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See detailImpregnation method for detecting annual laminations in sediment cores: An overview
Boes, Xavier; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Sedimentary Geology (2005), 179(3-4), 185-194

Annually laminated sediments can provide an absolute time scale (by varve counting) and a high-resolution palaeoclimate information (from varve thickness). Both types of information may be directly ... [more ▼]

Annually laminated sediments can provide an absolute time scale (by varve counting) and a high-resolution palaeoclimate information (from varve thickness). Both types of information may be directly measured from sediment core surfaces. In this paper, we stress that varve counting and varve thickness measurements derived from fresh core surfaces could not systematically reveal the internal sedimentary structure, even if assisted by high resolution image analysis. We present an example of a homogeneous sediment core for which the varves were only observable after core impregnation and polishing steps. Because the impregnation methods are not yet standardized, the aim of this paper is to give an updated review of the methodology. In this review, we present the major critical points during impregnation steps. In particular, we focus on all of the post-treatment sediment disturbances that can alter the laminated micro-structure and, consequently, varve measurements. Finally, we propose a modified impregnation protocol, especially adapted for tracking varved intervals in long cores. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Juillet 2005
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2005), 4(4), 1-5

Le mois de juillet fut anormalement pluvieux en diverses régions du pays. Les autres paramètres climatiques furent néanmoins proches de la moyenne. Les prévisions de rendements des principales cultures ... [more ▼]

Le mois de juillet fut anormalement pluvieux en diverses régions du pays. Les autres paramètres climatiques furent néanmoins proches de la moyenne. Les prévisions de rendements des principales cultures sont globalement à la baisse sur le territoire par rapport à l’année dernière. [less ▲]

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See detailProanthocyanidins, from Ribes Nigrum Leaves, Reduce Endothelial Adhesion Molecules Icam-1 and Vcam-1
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Kinet, Marie; Nusgens, Betty ULg et al

in Journal of Inflammation (London, England) (2005), 2

BACKGROUND: The effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs), isolated from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves, on neutrophil accumulation during inflammatory processes were investigated in vivo and in vitro ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs), isolated from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves, on neutrophil accumulation during inflammatory processes were investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: In vivo studies were performed using carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats pre-treated with PACs. Exudate volume and PMNs accumulation were measured. Leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (LFA-1, Mac-1 and VLA-4) mobilization in circulating granulocytes were analysed by flow cytometry and endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry on lung sections. In vitro studies were conducted on endothelial LT2 cells, stimulated with TNF-alpha, to evaluate ICAM-1, IL-8 and VEGF mRNA expression upon PACs treatment. Data sets were examined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Scheffe post-hoc test. RESULTS: Pretreatment of the animals with PACs (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) inhibited dose-dependently carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats by reducing pleural exudate formation and PMNs infliltration. Leukocyte cell adhesion molecules mobilization was not down-regulated on granulocytes by PACs. Immunohistochemistry on lung sections showed a decreased production of endothelial cell adhesion molecules. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PACs were able to significantly inhibit ICAM-1 but not IL-8 and VEGF165 mRNA expression. Moreover, VEGF121 mRNA expression was dose-dependently enhanced. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence to support the anti-inflammatory activity of proanthocyanidins is related to an inhibition of leukocyte infiltration which can be explained at least in part by a down-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and that these compounds are capable of modulating TNF-alpha-induced VEGF transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailDramatic broadening of the substrate profile of the Aeromonas hydrophila CphA metallo-beta-lactamase by site-directed mutagenesis
Bebrone, Carine ULg; Anne, C.; De Vriendt, K. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(31), 28195-28202

Among class B beta-lactamases, the subclass B2 CphA enzyme is characterized by a unique specificity profile. CphA efficiently hydrolyzes only carbapenems. In this work, we generated site-directed mutants ... [more ▼]

Among class B beta-lactamases, the subclass B2 CphA enzyme is characterized by a unique specificity profile. CphA efficiently hydrolyzes only carbapenems. In this work, we generated site-directed mutants that possess a strongly broadened activity spectrum when compared with the WT CphA. Strikingly, the N116H/N220G double mutant exhibits a substrate profile close to that observed for the broad spectrum subclass B1 enzymes. The double mutant is significantly activated by the binding of a second zinc ion under conditions where the WT enzyme is non-competitively inhibited by the same ion. [less ▲]

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See detailIconographie de l'aura: du magique au sacré
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Espressione/Contenuto : Rivista dell’Associazione Italiana di Studi Semiotici (2005)

Cet article examine et critique les notions d’« aura » et de reproductibilité technique de W. Benjamin par rapport au medium photographique. En premier lieu l’aura est analysée par rapport à la photo en ... [more ▼]

Cet article examine et critique les notions d’« aura » et de reproductibilité technique de W. Benjamin par rapport au medium photographique. En premier lieu l’aura est analysée par rapport à la photo en tant qu’objet « original » et en même temps reproductible, donc par rapport à son statut hybride qui la situe entre les arts autographiques (syntaxiquement denses selon N. Goodman) et les arts allographiques (arts de la notation et de la reproduction). La photo se présente donc comme un art autographique à objet multiple. En deuxième lieu, l’aura est analysée par rapport à la photo en tant que texte : dans ce cas j’ai étudié l’iconographie de l’aura, c’est-à-dire le halo de lumière dans la photographie spirite du début du XX siècle et dans la photographie contemporaine. Dans le premier cas, le halo est lié à la représentation de la transcendance et à des « syntaxes des présences » qui relèvent d’un circuit magique ; dans le deuxième cas, le halo est lié à une relation entre le visible et l’invisible qui relève des valeurs sacrées de l’existence. La notion d’aura concerne la photo en tant qu’objet ainsi que la photo en tant que texte : dans les deux cas elle concerne une « intersection de présences ». Dans le cas de la photo en tant qu’objet unique, l’intersection de présences concerne la rencontre entre la trace du corps du photographe et le regard actuel de l’observateur qui constitue l’aura ; dans le cas de la photo en tant que texte, c’est la représentation de l’intersection entre visible et invisible (le halo). [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative designs for the imaging suite on Solar Orbiter
Auchere, Frederic; Song, Xueyen; Rouesnel, Frederic et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2005, August 01)

Orbiting around the Sun on an inclined orbit with a 0.2 UA perihelion, the Solar Orbiter probe will provide high resolution views of the Sun from various angles unattainable from Earth. Together with a ... [more ▼]

Orbiting around the Sun on an inclined orbit with a 0.2 UA perihelion, the Solar Orbiter probe will provide high resolution views of the Sun from various angles unattainable from Earth. Together with a set of high resolution imagers, the Full Sun Imager is part of the EUV Imaging suite of the Solar Orbiter mission. The mission's ambitious characteristics draw severe constraints on the design of these instruments. We present a photometrically efficient, compact, and lightweight design for the Full Sun Imager. With a 5 degrees field of view, this telescope will be able to see the global solar coronal structure from high viewing angles. Thermal solutions reducing the maximum power trapped in the High Resolution Imagers are also proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailColloidal stability of aqueous suspensions of barium zirconate
Boschini, Frédéric ULg; Rulmont, André ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in Journal of the European Ceramic Society (2005), 25(13), 3195-3201

In this article, the colloidal behaviour of aqueous suspensions of barium zirconate is investigated. The variation of zeta-potential as a consequence of changing the pH and the concentration of an anionic ... [more ▼]

In this article, the colloidal behaviour of aqueous suspensions of barium zirconate is investigated. The variation of zeta-potential as a consequence of changing the pH and the concentration of an anionic polyelectrolyte is studied, the isoelectric point occurring at pH 5.3. The IEP shifts down on calcining the powder and also when anionic polyelectrolytes are added. Rheological studies have been made on suspensions prepared to a solids loading of 27 vol.% (72 wt.%). Optimum dispersing conditions are reached for suspensions prepared at basic pH with 1.5 wt.% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and a concentration of ammonium polymethacrylate (PMAA) of 1.6 wt.%. Comparison with similar suspensions prepared with NaOH instead PMAA demonstrated that TMAH gives an extra contribution to stability, probably related to the adsorption of N+(Me)(4) groups. The suspensions were slip cast, and green densities higher than 60% of theoretical were obtained. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver transplantation in Jehovah's witnesses
Detry, Olivier ULg; De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg et al

in Transplant International (2005), 18(8), 929-936

For religious reasons, Jehovah's witnesses refuse transfusion of blood products (red cells, platelets, plasma), but may accept organ transplantation. The authors developed a multidisciplinary protocol for ... [more ▼]

For religious reasons, Jehovah's witnesses refuse transfusion of blood products (red cells, platelets, plasma), but may accept organ transplantation. The authors developed a multidisciplinary protocol for liver transplantation in Jehovah's witnesses. In a 6-year period, nine Jehovah's witness patients were listed for liver transplantation. They received preoperative erythropoietin therapy, with iron and folic acid that allowed significant haematocrit increase. Two patients underwent partial spleen embolization to increase platelet count. Seven patients underwent cadaveric whole liver transplantation, and two right lobe living-related liver transplantation, using continuous circuit cell saving system and high dose aprotinin. No patient received any blood product during the surgical procedure. One patient suffering from deep anaemia after living-related liver transplantation was transfused as required by his family, but died from aspergillus infection. One 6-year-old child was transfused against her parent's will. The authors demonstrated that it is possible to increase haematocrit and platelet levels in cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation. They were able to reduce intraoperative need for blood products, allowing liver transplantation in prepared Jehovah's witness patients. This experience may be beneficial for non-Jehovah's witness liver transplant recipients. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des ressources humaines face au changement culturel
Robert, Jocelyne ULg

Article for general public (2005)

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See detailMemory in contracts. The experience of the EBRD (1991-2003)
Artige, Lionel ULg; Nicolini, Rosella

Conference (2005, August)

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See detailPredictors and rates of treatment-resistant tumor growth in acromegaly
Besser, G. M.; Burman, P.; Daly, Adrian ULg

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2005), 153(2), 187-193

Background: Multimodal therapy for acromegaly affords adequate disease control for many patients; however, there remains a subset of individuals that exhibit treatment-resistant disease. The issue of ... [more ▼]

Background: Multimodal therapy for acromegaly affords adequate disease control for many patients; however, there remains a subset of individuals that exhibit treatment-resistant disease. The issue of treatment-resistant pituitary tumor growth remains relatively under-explored. Methods: We assessed the literature for relevant data regarding the surgical, medical and radio-therapeutic treatment of acromegaly in order to identify the factors that were predictive of aggressive or treatment-resistant pituitary tumor behavior in acromegaly and undertook an assessment of the rates of failure to control tumor progression with available treatment modalities. Results: Young age at diagnosis, large tumor size, high growth hormone secretion and certain histological markers are predictors of future aggressive tumor behavior in acromegaly. Significant tumor regrowth occurs in less than 10% of cases thought to be cured surgically, whereas failure to control tumor growth is seen in less than 1% of patients receiving radiotherapy. Somatostatin analogs induce a variable degree of tumor shrinkage in acromegaly but up to 2.2% of somatostatin analog-treated tumors continue to grow. Relative to other therapies, limited data are available for pegvisomant, but these indicate that persistent tumor growth occurs in 1.6-2.9% of cases followed up regularly with serial magnetic resonance imaging scans. Conclusions: Treatment-resistant tumor progression occurs in a small minority of patients with acromegaly, regardless of treatment modality. Young patients with large tumors or those with high pre-treatment levels of growth hormone particularly warrant close monitoring for continued tumor progression during treatment for acromegaly. [less ▲]

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See detailSymmetries of modules of differential operators
Gargoubi, Hichem; Mathonet, Pierre ULg; Ovsienko, Valentin

in Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics (2005), 12(3), 348-380

Let F_lambda(S^1) be the space of tensor densities of degree (or weight) lambda on the circle S^1. The space D_lambda,mu(k)(S^1) of k-th order linear differential operators from F_lambda(S^1) to F_mu(S^1 ... [more ▼]

Let F_lambda(S^1) be the space of tensor densities of degree (or weight) lambda on the circle S^1. The space D_lambda,mu(k)(S^1) of k-th order linear differential operators from F_lambda(S^1) to F_mu(S^1) is a natural module over Diff(S^1), the diffeomorphism group of S^1. We determine the algebra of symmetries of the modules D_lambda,mu(k)(S^1), i.e., the linear maps on D_lambda,mu(k)(S^1) commuting with the Diff(S^1)-action. We also solve the same problem in the case of straight line R (instead of S^1) and compare the results. [less ▲]

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See detailDescriptors of Posidonia oceanica meadows: Use and application
Pergent-Martini, Christine; Leoni, Vanina; Pasqualini, Vanina et al

in Ecological Indicators (2005), 5(3), 213-230

The conservation of the coastal marine environment requires the possession of information that enables the global quality of the environment to be evaluated reliably and relatively quickly. The use of ... [more ▼]

The conservation of the coastal marine environment requires the possession of information that enables the global quality of the environment to be evaluated reliably and relatively quickly. The use of biological indicators is often an appropriate method. Seagrasses in general, and Posidonia oceanica meadows in particular, are considered to be appropriate for biomonitoring because of their wide distribution, reasonable size, sedentary habit, easy collection and abundance and sensitivity to modifications of littoral zone. Reasoned management, on the scale of the whole Mediterranean basin, requires standardized methods of study, to be applied by both researchers and administrators, enabling comparable results to be obtained. This paper synthesises the existing methods applied to monitor P. oceanica meadows, identifies the most suitable techniques and suggests future research directions. From the results of a questionnaire, distributed to all the identified laboratories working on this topic, a list of the most commonly used descriptors was drawn up, together with the related research techniques (e.g. standardization, interest and limits, valuation of the results). It seems that the techniques used to study meadows are rather similar, but rarely identical, even though the various teams often refer to previously published works. This paper shows the interest of a practical guide that describes, in a standardized way, the most useful techniques enabling P. oceanica meadows to be used as an environmental descriptor. Indeed, it constitutes the first stage in the process. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailGeochemistry of cumulates from the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion (S. Norway). Part II. REE and the trapped liquid fraction
Charlier, Bernard ULg; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg

in Lithos (2005), 83(3-4), 255-276

Rare earth elements in bulk cumulates and in separated minerals (plagioclase, apatite, Ca-poor and Ca-rich pyroxenes, ilmenite and magnetite) from the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion (Rogaland ... [more ▼]

Rare earth elements in bulk cumulates and in separated minerals (plagioclase, apatite, Ca-poor and Ca-rich pyroxenes, ilmenite and magnetite) from the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion (Rogaland Anorthosite Province, SW Norway) are investigated to better define the proportion of trapped liquid and its influence on bulk cumulate composition. In leuconoritic rocks (made up of plagioclase, Ca-poor pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, olivine), where apatite is an intercumulus phase, even a small fraction of trapped liquid significantly affects the REE pattern of the bulk cumulate, together with cumulus minerals proportion and composition. Contrastingly, in gabbronoritic cumulates characterized by the presence of cumulus Ca-rich pyroxene and apatite, cumulus apatite buffers the REE content. La/Sm and Eu/Eu* VS. P2O2 variations in leuconorites display mixing trends between a pure adcumulate and the composition of the trapped liquid, assumed to be similar to the parental magma. Assessment of the trapped liquid fraction in leuconorites ranges from 2 to 25% and is systematically higher in the north-eastern part of the intrusion. The likely reason for this wide range of TLF is different cooling rates in different parts of the intrusion depending on the distance to the gneissic margins. The REE patterns of liquids in equilibrium with primitive cumulates are calculated with mass balance equations. Major elements modelling (Duchesne, J.C., Charlier, B., 2005. Geochemistry of cumulates from the Bjerkreiin-Sokndal layered intrusion (S. Norway): Part I. Constraints from major elements on the mechanism of cumulate formation and on the jotunite liquid line of descent. Lithos. 83, 299-254) permits calculation of the REE content of melt in equilibrium with gabbronorites. Partition coefficients for REE between cumulus minerals and a jotunitic liquid are then calculated. Calculated liquids from the most primitive cumulates are similar to a primitive jotunite representing the parental magma of the intrusion, taking into account the trapped liquid fraction calculated from the P2O5 content. Consistent results demonstrate the reliability of liquid compositions calculated from bulk cumulates and confirm the hypothesis that the trapped liquid has crystallized as a closed-system without subsequent mobility of REE in a migrating interstitial liquid. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM-LSS survey - The XMDS/VVDS 4 sigma catalogue
Chiappetti, L.; Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 439(1), 413-425

We present a first catalogue of X-ray sources resulting from the central area of the XMM-LSS (Large Scale Structure survey). We describe the reduction procedures and the database tools we developed and ... [more ▼]

We present a first catalogue of X-ray sources resulting from the central area of the XMM-LSS (Large Scale Structure survey). We describe the reduction procedures and the database tools we developed and used to derive a well defined catalogue of X-ray sources. The present catalogue is limited to a sub-sample of 286 sources detected at 4 sigma in the 1 deg(2) area covered by the photometric VVDS (VIRMOS VLT Deep Survey), which allows us to provide optical and radio identifications. We also discuss the X-ray properties of a larger X-ray sample of 536 sources detected at > 4 sigma in the full 3 deg(2) area of the XMM Medium Deep Survey (XMDS) independently of the optical identification. We also derive the log N - log S relationship for a sample of more than one thousand sources that we discuss in the context of other surveys at similar fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations for large-disturbance analysis
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Grenier, Marie-Eve; Lefebvre, Daniel

(2005, August)

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term power system responses to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. A method combining detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations is ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term power system responses to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. A method combining detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations is presented, the former being used for accuracy and the latter for ef ciency reasons. Detailed time simulation is used to analyze the short-term period following a large disturbance and identify the discrete controls triggered. Next, quasi steady-state simulation is used to simulate the same time interval with the discrete controls imposed as external events, before letting the system evolve as usual in the long term. This simple method has been successfully tested on the Hydro-Québec system. [less ▲]

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See detailINVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING VOLTAGE SECURITY OF THE HELLENIC INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM
Christoforidis, George; Kabouris, John; Vournas, Costas et al

(2005, August)

The Hellenic Interconnected System pre-sents a structural geographical imbalance between generation sites and load centers. This imbalance leads to bulk power transfers on long electrical distances ... [more ▼]

The Hellenic Interconnected System pre-sents a structural geographical imbalance between generation sites and load centers. This imbalance leads to bulk power transfers on long electrical distances leading to voltage stability problems. In order to improve the opera-tional practices aiming at improving the voltage security, an on-line Voltage Security Assessment tool has been installed at the National Control Center of the Hellenic Transmission System Operator that operates and controls the interconnected power system of Greece. This paper presents some indicative results obtained by the use of this tool. The analysis includes the investigation of the main parameters that affect the voltage stability of the system, such as the position of non-automatic taps of autotrans-formers, the network topology, and the spatial distribution of generation. [less ▲]

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See detailFeedback mechanisms for global oscillations in Lure systems
Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg; Stan, G. B.

in Systems & Control Letters (2005), 54(8), 809-818

The paper presents two mechanisms for global oscillations in feedback systems, based on bifurcations in absolutely stable systems. The external characterization of the oscillators provides the basis for a ... [more ▼]

The paper presents two mechanisms for global oscillations in feedback systems, based on bifurcations in absolutely stable systems. The external characterization of the oscillators provides the basis for a (energy-based) dissipativity theory for oscillators, thereby opening new possibilities for rigorous stability analysis of high-dimensional systems and interconnected oscillators. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOxygen influence on the ß-oxidative metabolism of methyl ricinoleate for lactones production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
Aguedo, Mario ULg

in Proceedings of the 2nd Mercosur Congress on Chemical Engineering – ENPROMER and 4th Mercosur Congress on Process Systems Engineering (2005, August)

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is able to carry out the peroxisomal b-oxidative catabolism of methyl ricinoleate, a process leading notably to the production of g-decalactone, a high-value aroma compound ... [more ▼]

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is able to carry out the peroxisomal b-oxidative catabolism of methyl ricinoleate, a process leading notably to the production of g-decalactone, a high-value aroma compound. In fact, this metabolic pathway gives rise to different C10 lactones and their accumulations report the efficiency of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. gamma-Decalactone or 3-hydroxydecan-4-olide accumulate when acyl-CoA oxidase or 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, respectively, control the flux within the pathway. We investigated the accumulation of C10 lactones in various aeration conditions. An important accumulation of 3-hydroxydecan-4-olide was observed when increasing the aeration up to a certain point, above it its concentration was lowered, which indicates a stimulation of the activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Cultures under high-pressure were performed in order to increase the oxygen in the medium by an alternative mean. Y. lipolytica growth in glucose medium was accelerated at 0.5 MPa of total air pressure. A decrease in g-decalactone production was observed with the increase in pressure. Curiously, applying a pressure of 0.5 MPa during growth and then during biotransformation resulted in high decenolides concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of surface properties of lactic acid bacteria on the stability of emulsions
Ly, M. H.; Waché, Y.; Bouchez-Naïtali, M. et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd Mercosur Congress on Chemical Engineering – ENPROMER and 4th Mercosur Congress on Process Systems Engineering (2005, August)

Bacteria have physicochemical surface properties which depend on the chemical composition of the cell surface. These characters proceed from several type of physicochemical interactions and are involved ... [more ▼]

Bacteria have physicochemical surface properties which depend on the chemical composition of the cell surface. These characters proceed from several type of physicochemical interactions and are involved in attachment processes of microorganisms to surfaces. Thus they are of interest in several areas, as biomedicine, formation of biofilms and adhesion to apolar surfaces. Moreover, food matrix are complex heterogeneous media, which structure settles on interaction forces between molecules (van der Waals, electrostatic or structural forces…). When bacteria are present in a matrix, it is probable that their surface interacts with the other constituents. So far, few studies have mentioned this subject. In order to understand the involvement of cells surface properties in a food matrix, the effect of surface properties of lactic bacteria on the stability of model emulsions were studied. The results showed that the choice of a bacterium according to its surface properties may have a strong impact on the stability and on the behavior of an emulsion. [less ▲]

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