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See detailL'etude clinique du mois Quel antihypertenseur en premiere intention? Resultats de l'etude ALLHAT.
Scheen, André ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 47-52

Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is still controversial. The "Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering ... [more ▼]

Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is still controversial. The "Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial" (ALLHAT) should give such an answer. It is a randomised, double-blind, trial designed to determine whether treatment with either a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. A total of 33,357 participants aged 55 years or older with mild to moderate hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone (12.5 to 25 mg/day; n = 15,255), amlodipine (2.5 to 10 mg/day; n = 9,048) or lisinopril (10 to 40 mg; n = 9,054). The primary outcome combined both fatal CHD and non-fatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent-to-treat. Secondary outcomes were all-causes mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure and peripheral arterial disease). Chlorthalidone was slightly more effective in reducing systolic pressure while amlodipine reduced slightly more effectively diastolic blood pressure. After a mean follow up of 4.9 years, no differences were observed between the three treatments regarding both the primary outcome and the total mortality. Secondary outcomes were similar when comparing amlodipine vs chlorthalidone. A moderately higher 6-year incidence rate of clinically detected heart failure was observed with amlodipine, but without significant influence on mortality. For lisinopril vs chlorthalidone, lisinopril had slightly higher 6-year rates of combined CVD, stroke and heart failure. In conclusion, thiazide-type diuretics are superior in preventing one or more major forms of CVD and offer the advantage to be cheaper. They should be preferred for first-step antihypertensive therapy. However, to reach the recommended blood pressure target, most patients should receive a combination of antihypertensive compounds. Such a combination should always comprise a diuretic agent, in absence of contra-indications. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... les secrets d'une meta-analyse.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 41-6

Meta-analysis is becoming a key partner of Evidence-Based Medicine. This statistical tool is currently used in most systematic reviews and allows to quantitatively synthesize the results of several ... [more ▼]

Meta-analysis is becoming a key partner of Evidence-Based Medicine. This statistical tool is currently used in most systematic reviews and allows to quantitatively synthesize the results of several studies by a single weighted average whose precision is indicated by the confidence interval. A standardized graphical representation allows, at first glance, to derive a lot of useful information, especially the number of studies taken into account for the analysis, the mean effect observed in each study with its confidence interval, the relative size (number of subjects) of each study, the homogeneity/heterogeneity of between-study results, finally the overall mean effects with its confidence interval. The meta-analysis plays a key-role in epidemiology, for the evaluation of a risk or a protective factor, and in therapeutics, for summarizing the results of numerous clinical trials with a specific drug or a pharmacological class in a given disease. [less ▲]

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See detailChoice of an adjuvant for vaccination trials
Vermout, Sandy; Denis, M.; Losson, Bertrand ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(6), 393-401

The development of new vaccines, containing protective antigens that are more and more well characterized, is hindered by the lack of adjuvants able both to amplify immune response and to control it ... [more ▼]

The development of new vaccines, containing protective antigens that are more and more well characterized, is hindered by the lack of adjuvants able both to amplify immune response and to control it qualitatively. A number of tumors and infectious diseases could be treated with adjuvant preparations that would adequately intensify and modulate specific immune response; in particular, the possibility to specifically induce a Th1 response seems to be of paramount importance for the prevention and for the cure of these diseases. Furthermore, these adjuvants must be as safe as possible, not only for commercial applications, but also in the respect of laboratory animals' welfare. This review describes the different adjuvants presently used in vaccinology, classifying them following their chemical nature and presenting for each category the knowledge concerning their activity and toxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailGénération non-intentionnelle de polluants: Le cas des dioxines
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2003)

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See detailConceptual issues in 3D Urban GIS
Billen, Roland ULg; Zlatanova, Siyka

in GIM International (2003), 17(1), 33-35

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See detailL'Observatoire de la consommation alimentaire
Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg; Cordier, L.; Duquesne, Brigitte ULg et al

in Vers une politique de qualité, à quel prix ? (2003)

Description de l'utilisation d'une base de données relative aux achats de produits alimentaires effectués par des ménages.

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See detail3D spatial relationships model: a useful concept for 3D cadastre?
Billen, Roland ULg; Zlatanova, Siyka

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2003), 27(4), 411-425

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See detailAn Integrated Software for Scantling Optimization and Least Production Cost
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Ship Technology Research = Schiffstechnik (2003)

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See detailTomographie à émission de positons : vers une approche plus spécifique des pathologies oncologiques
Hustinx, Roland ULg

Thèse d’agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur (2003)

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See detailHow do paedomorphic newts cope with lake drying?
Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Ecography (2003), 26(4), 405-410

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic habitats surrounded by hostile terrestrial environments. Nevertheless, numerous ponds inhabited by paedomorphic individuals are unpredictable and temporary. In an experimental framework, I showed that paedomorphic newts were able to metamorphose and thus survive in the absence of water. However, the mere decrease of water level or the life space do not seem to induce metamorphosis in paedomorphs. On the contrary, drying up induces almost all individuals to move on land and after that to colonize other aquatic sites located nearby. Such terrestrial migrations allow survival in drying conditions without metamorphosis as long as the distances of terrestrial migration are short. These results are consistent with the presence of paedomorphs in drying ponds and are in favor of classic optimality models predicting metamorphosis in unfavorable environments. [less ▲]

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See detailA conceptual framework to design and support self-directed learning in a blended learning program. A case-stydy: the DES-TEF
Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Journal of Educational Media (2003), 28(2-3), 115-127

This paper relates different strategies developed in order to support the learning process in a blended learning programme involving adults from different backgrounds who are interested in the use of ... [more ▼]

This paper relates different strategies developed in order to support the learning process in a blended learning programme involving adults from different backgrounds who are interested in the use of Information and Communication Technologies for Education (ICTE). Referring to Carré & Pearn’s model of the seven pillars of self-learning, the author describes some principles, tools and resources that have been developed within the framework of a postgraduate diploma and that could be extended to similar adult training programmes. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the combination of corpus-based and experimental methodologies in the study of causal, contrastive and metadiscourse connectives in L1 and L2 text comprehension and production
Perrez, Julien ULg; Degand, Liesbeth

in Archer, Dawn; Rayson, Paul; Wilson, Andrew (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2003 Conference (2003)

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See detailA survey of proposals for an alternative group communication service
El-Sayed, A.; Roca, V.; Mathy, Laurent ULg

in IEEE Network (2003), 17(1), 46--51

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See detailTowards Scalable and Affordable Content Distribution Services
Plagemann, Thomas; Goebel, Vera; Griwodz, Carsten et al

in Proceedings of ConTel (2003)

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See detailBiodiversity, molecular phylogeny, and trophodynamics of amphipod crustaceans in the Antarctic deep-sea
De Broyer, Claude; Dauby, Patrick ULg; Nyssen, Fabienne et al

in Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (2003), 470

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See detailCTD measurements, with emphasis on Elephant Island surroundings
Dauby, Patrick ULg

in Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (2003), 470

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See detailEtude des modifications environnementales à partir des données pluviométriques et NDVI de NOAA-AVHRR en Afrique de l’Ouest
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg

in Schmitz, Serge; Meert, Henk (Eds.) Les Journées des Géographes Belges: Evaluer la capacité du milieu (2003)

Since the late 1960s, The Sahel of West Africa is affected by a long-term drought and increasing human pressure on the environment leading to desertification processes. The Normalised Difference ... [more ▼]

Since the late 1960s, The Sahel of West Africa is affected by a long-term drought and increasing human pressure on the environment leading to desertification processes. The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from satellite imagery, is a reliable index of the vegetation status as the vegetation response to rainfall is very strong in semiarid environments. This article presents the NDVI and rainfall evolution from 1981 to 1999 in nine locations along a north-south transect from north-western Niger to north-eastern Benin. These two parameters are then statistically analysed to identify breaks in the trends within the datasets. Over the 19 years analysed, it appears that five out of the nine locations have recorded a significant increase of rainfall, while only two presented a significant increase in NDVI. This dichotomy in observed trends may highlight the on-going slow processes of environmental degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes propositions émises dans le passé en vue de modifier l'article 195 de la Constitution belge
Behrendt, Christian ULg

in Delpérée, Francis (Ed.) La procédure de révision de la Constitution (2003)

The articles provides for an overview of the several proposals which were made in the past in to alter the current procedure for amending the Belgian Constitution (procedure which is laid down in article ... [more ▼]

The articles provides for an overview of the several proposals which were made in the past in to alter the current procedure for amending the Belgian Constitution (procedure which is laid down in article 195 Belg. Const.). [less ▲]

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