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See detailReport of two cases of gastric cancer after bariatric surgery: Lymphoma of the bypassed stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after vertical banded gastroplasty
De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; de Leval, Laurence ULg et al

in Obesity Surgery (2006), 16(7), 928-931

We report two new cases of gastric cancer diagnosed after a bariatric operation. The first case is a 66-year-old male who 3 years after gastric bypass suffered from a perforation of the fundus that was ... [more ▼]

We report two new cases of gastric cancer diagnosed after a bariatric operation. The first case is a 66-year-old male who 3 years after gastric bypass suffered from a perforation of the fundus that was found to be secondary to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the distal stomach. The second case is a 47-year-old woman who presented 12 years after a vertical banded gastroplasty with a gastric pouch outlet obstruction caused by a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Based on the few reports of cancer in the literature, analysis of these cases suggests that the main risk of gastric cancer after bariatric surgery comes from the delayed diagnosis of malignancy. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability of certified production systems : the case of labels in the food sector
Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Steurbaut, Willy; Mormont, Marc ULg et al

Report (2006)

In a label initiative, the stakeholders are manifold but most important are the producers and producers’associations, the retail sector, the public authorities, the control organisations, environmental ... [more ▼]

In a label initiative, the stakeholders are manifold but most important are the producers and producers’associations, the retail sector, the public authorities, the control organisations, environmental NGO’s, consumer representatives and so on. The basic hypothesis investigated is that the prevailing rules of a label are constructed in such a way that the common objectives of all these stakeholders are maximised while minimising the negative impacts of the label on each of them (e.g. maximising the market share while minimising the cost for producers, retail sector, control cost for both public authorities andcertifying organisations and so on). This can explain differences among labels depending who has been initiating the label or certificate or because of differences in power structure among the stakeholders, but also provide reasons why labels are evolving in a certain way or are not going further although improvements could be possible. The research was based on analysing different labels in the fruit and vegetable sector who have as one of their main objectives to reduce the effects of pesticides on the public health and the environment. Following research questions were analysed: 1. what is the impact of the label or certification rules on farm practices and may these differences ineffects on farm management explain differences in success of labels among farmers; 2. can the environmental impacts of the rules within a label be assessed and can this be an objective basis for analysing differences in emphasis among labels and for evaluating possible improvements in existing labels; 3. are there differences in the social construction of labels, ad who does impact the way labels change farmers’ practices; 4. how do consumers formulate the question of pesticides and do labels provide adequate responses to these questions 5. how do farmers and other stakeholders formulate the question of pesticides and does this influences their view on labelling strategies 6. how do farmers react on possible trajectories to change the rules in a label ? [less ▲]

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See detailOlfactory ensheathing cells, olfactory nerve fibroblasts and biomatrices to promote long-distance axon regrowth and functional recovery in the dorsally hemisected adult rat spinal cord
Deumens, R.; Koopmans, G. C.; Honig, W. M. M. et al

in Experimental Neurology (2006), 200(1), 89-103

Cellular transplantation, including olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts (ONF), after experimental spinal cord injury in the rat has previously resulted in regrowth of severed ... [more ▼]

Cellular transplantation, including olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts (ONF), after experimental spinal cord injury in the rat has previously resulted in regrowth of severed corticospinal (CS) axons across small lesion gaps and partial functional recovery. In order to stimulate CS axon regrowth across large lesion gaps, we used a multifactorial transplantation strategy to create an OEC/ONF continuum in spinal cords with a 2-mm-long dorsal hemisection lesion gap. This strategy involved the use of aligned OEG/ONF-poly(D,L)-lactide biomatrix bridges within the lesion gap and OEC/ONF injections at I mm rostral and caudal to the lesion gap. In order to test the effects of this complete strategy, control animals only received injections with culture medium rostral and caudal to the lesion gap. Anatomically, our multifactorial intervention resulted in an enhanced presence of injured CS axons directly rostral to the lesion gap (65.0 +/- 12.8% in transplanted animals versus 13.1 +/- 3.9% in control animals). No regrowth of these axons was observed through the lesion site, which may be related to a lack of OEC/ONF survival on the biomatrices. Furthermore, a 10-fold increase of neurofilament-positive axon ingrowth into the lesion site as compared to untreated control animals was observed. With the use of quantitative gait analysis, a modest recovery in stride length and swing speed of the hind limbs was observed. Although multifactorial strategies may be needed to stimulate repair of large spinal lesion gaps, we conclude that the combined use of OEC/ONF and poly(D,L)-lactide biomatrices is rather limited. [less ▲]

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See detailFrancophonie et études francophones : considérations historiques et métacritiques sur quelques concepts majeurs
Provenzano, François ULg

in Portal : Journal of multidisciplinary international studies (2006), 3(2),

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See detailPrediction of the reverberation time in rooms with non uniform absorptions using a diffusion model
Billon, Alexis ULg; Sakout, Anas

Conference (2006, July)

The acoustical comfort is now a comfort’s criterion which is taken into from the conception. The designers need therefore accurate tools to predict the acoustic quality of enclosures. Most of the ... [more ▼]

The acoustical comfort is now a comfort’s criterion which is taken into from the conception. The designers need therefore accurate tools to predict the acoustic quality of enclosures. Most of the acoustical comfort criteria are based on the reverberation time. When the room has proportionate dimensions and an uniform absorption, the statistical theory through Sabine or Eyring formulas allows good predictions of the reverberation time. Moreover, extensions of these relations by Millington or Cremer and Müller among others give quite satisfactory when the room is composed of materials with different sound absorption. In this study, the reverberation time in an enclosure is calculated via the numerical resolution of unstationary diffusion equation, model validated in coupled and industrial rooms. Firstly, an improvement of the boundary condition is proposed for highly absorbent surfaces. The diffusion model is then compared to several formulations of the statistical theory and a ray-tracing software for a cubic room with homogeneous walls’ absorption and with non homogeneous walls’ absorptions. Finally, an experimental validation is conducted for an enclosure with non uniformly distributed absorption. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency halving due to vortex pairing for the jet-slot oscillator
Billon, Alexis ULg; Glesser, Martin; Valeau, Vincent et al

Conference (2006, July)

At the outlet of the HVCA systems, whistling can occur, due to self-sustained oscillations. In this study, the ventilation outlet is modelled by a free plane subsonic jet impinging on a slotted plate ... [more ▼]

At the outlet of the HVCA systems, whistling can occur, due to self-sustained oscillations. In this study, the ventilation outlet is modelled by a free plane subsonic jet impinging on a slotted plate, leading to self-sustained tones production; this configuration is known as the jet-slot oscillator. The tone's frequency can be predicted through the vortex dynamics within the flow. For jet velocities higher than 16m/s, the tones couple with the flow-supply-duct’s resonances. These resonances control the vortex dynamics and reinforce the sound production, of about 20dB. Moreover, when the distance from the jet exit to the plate is increased and reaches 4.5 times the jet height, the fundamental frequency of the tones is suddenly halved due to some vortex pairing occurring at the end of the potential core of the jet. In this paper, the vortex pairing is observed with three different experimental techniques. Firstly, comparison between the radiated and the in-duct acoustic fields is conducted. Then the energy transfer from the fundamental to the sub-harmonics of the shear layer's velocity fluctuations is observed with anemometric measurements. Finally high speed flow visualizations are performed and allow to link the vortex impingement on the plate to the sound production. [less ▲]

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See detailTravailler en ville : tout le monde y gagne
Dawance, Sophie ULg

in Imagine Demain le Monde (2006), 56

L’activité économique constitue un élément essentiel à la vie harmonieuse de la cité. Depuis plusieurs décennies pourtant, l’urbanisation de terres agricoles en périphérie des villes et des villages est ... [more ▼]

L’activité économique constitue un élément essentiel à la vie harmonieuse de la cité. Depuis plusieurs décennies pourtant, l’urbanisation de terres agricoles en périphérie des villes et des villages est la réponse généralement apportée à la demande d’espace pour l’activité économique. Conçues à l’origine pour accueillir les activités susceptibles de générer des nuisances pour le voisinage, les zones économiques séduisent aujourd’hui aussi des entreprises tout à fait adaptées au milieu urbain. Les zonings commerciaux ou industriels prolifèrent, tandis que les quartiers urbains se vident peu à peu de leur substrat économique et portent les stigmates de ces abandons successifs. Pourquoi cet exode et quels sont les moyens de ramener l’activité économique au coeur de la cité ? De nombreux exemples de retours ou d’installations heureuses d’entreprises en ville existent à Bruxelles, Liège, Charleroi, mais aussi à Anvers, Gand, ou Roubaix. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation du caractère reconnaissable par opérations arithmétiques dans un système de numération abstrait
Charlier, Emilie ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2006)

In this thesis, I study the stability of recognizability under arithmetic operations like addition, multiplication by a constant or multiplication, in an abstract numeration system. The main result ... [more ▼]

In this thesis, I study the stability of recognizability under arithmetic operations like addition, multiplication by a constant or multiplication, in an abstract numeration system. The main result presented in this work concerns the abstract numeration system built on the bounded language a^*b^*. It shows that, in this case, multiplication by a constant preserves recognizability if and only if this constant is an odd square. I end this text by providing some partial results of a generalization to abstract numeration system built on any bounded language. [less ▲]

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See detailIonosphere Crossing of GALILEO Signals
Bidaine, Benoît ULg

Master's dissertation (2006)

The ionosphere plays a crucial role in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) accuracy. This electrically charged part of the atmosphere can lead to errors in positioning up to several tens of meters ... [more ▼]

The ionosphere plays a crucial role in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) accuracy. This electrically charged part of the atmosphere can lead to errors in positioning up to several tens of meters for single frequency receivers. Therefore its modelling constitutes an important field of study. An empirical model called NeQuick has been chosen to evaluate the ionospheric contribution in GALILEO single frequency users correction. It generates electron densities for given space, time and solar activity conditions from a minimum set of anchor points characteristics. Its use with integration methods allows to calculate total electron contents (TEC) which are directly related to the ionospheric delay. The current GALILEO baseline version of NeQuick is the one published by the Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) in 2000. From that time, several improvements have been proposed and some problems have been discovered leading to the need of a better understanding and comparison of these different versions and an analysis of the weaknesses. For example research about new topside formulations is currently performed - a new simple proposal has been tested - and the consequences of the daily effective use of NeQuick, which is designed to work with monthly median situations, have to be better known. A software tool with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has then been developed for the analysis and a comparison between different versions and also between modelled and measured data has been performed. Structuring and analysis of the above-mentioned issues and results of the comparison are detailed in the present document. Solutions or possible paths to investigate solutions are also proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailQuels recours pour les soumissionnaires évincés?
Lewalle, Paul ULg; Donnay, Luc ULg

Conference (2006, June 21)

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Mai 2006
Tychon, Bernard ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2006), 5(2), 1-5

Des précipitations fortement excédentaires ont été enregistrées au mois de mai, particulièrement dans la deuxième quinzaine. Le rayonnement fut très anormalement inférieur à la moyenne et les températures ... [more ▼]

Des précipitations fortement excédentaires ont été enregistrées au mois de mai, particulièrement dans la deuxième quinzaine. Le rayonnement fut très anormalement inférieur à la moyenne et les températures, bien qu’en moyenne proche de la normale, ont été basses dans la dernière décade. Le retard accusé par la végétation depuis le début de la saison n’a pas encore été entièrement résorbé. La situation des cultures est globalement favorable, laissant entrevoir des rendements généralement supérieurs à la moyenne des cinq années précédentes. [less ▲]

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See detailNegociation and Transaction in a context of restructuring. The role of actors: trust and uncertainy
Robert, Jocelyne ULg

Conference (2006, June 12)

In the current context of globalization and industrial restructuring, we find it interesting to analyse a negotiation about a re-opening of a production site within a multinational enterprise. This ... [more ▼]

In the current context of globalization and industrial restructuring, we find it interesting to analyse a negotiation about a re-opening of a production site within a multinational enterprise. This negotiation between trade unions and management representatives was strategic for the revival of production activity and retention of 10,000 direct and indirect jobs. It allows us to illustrate the “structuration’ theory of Giddens (1990) insofar as we cannot ignore neither the importance of structures nor the actions of individuals; each element has an influence on the other and is influenced in return. In a first section, we analyse to what degree trade unions can be considered as ‘stakeholders’ by reviewing different theories of ‘Corporate social responsibility’ and of ‘Corporate Stakeholders’. Our analysis highlights the importance of trade unions as ‘corporate stakeholders’ in a situation of social negotiation on restructuring in a steel group. This analysis cannot however ignore the specific context of the situation: informal feature of the negotiation, unpredictability of the result, international competitive context, conflicting issues of the reorganisation. We present and analyse in the second section the context and the different stages of the negotiation on the reopening of activities at the Belgium steel plant, at the light of interviews with union representatives involved in this negotiation. More than other types of negotiation, those concerning corporate restructuring are stressing and risky because their impacts on the employment of thousands of persons and the economy of a whole region. We analyse the different stages of this negotiation with regard to ethical questioning. Our analysis is mainly based on the point of view expressed by one of the ‘parties’, making thus reference to ‘corporate social responsibility’ theory and more specifically to the ‘stakeholders theory’ through the union lens. We refer to the concept of ‘social transaction’ to analyse the play of the actors in this social negotiation. We will attempt to explain how Corporate Social Responsibility on one side, and relations between various 'stakeholders’ on the other side, give a specific perspective to a negotiation process. The third and final section is devoted to a critical analysis of key features of trust and uncertainty in relation to these negotiations. The concepts of trust and uncertainty notably will permit to explain the importance of taking into consideration the way of how things happen and understand how processes are elaborated. Modern societies are characterised by uncertainty. Faced with it, social actors can search for trust relationship to find some stability. Communication of information can positively contribute to the construction of a climate of trust in organisation. Negotiation spaces may be limited by important constraints but resources could be renewed or created by actors themselves. We will conclude by trying, doubtless in a utopian way, to situate the present case study in respect to a democratic process of social change. A search of compromise could respond to situations of uncertainty. Besides, the process of trust elaboration is a response to uncertain situations. Uncertainty is a fundamental resource of a negotiation and a source of power for those who can control and use it in their transactions. [less ▲]

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See detailLimitations in transplantation of astroglia-biomatrix bridges to stimulate corticospinal axon regrowth across large spinal lesion gaps
Deumens, Ronald; Koopmans, Guido C; Honig, Wiel MM et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2006), 400(3), 208-212

Regrowth of injured axons across rather small spinal cord lesion gaps and subsequent functional recovery has been obtained after many interventions. Long-distance regeneration of injured axons across ... [more ▼]

Regrowth of injured axons across rather small spinal cord lesion gaps and subsequent functional recovery has been obtained after many interventions. Long-distance regeneration of injured axons across clinically relevant large spinal lesion gaps is relatively unexplored. Here, we aimed at stimulating long-distance regrowth of the injured corticospinal (CS) tract. During development, an oriented framework of immature astrocytes is important for correct CS axon outgrowth. Furthermore, a continuous growth promoting substrate may be needed to maintain a CS axon regrowth response across relatively large spinal lesion gaps. Hence, we acutely transplanted poly(D,L)-lactide matrices, which after seeded with immature astrocytes render aligned astrocyte-biomatrix complexes (R. Deumens, et al. Alignment of glial cells stimulates directional neurite growth of CNS neurons in vitro. Neuroscience 125 (3) (2004) 591-604), into 2-mm long dorsal hemisection lesion gaps. In order to create a growth promoting continuum, astrocyte suspensions were also injected rostral and caudal to the lesion gap. During 2 months, locomotion was continuously monitored. Histological analysis showed that astrocytes injected into host spinal tissue survived, but did not migrate. None of the astrocytes on the biomatrices survived within the lesion gap. BDA-labeled CS axons did not penetrate the graft. However, directly rostral to the lesion gap, 120.9 +/- 38.5% of the BDA-labeled CS axons were present in contrast to 12.8 +/- 3.9% in untreated control animals. The observed anatomical changes were not accompanied by locomotor improvements as analyzed with the BBB and CatWalk. We conclude that although multifactorial strategies may be needed to stimulate long-distance CS axon regrowth, future studies should focus on enhancing the viability of cell/biomatrix complexes within large spinal lesion gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailAnkle-brachial blood pressure index and cardiovascular risk in hemodialized patients
Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; Sumaili, Ernest; Xhignesse, Patricia ULg et al

in Journal of Hypertension (2006, June 12), 24(suppl 4), 167

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See detailKülpe et l'idée d'une critique de la raison empirique
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2006, June 09)

Oswald Külpe is known as one of the leaders of the so-called "Denkpsychologie" ("Psychology of thought"). I here present several aspects of his reflexions on the content-object distinction, which has been ... [more ▼]

Oswald Külpe is known as one of the leaders of the so-called "Denkpsychologie" ("Psychology of thought"). I here present several aspects of his reflexions on the content-object distinction, which has been emphasized in the Brentano-school and has exercised a decisive influence on the philosophy of psychology at the beginning of the 20th century. I nevertheless focus on the "ontological" status of the objet of thought, as it is analyzed by külpe in his famous work "Die Realisierung". [less ▲]

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See detailComparisons between SCIAMACHY and ground-based FTIR data for total columns of CO, CH4, CO2 and N2O
Dils, Bart; De Mazière, Martine; Muller, Jean-François et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2006), 6

Total column amounts of CO, CH4, CO2 and N2O retrieved from SCIAMACHY nadir observations in its near-infrared channels have been compared to data from a ground-based quasi-global network of Fourier ... [more ▼]

Total column amounts of CO, CH4, CO2 and N2O retrieved from SCIAMACHY nadir observations in its near-infrared channels have been compared to data from a ground-based quasi-global network of Fourier-transform infrared ( FTIR) spectrometers. The SCIAMACHY data considered here have been produced by three different retrieval algorithms, WFM-DOAS (version 0.5 for CO and CH4 and version 0.4 for CO2 and N2O), IMAP- DOAS ( version 1.1 and 0.9 (for CO)) and IMLM (version 6.3) and cover the January to December 2003 time period. Comparisons have been made for individual data, as well as for monthly averages. To maximize the number of reliable coincidences that satisfy the temporal and spatial collocation criteria, the SCIAMACHY data have been compared with a temporal 3rd order polynomial interpolation of the ground-based data. Particular attention has been given to the question whether SCIAMACHY observes correctly the seasonal and latitudinal variability of the target species. The present results indicate that the individual SCIAMACHY data obtained with the actual versions of the algorithms have been significantly improved, but that the quality requirements, for estimating emissions on regional scales, are not yet met. Nevertheless, possible directions for further algorithm upgrades have been identified which should result in more reliable data products in a near future. [less ▲]

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See detailLa désertification : un faux problème ?
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Cafés Géographiques (2006), (Article N°880), 9

La désertification est considérée comme l’une des problématiques environnementales les plus préoccupantes du XXIe siècle. Par désertification, on entend la dégradation des terres dans les zones arides ... [more ▼]

La désertification est considérée comme l’une des problématiques environnementales les plus préoccupantes du XXIe siècle. Par désertification, on entend la dégradation des terres dans les zones arides, semi-arides et sub-humides sèches par suite de divers facteurs, parmi lesquels les variations climatiques et les activités humaines. Cette dégradation environnementale affecte directement un milliard d’hectares et menace près de 35% des terres de la planète ainsi que les moyens de subsistance de deux milliards d’individus. Les estimations des pertes financières mondiales dues à la désertification sont colossales, de l’ordre de 40 milliards d’euros par an. Ces chiffres parlent d’eux-mêmes et traduisent à quel point la dégradation des terres arides est une entrave au développement des pays les plus pauvres. [less ▲]

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