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See detailThe B-CGMS project : evaluation after 5 years of monitoring and prediction
Curnel, Y.; Oger, Robert ULg; Leteinturier, B. et al

Conference (2006, October)

The B-CGMS project, started in 1998, is the adaptation to Belgian Conditions of the European Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS). This project involved 3 Belgian scientific institutes: the Walloon ... [more ▼]

The B-CGMS project, started in 1998, is the adaptation to Belgian Conditions of the European Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS). This project involved 3 Belgian scientific institutes: the Walloon agricultural research Centre (CRA-W), the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) and the University of Liège (ULg). The main difference with the European system is that more detailed inputs (meteorological, soil and NUTS inputs) are used. Crop yields predictions are realised on a monthly basis during the growing season (from April to September) for 6 crops (winter wheat, winter barley, maize, Potato, sugar beet, winter rapeseed). Yields predictions as well as analyses of meteorological situation of the month and RS information on the state of the crops are published in agrometeorological bulletins sent by e-mail since 2002. The information is also available on the Internet website of the project (http://.b-cgms.cra.wallonie.be). Crop yields predictions are produced through a combination of linear regression models which may include different categories of yield indicators (trend, meteo, RS and agrometeorological model outputs). Crop yields predictions procedure is currently semi-automated by the use of a statistical calibration toolbox (StatCaT). The evaluation of the project after 5 years of monitoring and prediction has first shown that final yields predicted B-CGMS as well as the ones predicted by MARS are coherent compared with official yields: no significant differences are observed. As far as the accuracy according to the month for which the prediction is made is concerned, we can notice that at agricultural circumscriptions level and for winter crops a lower precision of B-CGMS is observed before June and that there is no improvement in July (in comparison with June). The same evolution is observed for summer crops before July but in August and September, the prediction accuracy decreases. Even if calibration models present high adjusted coefficient of determination, the technological trend explains an important part of the variability and it is therefore necessary to consider the effect of a year factor on the quality of prediction in order to clearly the interest of the agrometeorological model. For some crops (as potato), adding agrometeorological yield outputs to models including already the technological trend allow to improve the quality of prediction especially for “extreme” year i.e. years where official yields move away significantly from the technological trend. For others crops as winter wheat, this improvement of the quality of prediction is not observed. However, fortunately, adding other yield indicators as meteo indicators can improve in general the quality of prediction and once again especially for “extreme” years. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring of the crop water stress in Belgium. The case of the 2003 heat wave.
Horion, Stéphanie; Tychon, Bernard ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg

Conference (2006, October)

In this paper the crop water stress is evaluated with three different indices: (i) the Relative Soil Moisture Index [RSMI] resulting from agrometeorological model simulations, (ii) the Normalized ... [more ▼]

In this paper the crop water stress is evaluated with three different indices: (i) the Relative Soil Moisture Index [RSMI] resulting from agrometeorological model simulations, (ii) the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, [NDVI] applied on S10 SPOT-VGT imagery, (iii) the Normalized Difference Water Index, [NDWI] applied on S10 SPOT-VGT imagery. The RSMI is one of the outputs of the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System. It indicates the soil water availability for crops. Crop water stress is assumed when soil water availability is lower than the crop potential evapotranspiration. One of the potential applications for drought monitoring is the calculation of the number of days with a crop water stress during the growing season or more precisely during the “moisture-sensitive period” of the crop. The two others (well-known) indices are derived from low resolution satellite imagery. Complete time series of S10 SPOT-VGT NDVI and NDWI data - i.e. from April 1998 onwards – have been acquired for the research. Using spatial information on land-uses in Belgium, a simple unmixing method is implemented to partly reduce the problem of mixed values occurring inevitably in 1x1km² pixels. Only the most agricultural pixels are considered for the analysis. The heat wave occurred during the summer 2003 has been chosen as a study case for the comparison. This summer was particularly hot, dry and sunny with the highest averaged temperature ever recorded from June to August in Uccle-Belgium. Many human activities were affected by this particular climatic condition, among which agriculture. In order to make the comparison possible, a standardization of the outputs of the 3 indexes is realised, taking into account the times series of each indexes. Moreover all the outputs are aggregated at municipality level. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen leaf area decline of wheat top three leaves in Belgium and G-D of Luxembourg from 2003 to 2006 : the relationships with grain yield.
Martin, B.; Tychon, Bernard ULg; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

Conference (2006, October)

The modified Gompertz model developed by Gooding et al. (2000) was used to describe the decline in green area of wheat top three leaves in field experiments where green leaf area at time t = 100*exp[-exp ... [more ▼]

The modified Gompertz model developed by Gooding et al. (2000) was used to describe the decline in green area of wheat top three leaves in field experiments where green leaf area at time t = 100*exp[-exp(-k*(t-m))]. In the absence of fungicide, green leaf area decline was associated with drought or infection with a number of foliar pathogens including Septoria tritici (sexual stage Mycospherella graminicola) and Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici and Erysiphe graminis. On the whole experiments and cultivars there was no effect of fungicide on k but it was highly significant on m (P<0.001). When main effects are considered, fungicide delayed green leaf area decline rather than reduced its rate of progress once started. Fungicide had variable effects on grain yield, largely reflecting variation in disease infection pressures in the different years and susceptibility of the different cultivars. If no correlation was observed between k values and grain yields, m was at the contrary very closely associated with grain yields. This study supports the view of Gooding (2000) and Gaunt (1995) that, for many diseases, effects on green area duration give an adequate estimate of host yield reduction. Therefore we have use the close relationship between the parameter m of the Gompertz model and grain yield to improve the Belgium-Crop Growth Monitoring System (B-CGMS) by recalibrating LAI evolution simulated by B-CGMS according to the evolution of LAI derived from the Gompertz model. The system includes indeed a component allowing taking into account senescence in the evolution of LAI during the growing season. Recalibration has been realized through the modification of one of the parameters influencing the leaf senescence, the SPAN parameter. Modifying the SPAN parameter comes down to modify the lifespan of leaves. Considering that parasitic pressure reduces leaves lifespan and therefore the photosynthetic capacity, this approach makes it possible to take into account the influence of this pressure on yield predictions in the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring of the crop water stress in Belgium. The case of the 2003 heat wave.
Horion, Stephanie; Tychon, Bernard ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg

Conference (2006, October)

In this paper the crop water stress is evaluated with three different indices: (i) the Relative Soil Moisture Index [RSMI] resulting from agrometeorological model simulations, (ii) the Normalized ... [more ▼]

In this paper the crop water stress is evaluated with three different indices: (i) the Relative Soil Moisture Index [RSMI] resulting from agrometeorological model simulations, (ii) the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, [NDVI] applied on S10 SPOT-VGT imagery, (iii) the Normalized Difference Water Index, [NDWI] applied on S10 SPOT-VGT imagery. [less ▲]

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See detailLa recherche et le développement en Europe dans le domaiine de la qualité et de la technologie de la viande et des produits carnés
Clinquart, Antoine ULg

in Viandes et Produits Carnés - Hors série "11èmes Journées des Sciences du Muscle et Technologies des Viandes" (2006, October)

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See detailNous ne pouvons ajourner la réforme des politiques d'aide au développement
Gemenne, François ULg; Niang, Abdoul Jelil; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2006)

Barça ou Barzakh, un autre monde ou l'autre monde, Barcelone ou l'au-delà. Voici le leitmotiv de tous ces candidats à l'exil qui s'entassent quotidiennement dans des cayucos, ces grandes pirogues colorées ... [more ▼]

Barça ou Barzakh, un autre monde ou l'autre monde, Barcelone ou l'au-delà. Voici le leitmotiv de tous ces candidats à l'exil qui s'entassent quotidiennement dans des cayucos, ces grandes pirogues colorées utilisées pour la pêche, en direction des îles Canaries. Après les départs massifs observés à partir de Nouadhibou, en Mauritanie septentrionale, les départs s'étalent vers le sud, du Sénégal, de Guinée-Bissau et même de Guinée-Conakry, soit des traversées de plus de 2000 kilomètres. Depuis le début de l'année, ils sont plus de 25 000 à avoir atteint les côtes espagnoles, largement plus que le « record » établi à 9929 pour toute l'année 2002. Mais combien y ont laissé la vie ? Il est malaisé de répondre à cette question. [...] [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifications naturelles projectivement équivariantes
Radoux, Fabian ULg

Scientific conference (2006, September 28)

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See detailQue les 4x4 arrêtent leur char
Balthasar, Jean-Pierre; Collignon, Fabrice; De Wit, Pierre et al

Article for general public (2006)

Des 4x4 dans la ville, est-ce bien raisonnable? Ce qui est certain, c'est que les SUV et leurs conducteurs représentent pour les autres usagers de la voie publique un danger disproportionné. Un article ... [more ▼]

Des 4x4 dans la ville, est-ce bien raisonnable? Ce qui est certain, c'est que les SUV et leurs conducteurs représentent pour les autres usagers de la voie publique un danger disproportionné. Un article récent du «British Medical Journal» rapporte que les conducteurs de SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle ou véhicule utilitaire de sport; on désigne ici ces véhicules 4x4 de luxe très à la mode) sont quatre fois plus nombreux à conduire en téléphonant (l'appareil à la main, sans «mains-libres») que la moyenne des conducteurs. Ils sont aussi plus nombreux à conduire sans ceinture. Le sentiment de sécurité procuré par le véhicule inciterait le conducteur à prendre plus de risques. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility study of the modernization of Wielingen class frigates
Marchal, Jean ULg; Hage, André ULg; Dessart, Christophe et al

(2006, September 25)

The research group MRN04 has made a study of modernization of frigates of the Belgian Navy. The modernization includes fitting out of a landing area for an 11 tonnes helicopter, modifying the ... [more ▼]

The research group MRN04 has made a study of modernization of frigates of the Belgian Navy. The modernization includes fitting out of a landing area for an 11 tonnes helicopter, modifying the superstructure to solve the problems of cracks and reducing the radar cross section. The proposal of the group MRN04 consists of widening and stiffness the stern deck in order to permit landing of a helicopter, surrounding the existing superstructure by a new envelop having a better furtivity. The resistance of the helicopter landing area and the rigidity of the superstructure has been estimated by structural computations by finite elements method, which permits to choose the most adequate structure. Once the weight of the new elements is known, a new estimation of the weight is established. It permits to calculate the draft and the trim, and serves as the data to calculate the ship resistance. In fact, the speed of the frigate, as a crucial point, should not decrease too much. The ship resistance will be obtained by means of model tests in the towing tank in the University of Liège. The study shows the possibility to lay out a landing area for a helicopter of 11 tonnes as well as to decrease significantly the radar cross section, without severe reduction of the frigate speed. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional activation of cyclooxygenase-2 by tumor suppressor p53 requires nuclear factor-kappaB
Benoit, Valérie; de Moraes, E.; Dar, N. A. et al

in Oncogene (2006), 25(42), 5708-5718

Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is thought to exert antiapoptotic effects in cancer. Here we show that the tumor suppressor p53 upregulated Cox-2 in esophageal and colon cancer cell lines by ... [more ▼]

Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is thought to exert antiapoptotic effects in cancer. Here we show that the tumor suppressor p53 upregulated Cox-2 in esophageal and colon cancer cell lines by inducing the binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) to its response element in the COX-2 promoter. Inhibition of NF-kappaB prevented p53 induction of Cox-2 expression. Cooperation between p53 and NF-kappaB was required for activation of COX-2 promoter in response to daunomycin, a DNA-damaging agent. Pharmacological inhibition of Cox-2 enhanced apoptosis in response to daunomycin, in particular in cells containing active p53. In esophageal cancer, there was a correlation between Cox-2 expression and wild-type TP53 in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and in adenocarcinoma, but not in squamous cell carcinoma (P < 0.01). These results suggest that p53 and NF-kappaB cooperate in upregulating Cox-2 expression, promoting cell survival in inflammatory precursor lesions such as BE. [less ▲]

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See detailXMM-Newton observations of the massive colliding wind binary and non-thermal radio emitter Cyg OB2#8A [O6If+O5.5III(f)]
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Sana, H. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2006), 371(3), 1280-1294

We report on the results of four XMM-Newton observations separated by about ten days from each other of Cyg OB2 #8A [O6If + O5.5III(f)]. This massive colliding wind binary is a very bright X-ray emitter ... [more ▼]

We report on the results of four XMM-Newton observations separated by about ten days from each other of Cyg OB2 #8A [O6If + O5.5III(f)]. This massive colliding wind binary is a very bright X-ray emitter-one of the first X-ray emitting O-stars discovered by the Einstein satellite-as well as a confirmed non-thermal radio emitter whose binarity was discovered quite recently. The X-ray spectrum between 0.5 and 10.0 keV is essentially thermal, and is best fitted with a three-component model with temperatures of about 3, 9 and 20 MK. The X-ray luminosity corrected for the interstellar absorption is rather large, i.e. about 1034 erg s(-1). Compared to the 'canonical' L-X/L-bol ratio of O-type stars, Cyg OB2 # 8A was a factor of 19-28 overluminous in X-rays during our observations. The EPIC spectra did not reveal any evidence for the presence of a non-thermal contribution in X-rays. This is not unexpected considering that the simultaneous detections of non-thermal radiation in the radio and soft X-ray (below 10.0 keV) domains is unlikely. Our data reveal a significant decrease in the X-ray flux from apastron to periastron with an amplitude of about 20 per cent. Combining our XMM Newton results with those from previous ROSAT-PSPC and ASCA-SIS observations, we obtain a light curve suggesting a phase-locked X-ray variability. The maximum emission level occurs around phase 0.75, and the minimum is probably seen shortly after the periastron passage. Using hydrodynamic simulations of the wind-wind collision, we find a high X-ray emission level close to phase 0.75, and a minimum at periastron as well. The high X-ray luminosity, the strong phase-locked variability and the spectral shape of the X-ray emission of Cyg OB2 # 8A revealed by our investigation point undoubtedly to X-ray emission dominated by colliding winds. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the nature of the hard X-ray source IGR J2018+4043
Bykov, Andrei Mikhailovich; Krassilchtchikov, Alexandre Mikhailovich; Uvarov, Yuri Alexandrovich et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2006), 649(1, Part 2), 21-24

We found a very likely counterpart to the recently discovered hard X-ray source IGR J2018 + 4043 in the multiwavelength observations of the source field. The source, originally discovered in the 20-40 keV ... [more ▼]

We found a very likely counterpart to the recently discovered hard X-ray source IGR J2018 + 4043 in the multiwavelength observations of the source field. The source, originally discovered in the 20-40 keV band, is now confidently detected also in the 40-80 keV band, with a flux of (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(-11) ergs cm(-2) s(-1). A 5 ks Swift observation of the IGR J2018 + 4043 field revealed a hard pointlike source with an observed 0.5-10 keV flux of 3.4(-0.8)(+0.7) x 10(-12) ergs cm(-2) s(-1) (90% confidence level) at alpha = 20(h)18(m)38(s).55, delta = +40 degrees 41'00.4" (with a 4".2 uncertainty). The combined Swift-INTEGRAL spectrum can be described by an absorbed power-law model with photon index Gamma = 1.3 +/- 0.2 and N-H = 6.1(-2.2)(+3.3) x 10(22) cm(-2). In archival optical and infrared data we found a slightly extended and highly absorbed object at the Swift source position. There is also an extended VLA 1.4 GHz source peaked at a beamwidth distance from the optical and X-ray positions. The observed morphology and multiwavelength spectra of IGR J2018 + 4043 are consistent with those expected for an obscured accreting object, i.e., an AGN or a Galactic X-ray binary. The identification suggests possible connection of IGR J2018 + 4043 to the bright gamma-ray source GEV J2020 + 4023 detected by COS B and CGRO EGRET. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent investigations on the behaviour of buildings after the loss of a column
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Luu, Nguyen Nam Hai ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Dubina, Dan; Ungureanu, Viorel (Eds.) Steel: a new and traditional material for building (2006, September 20)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most of the cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. An European RFCS project entitled “Robust structures by joint ductility” has been set up in 2004, for three years, with the aim to provide requirements and practical guidelines allowing to ensure the structural integrity of steel and composite structures under exceptional events through an appropriate robustness. In particular, one substructure test simulating the loss of a column in a composite building will be performed at Liège University. The present paper described first analytical and numerical studies carried out at Liège University as part of this European project. [less ▲]

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See detailUn été exceptionnel ?
Balthasar, Jean-Pierre; Collignon, Fabrice; De Wit, Pierre et al

Article for general public (2006)

Quel été ! Que de records ! Après l'été 2003, le plus chaud jamais observé en Europe au cours de ces cinq derniers siècles, le mois de juillet 2006 a de nouveau pulvérisé les records de températures ... [more ▼]

Quel été ! Que de records ! Après l'été 2003, le plus chaud jamais observé en Europe au cours de ces cinq derniers siècles, le mois de juillet 2006 a de nouveau pulvérisé les records de températures enregistrés en Belgique depuis 1833, avec près de 6°C au dessus de la normale. Le mois d'août exécrable fut par contre le plus sombre depuis le début des observations météorologiques en Belgique. Et le centre de la ville de Liège, comme d'autres localités du pays, a été fortement inondé à deux reprises en six semaines suite à des pluies diluviennes que certains qualifient de tropicales. [...] [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation objective de paramètres en écoulements turbulents à surface libre sur maillage multibloc
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg

Doctoral thesis (2006)

The chronology of the theoretical and numerical researches outlined in this text is closely linked to our attachment to the physical modelling and to the practical concerns related to important hydraulic ... [more ▼]

The chronology of the theoretical and numerical researches outlined in this text is closely linked to our attachment to the physical modelling and to the practical concerns related to important hydraulic projects. The various applications carried out daily in the HACH , several of the being presented here, enabled to identify the ways to improve the existing numerical models of WOLF , as well as needs in new representation potentialities. The most of the developments described in this text were born from there, with as main objective to increase the capacities of the HACH’s models to help to the management and the design of hydraulic constructions. The hydraulic structures design, and the main part of the practical problems related to free surface flows hydrodynamics, requires both large and small scales studies, with reliable models locally suited to the represented phenomena, and thus variable in a single study depending on the particular point examined. On another hand, the shape and working optimization of hydraulic structures requires robust calibration tools allowing an objective approach. The latter have to be linked to simulation software with modelling capacities and computation times in agreement with the optimization requirements. Both these assessments specify the framework of the researches of this thesis and are at the roots of the definition of the objectives of this work. The first chapters of developments aim to describe the numerical framework of the WOLF package, and more particularly the 1D and 2D models. The rationalization of the computation times for large scale one-dimensional simulations is improved at this stage by implementing in the 1D solver an implicit time integration scheme in parallel to the existing explicit one. Similarly, some improvements have been brought to the solver WOLF2D. They concern the automatic extension of the computation domain regarding the wet and dry cells, the treatment of the slope and roughness source terms with an energetic approach, the water volume conservation as well as the reorganization of the equations resolution scheme in order to be totally free in the choice of the mathematical model to solve. The enrichment of the modelling potentialities of the WOLF software is then pursued by setting, implementing and applying an original turbulence model suited to the specific characteristics of the depth integrated flow modelling. In order to get over the computer and modelling limitations inherent in the use of a single mesh size to model a 2D domain, developments have been carried out to allow the realisation of two-dimensional computations on a structured Cartesian grid composed of several areas with different mesh sizes. In the same way, developments have been carried out to use the whole of the mathematical models available in WOLF2D simultaneously and automatically in a single simulation. The ultimate step of these developments consisted in linking the 1D and the 2D models in a single computation. Following all these steps of developments of hydrodynamic models, a suitable tool for parameters automatic calibration has been set up. Usable with any solver of the WOLF package, it allows the calibration of the whole of the physical parameters present in the hydrodynamic solvers, as well as the resolution of any calibration or optimization problem with these models. The final parallelisation of this Genetic Algorithms based tool opens the door to complex applications, such as the hydraulic design of structures on the basis of two-dimensional simulations of free surface turbulent flows on multiblock grid. At each step, the validation of the developments is rigorously performed through the comparison of the numerical results with those from test cases, theoretical or experimental, original or from the literature. Several practical applications examples illustrate the whole of the developed modelling potentialities and prove their applicability and efficiency facing the most of practical problems encountered by hydraulic engineers. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Août 2006
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2006), 5(5),

L’année 2006 restera dans les annales comme étant une année exceptionnelle au niveau météorologique tant par son printemps froid que par son mois de juillet très sec et son mois d’août particulièrement ... [more ▼]

L’année 2006 restera dans les annales comme étant une année exceptionnelle au niveau météorologique tant par son printemps froid que par son mois de juillet très sec et son mois d’août particulièrement pluvieux. Ces conditions exceptionnelles rendent très délicates les prévisions de rendement. Il faut signaler que les rendements estimés sont ceux sur pieds et ils ne prennent pas en considération les pertes dues aux mauvaises conditions de récolte. Les rendements prévus pour les principales cultures de printemps restent très proches des moyennes calculées sur les 5 dernières années. [less ▲]

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See detailL'a priori fonctionnel. Étude de l'influence de Wittgenstein sur la pensée de Michel Bitbol
Pieret, Denis ULg

Master's dissertation (2006)

Un même constat unit Wittgenstein et Bitbol, l’un le dresse vis-à-vis du langage et l’autre vis-à-vis de la physique classique : des présupposés dus à la forme prédicative de la proposition nous poussent ... [more ▼]

Un même constat unit Wittgenstein et Bitbol, l’un le dresse vis-à-vis du langage et l’autre vis-à-vis de la physique classique : des présupposés dus à la forme prédicative de la proposition nous poussent à chercher la substance derrière le substantif. Ce que Wittgenstein montre, et que Bitbol voit dans les bouleversements apportés par la mécanique quantique, c’est que le point de vue divin que l’on pouvait prétendre adopter, était en réalité l’illusion d’un point de vue. Même si Kant nous avait déjà mis en garde contre cette illusion, l’usage du comme si pour maintenir l’idée de nature comme idéal régulateur permettait de constituer une physique qui, que l’on fût dupe ou non, ambitionnait de donner une "image de l’univers assez complète pour englober vraiment l’observateur-théoricien en train de dépeindre l’univers". Mais les obstacles que dresse la mécanique quantique rendent désormais ce projet illusoire. La position du réaliste scientifique se révèle être une tentative impossible pour prendre sur le monde un "point de vue de nulle part", comme le dit Putnam. [less ▲]

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See detailRecherche de symbioses chimiosynthétiques et/ou digestives chez des crustacés associés aux bois coulés
Hoyoux, Caroline ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (16 ULg)