate inter-annual variations of SST and pCO(2). Monthly anomalies of SST (as intense as 2 degrees C) are apparent in the CS, STZ and SAZ, and are indicative of strong inter-annual variability that seems to be related to large-scale coupled atmosphere-ocean oscillations. Anomalies of pCO(2) normalized to a constant temperature are negatively related to SST anomalies. A reduced winter-time vertical input of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) during phases of positive SST anomalies, related to a poleward shift of westerly winds, and a concomitant local decrease in wind stress is the likely cause of the negative relationship between pCO(2) and SST anomalies. The observed pattern is an increase of the sink for atmospheric CO2 associated with positive SST anomalies, although strongly modulated by inter-annual variability of wind speed. Assuming that phases of positive SST anomalies are indicative of the future evolution of regional ocean biogeochemistry under global warming, we show using a purely observational based approach that some provinces of the Southern Ocean could provide a potential negative feedback on increasing atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional evaluation of adiponectin plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
Hanssens, Linda; van Winkel, Ruud; Wampers, Martien et al

in Schizophrenia Research (2008), 106(2-3), 308-14

BACKGROUND: In recent years, several studies showed increased rates of hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome as well as cardiovascular disease in schizophrenic patients. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In recent years, several studies showed increased rates of hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome as well as cardiovascular disease in schizophrenic patients. The underlying mechanism, however, is poorly understood. Adiponectin is a recently identified adipocyte-derived protein, with low adiponectin levels being associated with metabolic abnormalities such as obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Fasting adiponectin levels were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 386 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. All patients were on monotherapy of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) and underwent an extensive metabolic screening including an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Adiponectin plasma levels were inversely correlated with BMI, and differed significantly between patients with normal weight, overweight or obesity (p<0.05). Patients who met criteria for the metabolic syndrome, according to adapted National Cholesterol Educational Program - Adult Treatment Panel criteria (NCEP-ATP III) (29.3%), had significantly lower adiponectin levels than patients not meeting metabolic syndrome criteria (p<0.0001). Patients without glucose abnormalities (78%) had significantly higher adiponectin levels than patients with diabetes (5.7%) (p<0.05). After controlling for components of metabolic syndrome and sex, antipsychotic medication independently influenced adiponectin levels (p<0.0001), with the lowest mean levels in patients on clozapine and olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Adiponectin levels in schizophrenic patients mirror what is observed in the general population, with the lowest levels in the most metabolically comprised subjects. However, antipsychotic medication may also influence adiponectin regulation independently, a finding that should be confirmed in longitudinal studies. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore...Un patient avec un erytheme palmaire.
Vandenbossche, Géraldine ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(2), 101-4

Palmar erythema occurs in a series of physiological and pathological conditions. The first group encompasses hereditary and idiopathic conditions, as well as the time of pregnancy and ageing. The ... [more ▼]

Palmar erythema occurs in a series of physiological and pathological conditions. The first group encompasses hereditary and idiopathic conditions, as well as the time of pregnancy and ageing. The pathological states include some dermatoses as well as hepatic, autoimmune, infectious and paraneoplastic conditions. Medications may also be responsible for palmar erythema, in particular some chemotherapy agents. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Tinea incognito.
Vandenbossche, Géraldine ULg; Legrain, A.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(7-8), 463-4

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See detailComment j'explore... la rupture prematuree des membranes foetales par l'examen ultrastructural de la peau.
Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(7-8), 508-10

The etiology of recurrent preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM) is varied. Skin biopsies were performed in women who presented recurrent PPROM of unknown origin, searching for a possible ... [more ▼]

The etiology of recurrent preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM) is varied. Skin biopsies were performed in women who presented recurrent PPROM of unknown origin, searching for a possible general expression of a connective tissue disorder. In the majority of cases, ultrastructural abnormalities were found in collagen bundles and fibrils, as well as in elastic fibres. In conclusion, some types of recurrent PPROM are probably the expression of a generalized connective tissue disorder. The genetic alteration remains to be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailLa peau et ses principales neurocristopathies.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Vandenbossche, Géraldine ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 354-8

The neurocristopathies encompass genetic disorders targeting some structures originating from the neural crest development. Hence, skin is affected by some clinical manifestations of these disorders. This ... [more ▼]

The neurocristopathies encompass genetic disorders targeting some structures originating from the neural crest development. Hence, skin is affected by some clinical manifestations of these disorders. This review covers the main aspects found in neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, incontinentia pigmenti, neurocutaneous melanoblastosis, basal cell naevomatosis and the epidermal naevus syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore... une metastase cutanee. Qui es-tu, d'ou viens-tu?
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Rorive, Andrée ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(9), 559-63

Cutaneous metastases may accompany up to 3 to 10% of all malignancies. They are usually identified after diagnosing the primary neoplasm. However, their disclosure can be synchronous, or the metastasis ... [more ▼]

Cutaneous metastases may accompany up to 3 to 10% of all malignancies. They are usually identified after diagnosing the primary neoplasm. However, their disclosure can be synchronous, or the metastasis may be the initial finding qualified as "precocious". The identification of the primary neoplasm sometimes proves to be difficult. Gender of the patient, the aspect and distribution of the metastases, as well as the histological and immunohistological examinations help establishing the diagnosis. The prognosis of the metastatic disease is often poor. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. L'aliskiren (Rasilez), inhibiteur direct de la renine.
Scheen, André ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(9), 564-9

Aliskiren (Rasilez) is the first oral renin inhibitor. Its present indication is essential hypertension, as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (diuretic, calcium antagonist ... [more ▼]

Aliskiren (Rasilez) is the first oral renin inhibitor. Its present indication is essential hypertension, as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (diuretic, calcium antagonist, ...). It may also be associated with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (or an AT1 angiotensin receptor antagonist) in order to benefit of a dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The usual daily dose is 150 mg, to be increased up to 300 mg if necessary. New clinical trials are ongoing to validate this novel therapeutic approach in other indications such as congestive heart failure and diabetic nephropathy. [less ▲]

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