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See detailContribution à la connaissance de l’ichtyofaune de l’Inkisi au Bas-Congo (RD du Congo)
Wamuini Lunkayilakio, Soleil; Vreven, Emmanuel; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

in Cybium (2010), 34(1), 83-91

L’étude de la composition et de la distribution de la faune ichtyologique de la partie congolaise de la rivière Inkisi a permis d’inventorier 61 espèces réparties en 37 genres appartenant à 15 familles ... [more ▼]

L’étude de la composition et de la distribution de la faune ichtyologique de la partie congolaise de la rivière Inkisi a permis d’inventorier 61 espèces réparties en 37 genres appartenant à 15 familles. Les Cyprinidae sont les mieux représentés avec 15 espèces. Les Mormyridae, Cichlidae et Clariidae viennent ensuite avec respectivement 11, 9 et 7 espèces. La composition spécifique des communautés des poissons est différente, du cours supérieur vers l’aval. Le profil longitudinal de cette partie de l’Inkisi est caractérisé par la présence de trois chutes qui sont, de l’aval vers l’amont : la chute de Mantumpu (8 m de hauteur) à l’entrée de l’Inkisi dans le fleuve Congo, la chute de Zongo (58 m) à 6 km du confluent et la chute de Sanga (24 m) à 10 km de la chute de Zongo. La présence de ces chutes sur le cours de la rivière semble avoir influencé l’ichtyofaune et pourrait même être à l’origine du nombre important d’espèces endémiques en amont. Si l’on s’en tient au cours principal, la différence entre la richesse spécifique en amont et celle en aval n’est pas significative, probablement à cause de la morphologie du bassin. La richesse et la composition spécifique de la partie comprise entre les deux chutes (Zongo et Sanga) ne diffèrent pas de celles de l’amont de la chute de Sanga. Toutefois, cette composition est fort différente de celle de la zone tout en aval. [less ▲]

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See detailHow bright is the Io UV footprint?
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2010)

The electro-magnetic interaction between Io and the Jovian magnetosphere generates a perturbation in the magnetospheric plasma which propagates along the magnetic field lines and creates auroral footprint ... [more ▼]

The electro-magnetic interaction between Io and the Jovian magnetosphere generates a perturbation in the magnetospheric plasma which propagates along the magnetic field lines and creates auroral footprint emissions in both hemispheres. Recent results showed that this footprint is formed of several spots and an extended tail. Each feature is suggested to correspond to a different step in the propagation of the perturbation and in the electron energization processes. The present study focuses on the variations of the spots' brightness at different timescales from minutes to years through the rotation period of Jupiter. It relies on FUV images acquired with the STIS and ACS instruments onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Since the footprint is composed of several localized features, a good understanding of the emission region geometry is critical to derive the actual vertical brightness and thus the precipitated energy flux. We developed a 3D emission model in order to assess as precisely as possible the respective contribution of each individual feature and to correctly estimate the precipitating energy flux. As far as the brightness variations on timescales of minutes are concerned, we will present results from the high time resolution campaign executed during summer 2009. On timescale of several hours, we will show that the variation of the emitted power as a function of the location of Io in the plasma torus suggests that the Jovian surface magnetic field strength is an important controlling parameter. Finally, the measured precipitated power and particle fluxes will be discussed in comparison with recent simulations considering both Alfvén waves filamentation and electron acceleration when the Alfvén waves become inertial. [less ▲]

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See detailHow large is the Io UV footprint?
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2010)

Located close to the feet of the magnetic field lines connecting Io to each Jovian hemisphere, the Io footprint is the auroral signature of the electromagnetic interaction between Io and Jupiter's ... [more ▼]

Located close to the feet of the magnetic field lines connecting Io to each Jovian hemisphere, the Io footprint is the auroral signature of the electromagnetic interaction between Io and Jupiter's magnetosphere. It consists of several spots followed downstream by an extended tail. The size of the main spot is expected to scale to the size of the interaction region close to Io. Consequently, this quantity is crucial to understand the processes involved. However, the main spot size is a controversial issue as previously published values range from ~400 km to ~10000 km, leading to contradictory conclusions. Based on observations carried on with the Hubble Space Telescope STIS and ACS FUV instruments from 1997 to 2009, we estimate the size of the main footprint spot on a much larger image sample than previously. Additionally, we carefully selected the images in order to avoid viewing geometry ambiguities when measuring the spatial extent of the different features. The main spot length along the footpath is ~900 km while its width perpendicular to the footpath is <200 km. The spot length is larger than the projected diameter of Io along unperturbed magnetic field lines, which appears to be consistent with recent simulations. The vertical extent and the peak altitude of the main spot are similar to those measured in the tail. Nevertheless, the secondary spot attributed to trans-hemispheric electron beams has been measured to peak at ∼200 km below the main spot and the tail, which confirms their different origins. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous Surface-point Distributions for 3D Object Pose Estimation and Recognition
Detry, Renaud ULg; Piater, Justus ULg

in Asian Conference on Computer Vision (2010)

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See detailSleep in disorders of consciousness
Cologan, Victor ULg; Schabus, Manuel; LEDOUX, Didier ULg et al

in Sleep Medicine Reviews (2010), 14(2), 97-105

From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from ... [more ▼]

From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. <br /><br />The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. [less ▲]

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See detailCumulative effects of road de-icing salt on amphibian behavior
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Bichot, Marion; Ficetola, G. Francesco et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2010), 99(2), 275-280

Despite growing evidence of the detrimental effect of chemical substances on organisms, limited research has focused on changes in behavioral patterns, in part due to the difficulties to obtain detailed ... [more ▼]

Despite growing evidence of the detrimental effect of chemical substances on organisms, limited research has focused on changes in behavioral patterns, in part due to the difficulties to obtain detailed quantitative data. Recent developments in efficient computer-based video analyses have allowed testing pesticide effects on model species such as the zebrafish. However, these new techniques have not yet been applied to amphibians and directly to conservation issues, i.e. to assess toxicological risks on threatened species. We used video tracking analyses to test a quantitative effect of an environmental contaminant on the locomotion of amphibian tadpoles (Rana temporaria) by taking into account cumulative effects. Because recent research has demonstrated effects of de-icing salts on survival and community structure, we used sodium chloride in our experimental design (25 replicates, 4 concentrations, 4 times) to test for an effect at the scale of behavior at environmentally relevant concentrations. Analysis of 372 1-hr video-tracks (5 samples per sec) showed a complex action of salts on behavioral patterns with a dose and cumulative response over time. Although no effects were found on mortality or growth, the highest salt concentrations reduced the speed and movement of tadpoles in comparison with control treatments. The reduced locomotor performance could have detrimental consequences in terms of tadpoles’ responses to competition and predation and may be an indicator of the low concentration effect of the contaminant. On one hand, this study demonstrates the usefulness of examining behavior to address conservation issues and understand the complex action of environmental factors and, more particularly, pollutants on organisms. On the other hand, our results highlight the need of new computerized techniques to quantitatively analyze these patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 2007 rifting event in Northern Tanzania studied by C and L-band interferometry
Oyen, Anneleen; Wauthier, Christelle ULg; d'Oreye, Nicolas et al

in ECGS Blue Books (2010)

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See detailMaths & Manips
Henry, Valérie ULg; Guissard, Marie-France; Lambrecht, Pauline

in Losanges (2010), 7

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See detailDevelopment of Object and Grasping Knowledge by Robot Exploration
Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud ULg; Pugeault, Nicolas et al

in IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development (2010), 2(4), 368--383

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See detailLearning Probabilistic Discriminative Models of Grasp Affordances under Limited Supervision
Erkan, Ayse; Kroemer, Oliver; Detry, Renaud ULg et al

in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (2010)

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See detailDevelopment of a new genetic evaluation model for carcass quality based on crossbred performances of Piétrain boars in the Walloon Region of Belgium
Dufrasne, Marie ULg; Hammami, Hedi ULg; Jaspart, Véronique et al

in Proceedings of the 9th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (2010)

In context of the development of the genetic evaluation system of Piétrain boars for crossbred performances, a genetic evaluation model was developed for the estimation of genetic merit of boars for ... [more ▼]

In context of the development of the genetic evaluation system of Piétrain boars for crossbred performances, a genetic evaluation model was developed for the estimation of genetic merit of boars for backfat thickness (BF) and meat percentage (%meat). The model developed was a random regression model using linear splines on age which knots at 175, 200 and 250 days. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood and Gibbs sampling. Estimated heritability from 150 to 300 days increased from 0.56 to 0.75 for BF and from 0.55 to 0.69 for %meat. Genetic correlation between BF and %meat varied between -0.90 and -0.93 from 150 to 300 days. According to the study of residuals, the developed model was considered to fit well the data especially between 175 and 250 days of age. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-observance thérapeutique: causes, conséquences, solutions.
Scheen, André ULg; Giet, Didier ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(5-6), 239-45

Compliance is defined as the extent to which a patient's behaviour coincides with medical or health advice. Medication adherence seems to be rather low as 30 to 60% of patients with chronic disease may be ... [more ▼]

Compliance is defined as the extent to which a patient's behaviour coincides with medical or health advice. Medication adherence seems to be rather low as 30 to 60% of patients with chronic disease may be categorised as being poorly or not adherent to drug therapy. Numerous factors may influence compliance among which patient's characteristics, disease peculiarities, drug treatment modalities, physician's attitudes and health system organisation. The consequences of non-compliance to drug therapy may not only be harmful for patient's health, but could also negatively impact the financial cost of public health services. Thus, all efforts should be focused to improve drug compliance, if possible by targeting all causes responsible for poor adherence to medications. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’aménagement du territoire au développement territorial. L’exemple de la Wallonie
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Olivier Dard et Jean-François Eck (Ed.) Aménageurs, territoires et entreprises en Europe du Nord-Ouest au second XXe siècle (2010)

L’objectif de cet article est de s’interroger sur différents concepts : aménagement du territoire, développement économique régional, développement territorial, dans le cadre d’une région un peu ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cet article est de s’interroger sur différents concepts : aménagement du territoire, développement économique régional, développement territorial, dans le cadre d’une région un peu particulière : la Wallonie. Le regard que nous porterons sur ces problèmes est, quant à lui, aussi un peu particulier : c’est celui d’une géographe plus portée à expliquer le présent par le passé que d’analyser de manière chronologique, avec un souci profond d’exhaustivité, tous les faits et processus comme le font les historiens. Nous tenterons toutefois de bien replacer les évolutions dans leur contexte temporel et d’épingler le rôle des acteurs dans le domaine de l’aménagement du territoire, thème majeur de ce groupe de travail. Nous chercherons aussi dans la mesure du possible à comparer la Wallonie aux régions limitrophes. [less ▲]

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See detailPulsatile stress in middle-aged patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes compared to nondiabetic controls.
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Marchand, Monique ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes Care (2010), 33(11), 2424-2429

AbstractBackground: Arterial pulse pressure (PP) is considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared PP during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes ... [more ▼]

AbstractBackground: Arterial pulse pressure (PP) is considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared PP during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes, and corresponding nondiabetic controls. Methods: 40 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, BMI 23.0 kg/m(2)) were compared to 40 non hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, 29.7 kg/m(2)). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres(R)) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min) and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. Results: Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher PP, heart rate (HR) and PPxHR double product (type 1 : 5263 vs 4121 mmHg/min, p=0.0004; type 2 : 5359 vs 4321 mmHg, p=0.0023) levels than corresponding controls. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding PP (59 vs 58 mmHg), HR (89 vs 88/min), and PPxHR product (5263 vs 5359 mmHg/min). Conclusion: Patients with type 1 diabetes have comparable increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PPxHR, an index of pulsatile stress, as non-hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. [less ▲]

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See detailInertie therapeutique dans la pratique medicale: causes, consequences, solutions.
Scheen, André ULg; Giet, Didier ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(5-6), 232-8

Therapeutic inertia is one of the components of clinical inertia. It mainly concerns the management of chronic diseases. It may be defined as the attitude of health care providers who do not initiate or ... [more ▼]

Therapeutic inertia is one of the components of clinical inertia. It mainly concerns the management of chronic diseases. It may be defined as the attitude of health care providers who do not initiate or intensify therapy appropriately despite recognition of the problem. Multiple causes may be identified, related to the physician but also to the patient and to the health care system. The consequences may be dramatic, both for the patient, in terms of quality of life and/or life expectancy, and for the society, because of the huge cost resulting from complications due to therapeutic inertia. Thus, various solutions should be proposed to help solving this important public health problem, focusing the actions on the physician, the patient and/or the health care system. [less ▲]

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See detailInertie clinique dans la prise en charge du patient diabetique de type 2: quelles solutions proposer?
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(5-6), 318-25

Although strict glucose control can prevent or delay the onset of complications in patients with diabetes, optimal control frequently is not achieved. A partial explanation for this phenomenon can be ... [more ▼]

Although strict glucose control can prevent or delay the onset of complications in patients with diabetes, optimal control frequently is not achieved. A partial explanation for this phenomenon can be attributed to so-called clinical inertia of physicians, defined as "recognition of the problem but failure to act". Such therapeutic inertia may result from patient's reluctance, difficulties inherent to available treatments and physician's attitudes. Clinical inertia may be present at each successive step in the management of type 2 diabetes. This article describes some solutions to help physicians reducing therapeutic inertia and improving patient care. [less ▲]

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See detailComment optimaliser le traitement hypolipidemiant: ne pas oublier la problematique du defaut d'observance.
Radermecker, Régis ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(5-6), 311-7

The pharmacological treatment of dyslipidaemia, essentially by statins, should take place in a global strategy of prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Treating a risk factor, asymptomatic by definition ... [more ▼]

The pharmacological treatment of dyslipidaemia, essentially by statins, should take place in a global strategy of prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Treating a risk factor, asymptomatic by definition, which imposes an early constraint for a potential late benefit, exposes to patient's noncompliance. Besides physician's clinical inertia to initiate and adjust the lipid-lowering therapy in at risk patients, such lack of patient's compliance is one of the key elements that may explain the failure to reach or maintain therapeutic targets, and represents a major pharmacoeconomical concern. This article analyses first the main reasons explaining the poor compliance to lipid-lowering therapy and, then, describes some approaches to improve patient's adherence to medications in order to better prevent cardiovascular diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailDiabete et grossesse: impact de l'inertie medicale et de l'observance therapeutique.
Pintiaux, Axelle ULg; Chabbert-Buffet, N.; Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(5-6), 399-404

Pregnancy and infant outcomes are related to maternal blood glucose profile. Managing preexisting diabetes and achieving euglycaemia before and during the pregnancy reduce the risk for complications ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy and infant outcomes are related to maternal blood glucose profile. Managing preexisting diabetes and achieving euglycaemia before and during the pregnancy reduce the risk for complications. Screening, diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes are important issues from a public health point of view, more particularly because of the progression of this disease due to obesity epidemics among young people. Pregnancy in a diabetic woman is a critical situation where neither clinical inertia nor patient's non-compliance could be accepted. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies pour eviter l'inertie et la non-observance dans les essais cliniques.
Jandrain, Bernard ULg; Ernest, Philippe ULg; Radermecker, Régis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(5-6), 246-9

Randomised controlled trials play a key role in evidence-based medicine as far as the assessment of both efficacy and safety of drugs is concerned. Various strategies are used to avoid physician's inertia ... [more ▼]

Randomised controlled trials play a key role in evidence-based medicine as far as the assessment of both efficacy and safety of drugs is concerned. Various strategies are used to avoid physician's inertia and to combat patient's non compliance, two pitfalls that may hinder the demonstration of the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Clinical inertia may be limited by titration, forced or optional, driven by therapeutic targets, or by the use, if necessary, of rescue medications. Compliance may be verified by "pill count". This simple technique allows to exclude non compliant patients when they are detected during the placebo run-in period before randomisation or not to take into account patients with poor compliance in the final evaluation by using a statistical analysis restricted to individuals who have strictly adhered to the study protocol ("per protocol analysis"). Self-monitoring and patient's empowerment in the treatment also contribute to improve drug compliance. Clinicians may take advantage of these approaches derived from clinical trials to improve their daily practice. [less ▲]

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See detailL'éducation thérapeutique: une solution pour vaincre l'inertie clinique et le défaut d'observance.
Scheen, André ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; Guillaume, Michèle ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(5-6), 250-5

Therapeutic education (TPE) aims to enable the patient suffering from a chronic diseases to manage his/ her illness and treatment, and prevent avoidable complications, while keeping or improving his/her ... [more ▼]

Therapeutic education (TPE) aims to enable the patient suffering from a chronic diseases to manage his/ her illness and treatment, and prevent avoidable complications, while keeping or improving his/her quality of life. It comprises a set de practical tools aiming the patient to acquire skills to manage himself/herself the disease, its care and supervision, in partnership with healthcare providers. TPE may contribute to improve therapeutic compliance and to reduce clinical inertia, two drawbacks frequently encountered in the management of patients with chronic diseases. As an illustration, we briefly present EDUDORA ("Education therapeutique et preventive face au diabete et a l'obesite a risque chez l'adulte et l'adolescent" = "Preventive and therapeutic education for diabetes and at risk obesity in adults and adolescents"), an ongoing original project in three frontier regions (Wallonia - Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg - Lorraine). [less ▲]

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