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See detailQualité et action publique
Mormont, Marc ULg

in Pyramides (2002), 5

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See detailLe contrôle de la loyauté fiscale par la Cour des comptes et la Cour d’arbitrage : mission impossible ?
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Administration Publique [=AP] : Revue du Droit Public et des Sciences Administratives (2002), 2-3-4

This article analyzes the concept of "tax loyalty" as a standard to be controlled by the Belgian constitutional Court and the Belgian Court of Audit.

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See detailLa "compensation forfaitaire" au profit de la presse écrite : le choc des interprétations
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2002)

The article analyzes a decision of the Belgian constitutional Court interpreting a mechanism of compensation, created to ensure the freedom of press: this compensation is not a tax.

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See detailFurther evidence on the relationship between dopamine and novelty seeking: a neuroendocrine study
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg et al

in Personality & Individual Differences (2002), 33(6), 967-977

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively ... [more ▼]

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic. This study investigated the relationships between these major personality dimensions and growth hormone (GH) responses to both apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests in healthy subjects. GH responses to apomorphine were significantly correlated with NS when peak relative values were considered (r=0.47, P=0.03). HA and RD did not show any relationships with the endocrine responses. In contrast, no significant relationship existed between GH responses to clonidine and any of the three temperament dimensions. These results gave another support of the hypothesized link between NS and dopaminergic central neurotransmission. In contrast, the results did not confirm the association between RD and noradrenergic central neurotransmission, probably because RD is poorly validated. This partial confirmation might suggest that the link between personality traits and neurotransmission systems is probably indirect. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d'une ligne de transport fluvial sur le Rio Napo
Marchal, Jean ULg; Ndiaye, Alassane-Ballé ULg; JAYA, Salomon

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2002), 48

Un défi principal de la région amazonnienne de l'Equateur, qui constitue aussi un objectif politique, est de s'inscrire dans la dynamique d'un développement durable lui permettant d'éléver la qualité de ... [more ▼]

Un défi principal de la région amazonnienne de l'Equateur, qui constitue aussi un objectif politique, est de s'inscrire dans la dynamique d'un développement durable lui permettant d'éléver la qualité de vie de ses habitants et d'accéder à l'éducation, à la santé, aux emplois, de développer l'écotourisme, etc., tout en préservant la qualité de l'environnement. Cependant, cette région souffre d'un manque de transport organisé qui constitue pourtant un pré-requis indispensable à un développement durable. En effet, les seules routes existantes ne couvrent qu'une infime partie du territoire et relient uniquement les grandes villes entre elles, laissant à l'écart une grande partie de la population. Mais, la richesse de l'écosystème et la nécessité de le préserver limitent les possibilités d'extension ou de construction d'axes routiers. D'autre part, des axes tout à fait navigables existent (par exemple le rio Napo) mais leur utilisation pour le transport de personnes et de marchandises n'est ni structurée ni organisée, ce qui ne permet pas d'exploiter pleinement les opportunités offertes par le transport fluvial dans une perspective de développement durable. Le projet TransAmazone, développé par le Service ANAST (Analyse des Systèmes de Transport) de l'Université de Liège en collaboration avec le CETIF (Centre d'Excellence en Transport Intermodal et Fluvial) de l'Université Centrale d'Equateur, a pour but d'étudier la faisabilité d'un transport organisé et bien structuré utilisant les voies navigables de la région du haut Napo afin de lui permettre de relever le défi de développement durable et d'amélioration de la qualité de vie de ses habitants. [less ▲]

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See detailSerotonin, personality and borderline personality disorder
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Acta Neuropsychiatrica (2002), 14(2), 66-70

Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in normal personality Many psychobiological models of personality include,some dimensions related to serotonin. For instance, the harm avoidance ... [more ▼]

Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in normal personality Many psychobiological models of personality include,some dimensions related to serotonin. For instance, the harm avoidance dimension of the blosocial model developed by Cloninger is related to serotonergic activity Higher scores on the harm avoidance dimension should theoretically reflect increased serotonergic activity However, correlation studies related serotonin activity to harm avoidance dimension have not yielded consistent findings. These controversial results are probably related to the complexity of the neurotransmitter systems, and the different assessment techniques used in these studies. Finally, recent genetic studies have examined the association between personality dimensions and serotonergic receptor polymorphisms with mixed results. Serotonin is not only related to some dimensions of normal personality Several psychopathological disorders are associated with serotonergic dysfunction. More particularly, borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be defined by many of the symptoms associated with serotonergic dysregulation, including affective lability, suicidal behaviours, impulsivity and loss of impulse control. Indeed, several reports have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake drugs in treating the depressive and impulsive symptoms of patients with BPD. Moreover, some challenge studies have reported a lower serotonergic activity in BPD. Because these challenges are not specific, we have assessed the serotonergic activity in BPD with the flesinoxan challenge. Preliminary results showed that the prolactine responses to flesinoxan were significantly lower in BPD patients compared to those observed in controls. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des potentialités du transport fluvial dans un marché multimodal et intermodal
Marchal, Jean ULg; Zhang, Zhaomin; Marchal, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Revue PIANC (2002)

L’article identifie en profondeur les facteurs déterminants, et l’ampleur de leur influence, relatifs à une utilisation plus intensive du mode de transport fluvial et au concept de développement durable ... [more ▼]

L’article identifie en profondeur les facteurs déterminants, et l’ampleur de leur influence, relatifs à une utilisation plus intensive du mode de transport fluvial et au concept de développement durable. Il est donc important de comprendre quelles sont les barrières qui empêchent le glissement de marchandises de la route vers la voie d’eau sur le réseau belge où des conditions spécifiques économiques, administratives, organisationnelles, politiques et d’infrastructure existent. Il est aussi fondamental d’être attentif aux facteurs relatifs à la capacité du mode fluvial à s’intégrer dans des chaînes de transport intermodales. L’article se subdivise en trois parties, à savoir : - possibilités de glissement de marchandises sur les corridors fluviaux belges. - obstacles au glissement. - conditions préalables au glissement; exigences nécessaires pour une pleine intégration de la navigation intérieure dans les chaînes intermodales de transport; proposition de mesures concrètes. [less ▲]

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See detailLittérature dialectale à Farciennes et Atlas linguistique de la Wallonie. De la géographie à la généricité
Droixhe, Daniel ULg; Vanwelkenhuyzen, Nadine ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (2002), 80(3), 875-904

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See detailDistribution and air-water exchange of carbon dioxide in the Scheldt plume off the Belgian coast
Borges, Alberto ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel

in Biogeochemistry (2002), 59((1-2)), 41-67

In the present paper we report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) data obtained off the Belgian coast during 24 cruises. The temporal and spatial resolution of this data set allows us to discuss ... [more ▼]

In the present paper we report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) data obtained off the Belgian coast during 24 cruises. The temporal and spatial resolution of this data set allows us to discuss satisfactorily seasonal and inter-annual variability of pCO2 in the study area. The dynamics of pCO2 are described using two approaches: fixed reference stations and area survey cruises. The air-water fluxes of CO2 in the Scheldt estuarine plume and in the outerplume region are estimated quantitatively, showing that these areas correspond respectively to a net annual source and sink of atmospheric CO2. The annually integrated air-water fluxes for the Scheldt estuarine plume range between +1.1 and +1.9 mol m−2 year−1 as a function of the formulation of the exchange coefficient of CO2. The annual net emission of CO2 from the estuarine plume to the atmosphere is estimated to be between +2.3 to +4.0 Gmol year−1 which represents 17 to 29% of the estimate reported in the literature for the Scheldt inner estuary. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects of inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Galician coast
Borges, Alberto ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel

in Journal of Marine Systems (2002), 32

In the present paper, we report data on the partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) in surface seawater off the Galician coast, obtained during four cruises carried out in summer (upwelling conditions). Over the ... [more ▼]

In the present paper, we report data on the partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) in surface seawater off the Galician coast, obtained during four cruises carried out in summer (upwelling conditions). Over the continental shelf, two processes that have opposite effects control pCO2 in surface waters: (a) the input from upwelling of deep cold water with high CO2 content that causes oversaturation of CO2 and (b) primary production that tends to decrease pCO2. In offshore waters, the distribution of pCO2 is mainly controlled by temperature change. In two distinct hydrographic coastal regions, the Rı´as Baixas area (RBA) and the Cape Finisterre area (CFA), the patterns of the distribution of pCO2 are complex but, in the Rı´as Baixas area, the averaged pCO2 values are systematically lower and temperature values higher. These differences between the two hydrographic regions are mainly related to the combination of outwelling from the Rı´as and the width of the continental shelf. In the Rı´as Baixas area, outwelling affects significantly the adjacent inner continental shelf but to a much lesser extent the outer continental shelf. In the Cape Finisterre area, the continental shelf is narrower and the ratio between the surface area of the shelf to the length of the shelf break is lower, inducing during an upwelling event, lower temperature and higher pCO2 values in surface waters than in the Rı´as Baixas area. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of surface carbon dioxide and air-sea exchange in the upwelling system off the Galician coast
Borges, Alberto ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel

in Global Biogeochemical Cycles (2002), 16

Data on the distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were obtained during six cruises off the Galician coast, a region characterized by a seasonal upwelling. The values of pCO2 over the ... [more ▼]

Data on the distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were obtained during six cruises off the Galician coast, a region characterized by a seasonal upwelling. The values of pCO2 over the continental shelf are highly variable and range between 265 and 415 matm during the upwelling season and between 315 and 345 matm during the downwelling season. Both the continental shelf and off-shelf waters behave as significant net sinks of atmospheric CO2. The computation of the air-sea fluxes of CO2 over the continental shelf yields a net influx in the range of 2.3 (±0.6) to 4.7 (±1.0) mmol C m 2 d 1 during the upwelling season and 3.5 (±0.8) to 7.0 (±1.5) mmol C m 2 d 1 on an annual basis. During the upwelling season and on an annual basis, although the observed air-sea gradients of CO2 over the continental shelf are significantly stronger than those in off-shelf waters, the computed air-sea CO2 fluxes are not significantly different because of the important incertitude introduced in the calculations by the estimated error on wind speed measurements. The presence of upwelling filaments increases the influx of atmospheric CO2 in the off-shelf waters. During summer, important short-term variations of pCO2 are observed that are related to both upwelling and temperature variations. During winter the cooling of water causes important undersaturation of CO2 related to the effect of temperature on the dissolved inorganic carbon equilibrium constants. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-adapting time integration management in crash-worthiness and sheet metal forming computations
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Vehicle Design (2002), 30(1-2), 67-114

Variable step strategies are especially well suited to deal with problems characterized by high non-linearity and contact/impact, and resolved with an implicit scheme. Both phenomena are typical of ... [more ▼]

Variable step strategies are especially well suited to deal with problems characterized by high non-linearity and contact/impact, and resolved with an implicit scheme. Both phenomena are typical of dynamic simulations of contact-impact problems, as well as sheet metal forming. Constant step size strategies do not give a satisfactory answer for this kind of problem, since it is very difficult, if not impossible, for the user to find an appropriate time step that does not lead to divergence nor generate extremely costly computations. An automatic time stepping algorithm is proposed, which takes into account the recent history of accelerations in the deformable bodies under consideration. More precisely, the adaptation algorithm is based on estimators of the integration error of the differential dynamic balance equations. This allows for adaptation of the step size to capture correctly the transient phenomena, with characteristic times which can range from relatively long (after contact, or during sheet metal forming) to very short (during contact-impact). thus ensuring precision while keeping the computation cost to a minimum. Furthermore, we will see that this strategy can be used in explicit schemes. Additionally, the proposed algorithm automatically takes decisions regarding the necessity of updating the tangent matrix or stopping the iterations, further reducing the computational costs especially, when the Augmented Lagrangian method is used. As an illustration of the capabilities of this algorithm, several numerical simulations (shock absorber devices for vehicle crash-worthiness or sheet metal forming) problems will be presented. Other simulations pertaining to the sheet metal forming for vehicle structures will also be investigated, thus demonstrating the versatility, the capabilities and the efficiency of the proposed strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de l'ouvrage de D. Giovannangeli : Le retard de la conscience
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Revue Internationale de Philosophie (2002), 219(1), 144-149

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See detailCompte rendu de V. de Coorebyter, Sartre face à la phénoménologie
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Revue Philosophique de Louvain (2002), 1-2

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See detailCompte rendu de I. Galster : La naissance du « phénomène Sartre »
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Revue Philosophique de Louvain (2002), 1-2

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See detailThree years experiment with the same tin oxide sensor arrays for the identification of malodorous sources in the environment
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2002), (84), 271-277

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either in the lab or in the field are used. The effect of the long term drift of the sensors is highlighted on the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and of discriminant function analysis (DFA). The paper examines also the applicability of some drift counteraction methods proposed in the literature. Handled with some care, a correction based on the drift direction in the principal components subspace should be applicable to the classification of real odorous sources in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic time stepping algorithms for implicit numerical simulations of non-linear dynamics
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Advances in Engineering Software (2002), 33(7-10, JUL-OCT), 589-603

When an implicit integration scheme is used, variable step strategies are especially well suited to deal with problems characterized by high non-linearities. Constant step size strategies generally lead ... [more ▼]

When an implicit integration scheme is used, variable step strategies are especially well suited to deal with problems characterized by high non-linearities. Constant step size strategies generally lead to divergence or extremely costly computations. An automatic time stepping algorithm is proposed that is based on estimators of the integration error of the differential dynamic balance equations. Additionally, the proposed algorithm automatically takes decisions regarding the necessity of updating the tangent matrix or stopping the iterations, further reducing the computational cost. As an illustration of the capabilities of this algorithm, several numerical simulations of both academic and industrial problems are presented. (C) 2002 Civil-Comp Ltd and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in motor unit numbers in patients with ALS: a longitudinal study using the adapted multiple point stimulation method.
Wang, François-Charles ULg; Bouquiaux, Olivier ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg et al

in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & Other Motor Neuron Disorders (2002), 3(1), 31-8

METHOD: The adapted multiple point stimulation (AMPS) method for calculating motor unit numbers (MUNE) was applied in 12 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) before riluzole therapy (T(0 ... [more ▼]

METHOD: The adapted multiple point stimulation (AMPS) method for calculating motor unit numbers (MUNE) was applied in 12 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) before riluzole therapy (T(0)) and again after 4, 8 and 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: Paired Student's t-test indicated a significant decrease of thenar MUNE and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) size at each 4-monthly interval, while average surface motor unit potential (SMUP) size did not change significantly over time. The rate of motor unit (MU) loss at month 4 was more than 20% in six patients (group 1) and less than 20% in six other patients (group 2). Comparison of groups 1 and 2 by Mann-Whitney U-testing indicated that percent changes in thenar MUNE and CMAP size compared to baseline were significantly different at months 4, 8 and 12, while no difference between the two groups was found for average SMUP size variations. In the group with a slow rate of MU loss, CMAP size remained stable, while in the group with a rapid rate of MU loss, there was a dramatic reduction in size of the CMAP. A positive correlation was found between percent change in thenar MUNE at T(4) and at T(12) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: AMPS is a useful technique to document MUNE, SMUP size and CMAP size changes over time in patients with ALS. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst synthesis of a '1,2-diquinone-calix[4]arene'. Interaction of its reduced form with Ag+
Vataj, Rame; Ridaoui, Hassan; Louati, Alain et al

in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (2002), 519(1-2), 123129

Electrochemical oxidation of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)-27,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (3), a calixarene with two phosphoryl units appended on proximal positions ... [more ▼]

Electrochemical oxidation of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)-27,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (3), a calixarene with two phosphoryl units appended on proximal positions, affords the corresponding '1,2-diquinonecalix[4]arene' (4). The formation of 4 results from nucleophilic attack of residual water on anodically generated diphenoxylium. cations. Preliminary voltammetric experiments in CH3CN on a platinum electrode showed that 4 is suitable for electrochemical detection of the silver metal cation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCollision-induced dissociation of 16-mer DNA duplexes with various sequences: evidence for conservation of the double helix conformation in the gas phase
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry (2002), 219(1), 151-159

The MS/MS of 11 different 16-mer non-self-complementary DNA duplexes with various sequences has been under-taken with a quadrupole-TOF hybrid instrument, The comparison of the dissociation yields for ... [more ▼]

The MS/MS of 11 different 16-mer non-self-complementary DNA duplexes with various sequences has been under-taken with a quadrupole-TOF hybrid instrument, The comparison of the dissociation yields for complexes having different amounts of GC base pairs, though complicated by side-reactions like single-strand fragmentation, confirms the effect of the number of GC base pairs. More importantly, for complexes containing the same fraction of GC and different base sequences, the fragmentation yield remarkably parallels the DeltaH(diss) in solution calculated by a nearest-neighbor model for B-DNA. In addition to specific hydrogen bonding interactions, base stacking interactions also seem to survive in the gas phase and the conformation is conserved in the gas phase. Moreover, we have studied the uneven partition of the negative charges between the single strands, which was found to be directed by the nature of the terminal bases exclusively, and correlated with the gas-phase acidities of the (sugar-phosphate-sugar-base) species. [less ▲]

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