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See detailHot and cold contrasts in high resolution Tc-99m planar scintigraphy: a survey of fifty-two camera heads using the PICKER thyroid phantom
Seret, Alain ULg

in Physica Medica : An International Journal Devoted to the Applications of Physics to Medicine and Biology : Official Journal of the Italian Association of Biomedical Physics (AIFB) [=PM] (2010), 26(3), 166-172

This study aimed at comparing the sensitivity and hot and cold contrasts obtained when imaging the Picker thyroid phantom using gamma cameras fitted with either their ultra-high or high-resolution low ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at comparing the sensitivity and hot and cold contrasts obtained when imaging the Picker thyroid phantom using gamma cameras fitted with either their ultra-high or high-resolution low energy parallel hole collimator. Seventeen camera models from Elscint, General Electric, Siemens and Sopha Medical Vision were involved in the study for a total of 30 cameras and 52 camera heads. A single operator conducted the study in order to minimize the impact of human factors. The phantom contained about 74 MBq 99mTc and was imaged at 10-cm from the collimator face with the energy window recommended by the camera manufacturer. A total of 1 million counts were accumulated. Hot and cold contrasts were in mean about 0.05 higher when using an ultra-high-resolution than when using a high-resolution low energy collimator. This higher contrast was obtained at the expense of a mean reduction in sensitivity of 30%. In particular, Elscint cameras demonstrated a 30% lower sensitivity whatever the collimator type. The Sopha Medical Vision DST and DSX cameras and the General Electric Magicam camera offered the lowest contrasts among the cameras with a high-resolution collimator. Although this was accompanied by a higher than the mean sensitivity for the DST and DSX, the Magicam demonstrated sensitivity roughly identical to the mean of all the cameras with a high-resolution collimator. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse bibliographique : l’écologie chimique des coccinelles
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Vandereycken, Axel ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(2), 351-367

This paper reviews the chemical ecology of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to present the role of semiochemicals involved in plant-ladybird, prey-ladybird and predator-ladybird interactions ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the chemical ecology of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to present the role of semiochemicals involved in plant-ladybird, prey-ladybird and predator-ladybird interactions. Ladybird beetles use these compounds to locate their prey, mate, protect themselves from predation or cannibalism, find a shelter to overwinter or ensure a better survival for their offspring. Thorough studies on ladybird behaviours towards these compounds could lead to their practical implementation in integrated strategies using ladybirds to control pests, like aphids or mealybugs. [less ▲]

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See detailChilling of carcasses from double muscled cattle: time-temperature evolution and predictive modelling of growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens
Delhalle, Laurent ULg; Collignon, Bertrand; Dehard, Sandrine ULg et al

Poster (2010)

The time/temperature combination during carcass chilling is of concern in order to avoid bacterial growth. The chilling speed is lower in carcasses with high muscular development such as large cattle from ... [more ▼]

The time/temperature combination during carcass chilling is of concern in order to avoid bacterial growth. The chilling speed is lower in carcasses with high muscular development such as large cattle from the Belgian Blue breed. Three slaughterhouses were selected for temperature and pH measurements during the chilling process at 6 different days on 4 half carcasses in order to obtain representative data from heavy carcasses with high muscular development. Predictive microbiology was used to evaluate the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens on the surface and in the depth of the carcasses. The gamma concept was chosen as secondary model taking into account the effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the selected bacteria during the chilling process. The predicted growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes is influenced by the different environmental conditions of the selected slaughterhouses and could reach 1.4 log CFU/cm² after the chilling process. The potential growth of Clostridium perfringens is limited due to unfavourable conditions during the first hours and to low temperature later. It can be concluded that when the initial level of contaminating bacteria is not excessive the speed at which the carcass is currently chilled is sufficient to limit the growth of these two pathogens and to ensure the product quality. [less ▲]

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See detailApports et potentialités de l’utilisation de la carte mentale en science politique
Breux, Sandra; Reuchamps, Min ULg; Loiseau, Hugo

in Transeo Review (2010), (2-3),

L’objectif de notre propos est de mettre en évidence les potentiels de l’utilisation de la carte mentale en science politique. Souvent utilisée en psychologie et en géographie, les politologues ont ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de notre propos est de mettre en évidence les potentiels de l’utilisation de la carte mentale en science politique. Souvent utilisée en psychologie et en géographie, les politologues ont toutefois rarement recours à cet outil de collecte de l’information dans leurs recherches. En revenant sur les avantages et les limites de l’usage de cet outil en sciences sociales, et en nous basant sur deux études originales, nous montrerons dans quelle mesure la carte mentale peut permettre d’aborder des questions propres à la science politique sous un angle nouveau. [less ▲]

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See detailLe ratage sans gloire. A propos des Martyrs ridicules de Léon Cladel
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Glinoer, Anthony; Brissette, Pascal (Eds.) Bohème sans frontière (2010)

Extrait de l'introduction au volume collectif Bohème sans frontière (P. Brissette et A. Glinoer) : « Les Martyrs ridicules qu'étudie ici Pascal Durand vise l'ensemble des clichés et stéréotypes du mythe ... [more ▼]

Extrait de l'introduction au volume collectif Bohème sans frontière (P. Brissette et A. Glinoer) : « Les Martyrs ridicules qu'étudie ici Pascal Durand vise l'ensemble des clichés et stéréotypes du mythe [de la bohème] à travers l'histoire d'un provincial monté à Paris, histoire des déboires et de la perte des illusions littéraires non compensées, chez le protagoniste, par les succès momentané dont jouit un Lucien de Rubempré au milieu d'Illusions perdues. Durand interroge les motivations qui ont pu conduire le jeune Cladel à entrer en littérature par cette œuvre anti-bohème, et son préfacier, Baudelaire, à coopter son cadet et son geste irrévérencieux l'année où il entre lui-même, avec quelle ironie, dans la lice académique et brigue le siège de Lacordaire » (p. 14-15). [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment and detection of pain in noncommunicative severely brain-injured patients.
Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Chatelle, Camille ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics (2010), 10(11), 1725-31

Detecting pain in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma represents a real challenge. Patients with disorders of consciousness are unable to consistently or reliably communicate their ... [more ▼]

Detecting pain in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma represents a real challenge. Patients with disorders of consciousness are unable to consistently or reliably communicate their feelings and potential perception of pain. However, recent studies suggest that patients in a minimally conscious state can experience pain to some extent. Pain monitoring in these patients is hence of medical and ethical importance. In this article, we will focus on the possible use of behavioral scales for the assessment and detection of pain in noncommunicative patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART) : une echelle comportementale d'evaluation et de revalidation pour des etats alteres de conscience.
Chatelle, Camille ULg; Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Revue Neurologique (2010), 166(8-9), 675-82

INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in detecting bedside signs of consciousness in non-communicative patients still lead to a high rate of misdiagnosis illustrating the need to employ standardized behavioral ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in detecting bedside signs of consciousness in non-communicative patients still lead to a high rate of misdiagnosis illustrating the need to employ standardized behavioral assessment scales. STATE OF ART: The Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART) is a behavioral assessment scale of consciousness that assesses responses to multimodal sensory stimulation in disorders of consciousness. These stimulations can also be considered to have therapeutic value. PERSPECTIVES: We here review the different components and use of the SMART assessment and discuss its validity, reliability, and robustness in clinical practice. The scale has a high intra- and inter-observer reliability thanks to a detailed procedure description. However, in the absence of objective gold standards in the assessment of consciousness, it is currently difficult to make strong claims about its validity. A comparison between SMART and other standardized and validated coma-scales is proposed. CONCLUSION: In our view, SMART is an interesting tool for monitoring patients with altered states of consciousness subsequent to coma. Currently, we await studies on its concurrent validity as compared to other validated behavioral assessment scales and on the effect of SMART stimulations on patient outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailASCID : le noyau centrral de douze facteurs expliquant la conduite en éducation thérapeutique du patient
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg

in Education Thérapeutique du Patient [=ETP] = Therapeutic Patient Education [=TPE] (2010), 2(2), 213-221

Abstract – ASCID: the core of 12 factors that explain behavior in patient education. Introduction: Professionals involved in Patient Education need to have a good understanding of the (numerous) factors ... [more ▼]

Abstract – ASCID: the core of 12 factors that explain behavior in patient education. Introduction: Professionals involved in Patient Education need to have a good understanding of the (numerous) factors that affect, in a person, her becoming aware, then her decision, then her putting it into practice in a lasting and efficient way. For this purpose, we propose a model we have developed during several years in CERES (University of Liège) as well as in DPSS (University of Paris 13), named “Factors of production and perseveration in actions”. If these factors are designated by the first letters of their names, at the heard of the model stands the acronym ASCID (Attitudes, Skills, Cognition, Identity, Decision). Objectives: This model, conceived for health and environment education is not limited to therapeutic patient education, but it fits it very well. The interest and the fecundity of this model have been put to test during more than 25 years with cohorts of students and professionals involved in TPE to analyze situations, cases, and to conceive relevant course of action for the educator and the patient. Description: Methods of diagnostic and of action in TPE superimposed themselves to the model of patient functioning. To help readers assimilate this complex model, we start with a familiar case (AIDS) and we will use frequently cases to illustrate theoretical concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Enterprise in Europe: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Third Sector
Defourny, Jacques ULg; Nyssens, Marthe

in Policy and Society (2010), 29(3), 231-232

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Ulipristal acetate: une contraception d'urgence etendue a 5 jours par progesterone receptor modulator (Ellaone).
Gaspard, Ulysse ULg; Kridelka, Frédéric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(12), 700-5

Emergency contraception is a second chance for prevention of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Hormonal emergency contraception with levonorgestrel 1.5 mg, only provides an effective contraception ... [more ▼]

Emergency contraception is a second chance for prevention of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Hormonal emergency contraception with levonorgestrel 1.5 mg, only provides an effective contraception from 0 to 72 hours after intercourse with decreasing effectiveness as time elapses. It was accordingly mandatory to develop an alternative approach with a stable contraceptive efficacy and good tolerance for 5 days, knowing additionally that the estimated lifespan of sperm in the female genital tract is about 5 days. In comparative studies bearing on more than 3000 young women, the progesterone receptor modulator (PRM) ulipristal acetate, a progesterone antagonist (taken in a single dose of 30 mg), or levonorgestrel (1.5 mg) were administered. Results indicated that the PRM was as effective as levonorgestrel, or even more, kept a stable efficacy for 120 hours after an unprotected intercourse, and was well tolerated. This establishes ulipristal acetate as the new standard for hormonal emergency contraception. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. Nouvelle contraception orale combinée au valerate d'estradiol et au dienogest (Qlaira).
Gaspard, Ulysse ULg; PINTIAUX, Axelle ULg; Kridelka, Frédéric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(12), 706-13

In combined oral contraception (OC), a drastic reduction of both ethinylestradiol and androgenic progestins mostly derived from 19 NOR testosterone, allowed to moderately reduce the adverse impact of ... [more ▼]

In combined oral contraception (OC), a drastic reduction of both ethinylestradiol and androgenic progestins mostly derived from 19 NOR testosterone, allowed to moderately reduce the adverse impact of classical combined pills on metabolism and circulation (both arterial and venous). However, the marked hepatic action of ethinylestradiol, even in small dosages, lessens the expected risk reduction. For the first time, an OC has been developed, which contains estradiol valerate (with reduced hepatic action because of lack of a 17alpha ethinyl group) with dienogest, a 19 NOR testosterone-derived nonandrogenic progestin, which powerfully inhibits endometrial proliferation. Thanks to a dynamic modulation of estrogen and progestin doses (26 active days + 2 placebo days), an adequate contraceptive effectiveness, a good cycle control and drug tolerance are achieved, similar to those obtained with a classical low-dose OC. Recent data indicate that this new combination reduces the usually observed metabolic impact. An adequate cycle control (with 20% amenorrhea) is achieved for the first time with estradiol valerate + progestin,, in opposition with prior catastrophic results with other formulations containing 17beta-estradiol. A second combination containing estradiol + nomegestrol acetate (monophasic, 24 active days + 4 placebo days) is under study and seems also to yield promising results. Of course, in-depth study of metabolic and vascular effects of these new combinations is mandatory - and ongoing. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sociología jurídica en Francia
García Villegas, Mauricio; Lejeune, Aude ULg

in García Villegas, Mauricio (Ed.) Sociología y crítica del derecho (2010)

Critical review of the French socio-legal studies

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See detailDiagenèse osseuse et genèse de nodules phosphatés, associés aux sédiments fluvio-lacustres de sites à hominidés miocène (Kenya)
DERICQUEBOURG, P.; PERSON, A.; SEGALEN, L. et al

Poster (2010)

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See detailNeuregulin-1 modulates the differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro trough an interaction with the Swi/Snf complex.
Pirotte, Dorothée ULg; Wislet, Sabine ULg; cloes, J. M. et al

in Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (2010)

The neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) gene is translated into several protein isoforms, which are either secreted or membrane-anchored. In vitro, neural stem cells (NSC) express mainly the cystein-rich-domain NRG (CRD ... [more ▼]

The neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) gene is translated into several protein isoforms, which are either secreted or membrane-anchored. In vitro, neural stem cells (NSC) express mainly the cystein-rich-domain NRG (CRD-NRG) isoform, a membrane-anchored type III form. This isoform exhibits a cystein-rich-domain, which constitutes a second transmembrane domain and can be cleaved to release both a signaling EGF-containing domain (ECD) at the cell surface and an intracellular domain (ICD). The main goal of this paper was to determine the exact role of ECD and ICD in NSC survival and differentiation. Using an siRNA approach, we demonstrated that CRD-NRG inhibition was followed by a decrease in NSC proliferation and of neuronal or oligodendroglial differentiation. Overexpression of ICD but not ECD was followed by a decrease in NSC proliferation and an increase in neuronal and oligodendroglial differentiation. Moreover, we showed that ICD physically interacted in cultured NSC with BRM and BAF57, two members of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, and that ICD stimulation of neuronal cell differentiation is dependent on the presence of BAF57. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4R{alpha}-responsive smooth muscle cells increase intestinal hypercontractility and contribute to resistance during acute Schistosomiasis.
Marillier, Reece G; Brombacher, Tiroyaone M; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg et al

in American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (2010), 298(6), 943-51

Interleukin-(IL)-4 and IL-13 signal through heterodimeric receptors containing a common IL-4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Ralpha) subunit, which is important for protection against helminth infections, including ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-(IL)-4 and IL-13 signal through heterodimeric receptors containing a common IL-4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Ralpha) subunit, which is important for protection against helminth infections, including schistosomiasis. Previous studies demonstrated important roles for IL-4Ralpha-responsive hematopoietic cells, including T cells and macrophages in schistosomiasis. In this study, we examined the role of IL-4Ralpha responsiveness by nonhematopoietic smooth muscle cells during experimental acute murine schistosomiasis. Comparative Schistosoma mansoni infection studies with smooth muscle cell-specific IL-4Ralpha-deficient (SM-MHC(cre)IL-4Ralpha(-/flox)) mice, heterozygous control (IL-4Ralpha(-/flox)) mice, and global IL-4Ralpha-deficient (IL-4Ralpha(-/-)) mice were conducted. S. mansoni-infected SM-MHC(cre)IL-4Ralpha(-/flox) mice showed increased weight loss and earlier mortalities compared with IL-4Ralpha(-/flox) mice, despite comparable T(H)2/type 2 immune responses. In contrast to highly susceptible IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice, increased susceptibility in SM-MHC(cre)IL-4Ralpha(-/flox) mice was not accompanied by intestinal tissue damage and subsequent sepsis. However, both susceptible mutant mouse strains failed to efficiently expel eggs, demonstrated by egg reduction in the feces compared with control mice. Reduced egg expulsion was accompanied by impaired IL-4/IL-13-mediated hypercontractile intestinal responses, which was present in the more resistant control mice. Together, we conclude that IL-4Ralpha responsiveness by smooth muscle cells and subsequent IL-4- and IL-13-mediated hypercontractility are required for host protection during acute schistosomiasis to efficiently expel S. mansoni eggs and to prevent premature mortality. [less ▲]

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See detailMathémagie et au-delà
Rigo, Michel ULg

Learning material (2010)

Nous présentons ici 5 tours de magie ne nécessitant aucune habileté particulière de la part de l'apprenti magicien : des tours de cartes, des tours de divination et le célèbre tour du ``barman aveugle ... [more ▼]

Nous présentons ici 5 tours de magie ne nécessitant aucune habileté particulière de la part de l'apprenti magicien : des tours de cartes, des tours de divination et le célèbre tour du ``barman aveugle avec des gants de boxe''. Contrairement au magicien qui ne dévoile jamais ses secrets, ici, nous expliquons que ces tours reposent sur diverses propriétés et constructions mathématiques. Ces dernières débouchent sur de véritables questions de recherche actuelle en théorie des graphes ou en combinatoire des mots et même sur de possibles applications en robotique et automatisation ! Il y en aura donc pour tous les goûts... et tous les niveaux (suivant l'auditoire, l'exposé sera adapté au niveau des élèves de la 4ième à la 6ième secondaire, voire même aux étudiants universitaires). Ce texte présente donc un matériel qui dépassera souvent (et de loin) le ``spectacle''. [less ▲]

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