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See detailThe role of scalar mesons in extended perturbation scheme for effective field theory
Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, Kirill ULg; Vereshagin, Alexander; Vereshagin, Vladimir

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2008), 1030

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See detailNew Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language
Dubois, Daniel ULg

in Dubois, Daniel (Ed.) COMPUTING ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS (2008)

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition des recepteurs CB1 et metabolisme du glucose: rimonabant dans le diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Van Gaal, Luc F

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2008), 4(168), 1812-7

Endocannabinoid system is overactivated in individuals with abdominal obesity. CBI receptors, first individualized in the brain, are also expressed in the adipocyte, the skeletal muscle, the liver, the ... [more ▼]

Endocannabinoid system is overactivated in individuals with abdominal obesity. CBI receptors, first individualized in the brain, are also expressed in the adipocyte, the skeletal muscle, the liver, the gut, and the pancreas. Their blockade improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile, thanks increased insulin sensitivity and adiponectin levels. Rimonabant, a selective antagonist of CBI receptors, improves glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes, treated with diet alone, metformin, sulfonylurea or insulin, while it also reduces body weight and other risk factors. Ongoing studies aim at further demonstrating the potential of rimonabant in the management of type 2 diabetes, in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and in the protection against cardiovascular complications in (diabetic) patients with abdominal obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailLe syndrome d'aliénation parentale: Du concept à la pathologie? Clinique et revue critique de la littérature
Malchair, Alain ULg

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2008), (N°108), 25-36

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See detailCritical issues in translational and clinical research for the study of new technologies to enhance bone repair.
Goldhahn, Jorg; Mitlak, Bruce; Aspenberg, Per et al

in Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. American Volume (2008), 90 Suppl 1

Osteoporosis increases fracture risk, especially in metaphyseal bone. Fractures seriously impair function and quality of life and incur large direct and indirect costs. Although the prevention of ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis increases fracture risk, especially in metaphyseal bone. Fractures seriously impair function and quality of life and incur large direct and indirect costs. Although the prevention of fractures is certainly the option, a fast and uneventful healing process is optimal when fractures do occur. Many new therapeutic strategies have been developed to accelerate fracture-healing or to diminish the complication rate during the course of fracture-healing. However, widely accepted guidelines are needed to demonstrate the positive or negative interactions of bioactive substances, drugs, and other agents that are being used to promote fracture-healing. For each study design, the primary study goal should be indicated. Outcome variables should include both objective and subjective parameters. The guidelines should be harmonized between European and American regulatory authorities to ensure comparability of results of studies and to foster global harmonization of regulatory requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailLe devenir d'enfants nés de parents présentant un trouble psychiatrique
Malchair, Alain ULg

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2008), (N°108/6), 22-34

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See detailA 2D finite volume multiblock flow solver applied to flood extension forecasting
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Detrembleur, Sylvain ULg et al

in García-Navarro, Pilar; Playán, Enrique (Eds.) Numerical modelling of hydrodynamics for water ressources (2008)

ABSTRACT: this paper describes a quasi-3D free surface flow solver,developed for almost ten years at the University of Liege, and its application to flood extension forecasting. Based on the classical SWE ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: this paper describes a quasi-3D free surface flow solver,developed for almost ten years at the University of Liege, and its application to flood extension forecasting. Based on the classical SWE, the finite volume numerical model deals with real topography and wetting-drying cells while exactly conserving the water volume. Multiblock options allow local refine-ment of the structured calculation grid and automatic mesh refinement enhances greatly compu-tation time. An additional depth-averaged k-ε type turbulence model increases the potentialities of the solver to represent real complex flows. Following a Regional Government decision, this solver has been officially chosen in 2003 to be used to compute inundation maps on 800 km of the main rivers of the Walloon Region in Belgium with a spatial resolution of 5 x 5 to 2 x 2 me-ters and using high resolution Digital Elevation Models. Results are presented in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailA first-order energy-dissipative momentum-conserving scheme for elasto-plasticity using the variational updates formulation
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2008), 197(6-8), 706726

In a previous paper [L. Noels, L. Stainier, J.-P. Ponthot, An energy momentum conserving algorithm using the variational formulation of visco-plastic updates, Int. J. Numer. Methods Engrg. 65 (2006) 904 ... [more ▼]

In a previous paper [L. Noels, L. Stainier, J.-P. Ponthot, An energy momentum conserving algorithm using the variational formulation of visco-plastic updates, Int. J. Numer. Methods Engrg. 65 (2006) 904-942] the authors demonstrated the efficiency of the variational formulation of elasto-plastic updates to develop energy-momentum conserving time integration algorithms. Indeed, within such a framework, the stress tensor always derives from an incremental potential, even when plastic behavior is considered. Therefore the verification of the conservation of energy in the non-linear range can easily be demonstrated: the sum of the reversible stored energy and irreversible dissipated energy exactly corresponds to the work of the external forces applied to the structure. Although this formulation was shown to be accurate and robust, the introduction of numerical dissipation for high-frequency numerical modes can be necessary to simulate complex phenomena. In this work, we propose a modification of the variational updates framework to introduce this numerical property, leading to a new energy-dissipative momentum-conserving time-integration algorithm for elasto-plasticity. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAdenylate Kinase-Independent Thiamine Triphosphate Accumulation under Severe Energy Stress in Escherichia Coli
Gigliobianco, Tiziana ULg; Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Makarchikov, Alexander F et al

in BMC Microbiology (2008), 8

BACKGROUND: Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) exists in most organisms and might play a role in cellular stress responses. In E. coli, ThTP is accumulated in response to amino acid starvation but the mechanism ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) exists in most organisms and might play a role in cellular stress responses. In E. coli, ThTP is accumulated in response to amino acid starvation but the mechanism of its synthesis is still a matter of controversy. It has been suggested that ThTP is synthesized by an ATP-dependent specific thiamine diphosphate kinase. However, it is also known that vertebrate adenylate kinase 1 catalyzes ThTP synthesis at a very low rate and it has been postulated that this enzyme is responsible for ThTP synthesis in vivo. RESULTS: Here we show that bacterial, as vertebrate adenylate kinases are able to catalyze ThTP synthesis, but at a rate more than 106-fold lower than ATP synthesis. This activity is too low to explain the high rate of ThTP accumulation observed in E. coli during amino acid starvation. Moreover, bacteria from the heat-sensitive CV2 strain accumulate high amounts of ThTP (>50% of total thiamine) at 37 degrees C despite complete inactivation of adenylate kinase and a subsequent drop in cellular ATP. CONCLUSION: These results clearly demonstrate that adenylate kinase is not responsible for ThTP synthesis in vivo. Furthermore, they show that E. coli accumulate large amounts of ThTP under severe energy stress when ATP levels are very low, an observation not in favor of an ATP-dependent mechanisms for ThTP synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDissection isolée de l'artère mésentérique supérieure : à propos d'un cas
Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Meunier, Paul ULg; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg et al

in Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angeiologie (2008), 57(4), 238-42

We report the case of a 38-year-old man admitted at the emergency department for abdominal pain of abrupt onset. Computed tomographic examination revealed a spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a 38-year-old man admitted at the emergency department for abdominal pain of abrupt onset. Computed tomographic examination revealed a spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery and an anevrysm of the coeliac artery caused by the arcuate ligament. Outcome was favorable under conservative medical treatment and a three months follow-up was uneventful. This observation offers the opportunity to present recent insights concerning this pathology. [less ▲]

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See detailProteome alteration induced by hTERT transfection of human fibroblast cells
Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg et al

in Proteome Science (2008), 6(1), 12

Background: Telomerase confers cellular immortality by elongating telomeres, thereby circumventing the Hayflick limit. Extended-life-span cells have been generated by transfection with the human ... [more ▼]

Background: Telomerase confers cellular immortality by elongating telomeres, thereby circumventing the Hayflick limit. Extended-life-span cells have been generated by transfection with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. hTERT transfected cell lines may be of outstanding interest to monitor the effect of drugs targeting the telomerase activity. The incidence of hTERT gene transfection at the proteome level is a prerequisite to that purpose. The effect of the transfection has been studied on the proteome of human fibroblast (W138). Cytosolic and nuclear fractions of W138 cells, empty vector transfected W138 (W138-HPV) and hTERT W138 cells were submitted to a 2D-DIGE (Two-Dimensional Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis) analysis. Only spots that had a similar abundance in W138 and W138-HPV, but were differentially expressed in W138 hTERT were selected for MS identification. This method directly points to the proteins linked with the hTERT expression. Number of false positive differentially expressed proteins has been excluded by using control W138-HPV cells. The proteome alteration induced by hTERT W138 transfection should be taken into account in subsequent use of the cell line for anti-telomerase drugs evaluation. Results: 2D-DIGE experiment shows that 57 spots out of 2246 are significantly differentially expressed in the cytosolic fraction due to hTERT transfection, and 38 were confidently identified. In the nuclear fraction, 44 spots out of 2172 were selected in the differential proteome analysis, and 14 were identified. The results show that, in addition to elongating telomeres, hTERT gene transfection has other physiological roles, among which an enhanced ER capacity and a potent cell protection against apoptosis. Conclusion: We show that the methodology reduces the complexity of the proteome analysis and highlights proteins implicated in other processes than telomere elongation. hTERT induced proteome changes suggest that telomerase expression enhances natural cell repair mechanisms and stress resistance probably required for long term resistance of immortalized cells. Thus, hTERT transfected cells can not be only consider as an immortal equivalent to parental cells but also as cells which are over-resistant to stresses. These findings are the prerequisite for any larger proteomics aiming to evaluate anti-telomerase drugs proteome alteration and thus therapeutics induced cell reactions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of metal hyperaccumulation required cis-regulatory changes and triplication of HMA4
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Talke, Ina N.; Haydon, Michael J. et al

in Nature (2008), 453

Little is known about the types of mutations underlying the evolution of species-specific traits. The metal hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri has the rare ability to colonize heavy-metal-polluted soils ... [more ▼]

Little is known about the types of mutations underlying the evolution of species-specific traits. The metal hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri has the rare ability to colonize heavy-metal-polluted soils, and, as an extremophile sister species of Arabidopsis thaliana, it is a powerful model for research on adaptation. A. halleri naturally accumulates and tolerates leaf concentrations as high as 2.2% zinc and 0.28% cadmium in dry biomass. On the basis of transcriptomics studies, metal hyperaccumulation in A. halleri has been associated with more than 30 candidate genes that are expressed at higher levels in A. halleri than in A. thaliana. Some of these genes have been genetically mapped to broad chromosomal segments of between 4 and 24 cM co-segregating with Zn and Cd hypertolerance. However, the in planta loss-of-function approaches required to demonstrate the contribution of a given candidate gene to metal hyperaccumulation or hypertolerance have not been pursued to date. Using RNA interference to downregulate HMA4 (HEAVY METAL ATPASE 4) expression, we show here that Zn hyperaccumulation and full hypertolerance to Cd and Zn in A. halleri depend on the metal pump HMA4. Contrary to a postulated global trans regulatory factor governing high expression of numerous metal hyperaccumulation genes, we demonstrate that enhanced expression of HMA4 in A. halleri is attributable to a combination of modified cis-regulatory sequences and copy number expansion, in comparison to A. thaliana. Transfer of an A. halleri HMA4 gene to A. thaliana recapitulates Zn partitioning into xylem vessels and the constitutive transcriptional upregulation of Zn deficiency response genes characteristic of Zn hyperaccumulators. Our results demonstrate the importance of cis-regulatory mutations and gene copy number expansion in the evolution of a complex naturally selected extreme trait. The elucidation of a natural strategy for metal hyperaccumulation enables the rational design of technologies for the clean-up of metal-contaminated soils and for bio-fortification. [less ▲]

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See detailA new discontinuous Galerkin method for Kirchhoff-Love shells
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Radovitzky, Raúl

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2008), 197

Discontinuous Galerkin methods (DG) have particular appeal in problems involving high-order derivatives since they provide a means of weakly enforcing the continuity of the unknown-field derivatives. This ... [more ▼]

Discontinuous Galerkin methods (DG) have particular appeal in problems involving high-order derivatives since they provide a means of weakly enforcing the continuity of the unknown-field derivatives. This paper proposes a new discontinuous Galerkin method for Kirchhoff–Love shells considering only the membrane and bending response. The proposed one-field method utilizes the weak enforcement in such a way that the displacements are the only unknowns, while the rotation continuity is weakly enforced. This work presents the formulation of the new discontinuous Galerkin method for linear elastic shells, demonstrates the consistency and stability of the proposed framework, and establishes the method’s convergence rate. After a description of the formulation implementation into a finite-element code, these properties are demonstrated on numerical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... en optimisant le blocage du système rénine-angiotensine-aldostérone
SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

The blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been shown to be useful, or even mandatory, in the management of arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, post-myocardial ... [more ▼]

The blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been shown to be useful, or even mandatory, in the management of arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction and nephropathy with albuminuria, due to diabetes or not. Such blockade can be obtained with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, a specific antagonist of angiotensin II AT1 receptors and/or recently a direct inhibitor of renin such as aliskiren. Various studies have demonstrated the advantage of optimising RAAS blockade in order to benefit of the best cardiorenal protection. The present article describes the various modalities to optimize the RAAS blockade, either by using a maximal dosage of a monotherapy, or by choosing a double inhibition of RAAS. New prospects for the RAAS blockade will be also briefly considered. [less ▲]

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See detailTechniques and applications for predictive metallurgy and ore
Lane, Geoff; Martin, Chris; Pirard, Eric ULg

in Minerals Engineering (2008), 21

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See detailHypertension artérielle et cerveau
Milicevic, Martina; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 269-279

The relationships between the brain and arterial hypertension are strong. The brain, through the hypothalamus, can quickly adapt the blood pressure level to maintain the cerebral blood flow. An acute ... [more ▼]

The relationships between the brain and arterial hypertension are strong. The brain, through the hypothalamus, can quickly adapt the blood pressure level to maintain the cerebral blood flow. An acute increase in blood pressure, if it overtakes the autoregulatory capacities, needs an urgent intervention to decrease neurological problems such as encephalopathy. In chronic situations, arterial hypertension is a frequent cause of stroke, either ischemic or hemorragic, both in patients free and those who have already suffered from brain damage. Hypertension is also an actor in the genesis of vascular, but also Alzheimer dementia. A strict control of blood pressure (but also in other atherosclerotic risk factors) into the normal range is needed to protect the brain, and this is more important than the choice of a particular class of antihypertensive agents, except the betablockers. The risk starts from the normal values of blood pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibiotiques et patient dialysé: trois cas de toxicité neurologique du céfépime
Parotte, Marie-Christine ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

The metabolism of drugs is altered in dialysed patients. We report three clinical cases of neurological toxicity from cefepime in dialysed patient. This molecule can induce in renal insufficiency patients ... [more ▼]

The metabolism of drugs is altered in dialysed patients. We report three clinical cases of neurological toxicity from cefepime in dialysed patient. This molecule can induce in renal insufficiency patients various reversible neurological manifestations like metabolic encephalopathy, myoclonies, or a state of status epilepticus tha mimics sometimes a coma in spite of adequate dosing. [less ▲]

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See detailRecognition of homopyrimidine mismatches by distance-constrained macrocyclic bisintercalators
Bahr, Matthias; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Granzhan, Anton et al

in Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (2008), 52

Binding of three macrocyclic bisintercalators to mismatch-containing duplexes was analyzed by thermal denaturation experiments, electrospray mass spectrometry studies (ESI-MS) and fluorescent intercalator ... [more ▼]

Binding of three macrocyclic bisintercalators to mismatch-containing duplexes was analyzed by thermal denaturation experiments, electrospray mass spectrometry studies (ESI-MS) and fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) titrations. The macrocyclic bisintercalators bind to duplexes containing mismatched thymine bases with high selectivity over the fully matched one and affinity in the submicromolar range (Kd). The FID results also demonstrate that the macrocyclic naphthalene derivative BisNP preferentially binds to pyrimidine-pyrimidine mismatches compared to all other possible base mismatches. This ligand also efficiently competes with a DNA enzyme (M.TaqI) for binding to a duplex with a TT-mismatch [less ▲]

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See detailQuand doit-on réséquer les métastases hépatiques d'un cancer colorectal?
Honoré, Charles ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Deroover, Arnaud ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(10), 595-599

6000 new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed each year in Belgium. 50% of these patients shall develop liver metastasis. Resection remains the only chance of long term survival and must be considered ... [more ▼]

6000 new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed each year in Belgium. 50% of these patients shall develop liver metastasis. Resection remains the only chance of long term survival and must be considered as an endpoint from the beginning of the treatment. It is the result of a multidisciplinary discussion and a global approach of the disease. It is rarely directly feasible, but there are many techniques which may make it achievable in the end. Today, resection criteria are exclusively technical and neitherbad prognosis factors, nor the presence of extra-hepatic metastases should exclude liver resection. This resecability must be assessed by a confirmed hepatobiliary surgeon and must be proposed to all patients whatever their age as long as their global status is good. [less ▲]

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