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See detailEt la pollution marine?
Faucher, Karine ULg; Lepage, Caroline

Article for general public (2005)

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See detailL'ancrage local des référentiels normatifs globaux : une approche en termes de réseaux.
Semal, Nathalie ULg

in VertigO : la Revue Electronique en Sciences de l'Environnement (2005), 6(3), 122-133

The ISO 14001 standard is currently the worldwide reference for Environmental Management System. For it has been produced at and for international level, how does it become embedded in local situations ... [more ▼]

The ISO 14001 standard is currently the worldwide reference for Environmental Management System. For it has been produced at and for international level, how does it become embedded in local situations and action context. This article highlights the role of expertise in this embedding process in the framework of conceptual and methodological repertory of the sociology of translation. We firstly describe activities and actors that are involved in certification. Then our analyse is focused on triple role of environmental management expertise in embeddedness process of ISO 14001 standard: translation, netting and experience capitalization. [less ▲]

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See detailSociété civile et nouvelle gouvernance au Bénin. Quelques réflexions à partir de l'analyse du nouveau secteur ONG à Cotonou
Pirotte, Gautier ULg; Poncelet, Marc ULg

in Bulletin de l'APAD (2005), (26),

Les auteurs montrent que dans le cadre de l'imporisition d'une "bonne gouvernance" en République du Bénin, les ONG locales jouent à présent un rôle central dans la constitution d'une société civile. L ... [more ▼]

Les auteurs montrent que dans le cadre de l'imporisition d'une "bonne gouvernance" en République du Bénin, les ONG locales jouent à présent un rôle central dans la constitution d'une société civile. L'espace social de la société civile implique aujourd'hui les leaders des nouvelles ONG très dépendantes des bailleurs occidentaux mais aussi les agents étatiques qui tentent de se positionner comme acteur au sein des nouveaux secteurs ONG tout en conservant leur fonction publique. Le processus d'émergence d'une société civile au Bénin ne peut se résumer ni à une privatisation de l'Etat ni à une étatisation de la société civile. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel diagnostic approach to carpal tunnel syndrome
WANG, François-Charles ULg; GERARD, Pascale ULg; ISERENTANT, Cynthia ULg

Scientific conference (2005, December)

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See detailLa Belgique garde-t-elle vraiment la foi ?
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Article for general public (2005)

Les articles sur le devenir de l'Eglise catholique en Belgique mettent souvent en évidence le renouveau des pratiques dans certains groupes de la population, mais négligent l'apport des enquêtes ... [more ▼]

Les articles sur le devenir de l'Eglise catholique en Belgique mettent souvent en évidence le renouveau des pratiques dans certains groupes de la population, mais négligent l'apport des enquêtes quantitatives, qui montrent que, selon tous les critères possibles, la sécularisation de la société belge se poursuit : non seulement les pratiques, mais les croyances, se regugient dans la partie la plus âgée de la population et concernent un nombre toujours décroissant de personnes. Ce qui n'exclut pas le maintien d'une forme de "spriritualité religieuse" assez floue dans une partie significative de ceux qui ont abandonné les pratiques classiques. [less ▲]

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See detailTiming Feedback Control of a Rhythmic System
Ronsse, Renaud; Lefevre, Philippe; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference 2005 (2005, December)

This paper addresses the question relative to the role of sensory feedback in rhythmic tasks. We study the properties of a sinusoidally vibrating wedge-billiard as a model for 2-D bounce juggling. If this ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the question relative to the role of sensory feedback in rhythmic tasks. We study the properties of a sinusoidally vibrating wedge-billiard as a model for 2-D bounce juggling. If this wedge is actuated with an harmonic sinusoidal input, it has been shown that some periodic orbits are exponentially stable. This paper explores an intuitive method to enlarge the parametric stability region of the simplest of these orbits. Accurate processing of timing is proven to be an important key to achieve frequency-locking in rhythmic tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailLe traitement clinique du chômage
Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Doctoral thesis (2005)

Cette thèse prend pour objet une politique publique : la politique du Parcours d’insertion. Menée dans les différents Etats membres de l’Union depuis le milieu des années 1990, au nom d’une meilleure ... [more ▼]

Cette thèse prend pour objet une politique publique : la politique du Parcours d’insertion. Menée dans les différents Etats membres de l’Union depuis le milieu des années 1990, au nom d’une meilleure intégration et coordination des multiples actions destinées aux personnes en recherche d’emploi, cette politique « active » d’emploi vise le développement de l’employabilité des chômeurs, entendons par là leur capacité d’insertion socioprofessionnelle, leurs « chances » d’accéder à un emploi durable et de qualité. Nous procédons à l’analyse de cette politique publique sous l’angle, bien particulier, du travail quotidien de trois groupes d’intermédiaires publics du marché du travail chargés de mettre en œuvre cette politique en Région wallonne (Belgique), d’en traduire les énoncés en action sur autrui : les conseillers en accompagnement professionnel du FOREM, les conseillers en formation de Carrefour Formation, les travailleurs sociaux d’Entreprises de Formation par le Travail. L’analyse tend à montrer que l’action de ces intermédiaires oriente le traitement du chômage dans une voie clinique : l’action des intermédiaires publics du marché du travail, qui vise principalement à mettre le chômeur au travail sur lui-même, repose sur la construction professionnelle de « troubles » de l’employabilité. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of acid containing montmorillonite on the properties of Nafion® membranes
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULg et al

in Polymer (2005), 46(25), 11389-11395

The counter-ions of montmorillonite have been exchanged for ammonium cations containing either a sulfonic acid or a carboxylic acid in order to improve the performances of sulfonated membranes in direct ... [more ▼]

The counter-ions of montmorillonite have been exchanged for ammonium cations containing either a sulfonic acid or a carboxylic acid in order to improve the performances of sulfonated membranes in direct methanol fuel cell. These layered silicates have been dispersed within Nafion® by solution mixing. Comparison with conventional organo-modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B) shows that the incorporation of carboxylic acid in the clay galleries improves the filler dispersion and, consequently, the methanol barrier properties. Moreover, the negative impact of Cloisite 30B on the ionic conductivity is restricted. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning Reliability Models of Grid Resource Supplying
Briquet, Cyril ULg; de Marneffe, Pierre-Arnoul ULg

in Bubak, Marian; Turala, Michal; Wiatr, Kazimierz (Eds.) CGW'05 Proceedings (2005, November 22)

Resource exchange between Grid participants is at the core of Grid computing. Distributed bartering is a distributed and moneyless method of resource exchange. Recent work related to distributed bartering ... [more ▼]

Resource exchange between Grid participants is at the core of Grid computing. Distributed bartering is a distributed and moneyless method of resource exchange. Recent work related to distributed bartering has mainly dealt with resource supplying. However, Grid participants still face an unstable resource environment due to the partial and intermittent nature of the exchanged resources. The problem considered in this paper is the unreliability of resource supplying. Though it cannot be totally avoided, a proactive stance may lower its impact in the long run. We propose to explore the reduction of performance variability by improving resource consumption. The goal is to enable Grid participants to identify and avoid unreliable resource suppliers by learning reliability models of resource supplying. A Machine Learning problem is defined and the generated models are applied to select more reliable resources in the hope of improving resource consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailFar ultraviolet remote sensing of the isotropy boundary and magnetotail stretching
Blockx, Caroline ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Meurant, M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2005), 110(A11),

Several studies have attempted to identify the isotropy boundary (IB) defining the limit between the adiabatic and nonadiabatic trajectories of the trapped protons along closed magnetic field lines. This ... [more ▼]

Several studies have attempted to identify the isotropy boundary (IB) defining the limit between the adiabatic and nonadiabatic trajectories of the trapped protons along closed magnetic field lines. This boundary is an indicator of the amount of magnetic field line stretching in the magnetotail. Previous studies were based on in situ measurements, resulting in spatially and temporally restricted samples. To overcome these limitations, we propose to use global data obtained with the FUV spectrographic proton auroral imager (SI12) on board the IMAGE satellite. We determine at each magnetic local time the position of an optical boundary related to the IB and thereby to the stretching of the magnetic field lines. We show that the correspondence between the latitude of the maximum proton precipitation observed by SI12 and the IB measured by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites is statistically established and depends on the magnetic local time. The relation between the position of the maximum proton precipitation as well as the intensity of this maximum and the magnetic field distortion is determined by comparison with GOES 8 data. We suggest that SI12 images can be used as a tool to globally determine the isotropy boundary and to monitor the level of stretching in the magnetotail. [less ▲]

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See detailTerritoires et développement durable
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Larrue, Corine; Ruegg, Jean

Conference (2005, November 18)

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See detailPrevention of perinatal group B streptococcak diseases: update and guidelines
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in Ducoffre, Geneviève (Ed.) Program and Abstracts book of 2005 Symposium of ISP (2005, November 17)

Face à l’importance et à la gravité des infections périnatales à streptocoques du groupe B (GBS), depuis dix ans, différentes approches préventives ont été proposées. Le point commun est l’administration ... [more ▼]

Face à l’importance et à la gravité des infections périnatales à streptocoques du groupe B (GBS), depuis dix ans, différentes approches préventives ont été proposées. Le point commun est l’administration intraveineuse d’antibiotiques pendant le travail et l’accouchement aux patientes identifiées « à risque » soit par un dépistage de colonisation maternelle pendant la grossesse, soit par la présence de facteurs de risque définis. En 2002, après quelques années d’implémentation et d’adoption des recommandations éditées par le CDC (Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA) en 1996, différentes études ont évalué l’efficacité des alternatives et ont démontré pour différentes raisons, la supériorité du dépistage pendant la grossesse pour l’identification des mères « à risque ». C’est pourquoi, en août 2002, le CDC publiait une version révisée des recommandations en proposant un dépistage universel, c'est-àdire de TOUTES les femmes enceintes. Parallèlement d’autres pays, notamment la France et la Belgique, évaluaient aussi l’efficacité et la faisabilité de différentes stratégies plus ou moins proches de celles du CDC. Depuis juillet 2003, les recommandations belges « Prevention of Perinatal Group B streptococcal Infections. Guidelines from the Belgium Health Council . (SHC. 721) » sont disponibles sur le site du CSH : (http://www.health.fgov.be/CSH_HGR/Francais/Brochures/GBS_2003.pdf et http://www.health.fgov.be/CSH_HGR/Nederlands/Brochures/GBS_2003.pdf). Ces recommandations sont très proches de celles du CDC moyennant quelques adaptations techniques et de prises en charge des nouveau-nés et, qui devraient en améliorer l’efficacité. Ces recommandations belges seront présentées et discutées. L’efficacité optimale attendue de ces recommandations est une réduction de 75% des cas d’infection néonatale précoce confirmés par culture. Pour atteindre cet objectif, la communication et une coordination multidisciplinaires sont indispensables entre le service de gynécologie-obstétrique, le laboratoire, le bloc d’accouchement et le service de néonatologie. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous aortic flow augmentation - A pilot study of hemodynamic and renal responses to a novel percutaneous intervention in decompensated heart failure
Konstam, M. A.; Czerska, B.; Bohm, M. et al

in Circulation (2005), 112(20), 3107-3114

Background - Diminished aortic flow may induce adverse downstream vascular and renal signals. Investigations in a heart failure animal model have shown that continuous aortic flow augmentation ( CAFA ... [more ▼]

Background - Diminished aortic flow may induce adverse downstream vascular and renal signals. Investigations in a heart failure animal model have shown that continuous aortic flow augmentation ( CAFA) achieves hemodynamic improvement and ventricular unloading, which suggests a novel therapeutic approach to patients with heart failure exacerbation that is inadequately responsive to medical therapy. Methods and Results - We studied 24 patients ( 12 in Europe and 12 in the United States) with heart failure exacerbation and persistent hemodynamic derangement despite intravenous diuretic and inotropic and/or vasodilator treatment. CAFA ( mean +/- SD 1.34 +/- 0.12 L/min) was achieved through percutaneous ( n = 19) or surgical ( n = 5) insertion of the Cancion system, which consists of inflow and outflow cannulas and a magnetically levitated and driven centrifugal pump. Hemodynamic improvement was observed within 1 hour. Systemic vascular resistance decreased from 1413 +/- 453 to 1136 +/- 381 dyne (.) s (.) cm(-5) at 72 hours ( P = 0.0008). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure decreased from 28.5 +/- 4.9 to 19.8 +/- 7.0 mm Hg ( P < 0.0001), and cardiac index ( excluding augmented aortic flow) increased from 1.97 +/- 0.44 to 2.27 +/- 0.43 L (.) min(-1) (.) m(-2) ( P = 0.0013). Serum creatinine trended downward during treatment ( overall P = 0.095). There were 8 complications during treatment, 7 of which were self-limited. Hemodynamics remained improved 24 hours after CAFA discontinuation. Conclusions - In patients with heart failure and persistent hemodynamic derangement despite intravenous inotropic and/or vasodilator therapy, CAFA improved hemodynamics, with a reduction in serum creatinine. CAFA represents a promising, novel mode of treatment for patients who are inadequately responsive to medical therapy. The clinical impact of the observed hemodynamic improvement is currently being explored in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. [less ▲]

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See detailUrgent Carotid Endarterectomy: A prospective non randomised study, of 42 cases
Desfontaines, P.; Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg

in Journal of the Neurological Sciences (2005, November 15), 238(Suppl. 1), 393

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See detailCombination of ring-opening polymerization and "click" chemistry towards functionalization of aliphatic polyesters
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Schmeits, Stephanie ULg; Stoffelbach, François et al

in Chemical Communications (2005), (42), 5334-5336

Azide pendent groups of aliphatic polyesters have been derivatized into tertiary amines, ammonium salts and poly(ethylene oxide) grafts. The experimental conditions have been optimized (organic solvent ... [more ▼]

Azide pendent groups of aliphatic polyesters have been derivatized into tertiary amines, ammonium salts and poly(ethylene oxide) grafts. The experimental conditions have been optimized (organic solvent, 35 degrees C), such that the aliphatic polyesters are not degraded, including even poly(lactide) which is very sensitive to attack by weak nucleophiles. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation behavior of thermo-responsive block copolymers based on poly(vinyl ethers)
Verdonck, Béatrice; Gohy, Jean-François; Khousakoun, Eric et al

in Polymer (2005), 46(23), 9899-9907

Thermo-sensitive nanosized structures have been prepared in water from poly(methyl vinyl ether)-block-poly(isobutyl vinyl ether) (PMVE-b-PIBVE) block copolymers. The composition and the architecture ... [more ▼]

Thermo-sensitive nanosized structures have been prepared in water from poly(methyl vinyl ether)-block-poly(isobutyl vinyl ether) (PMVE-b-PIBVE) block copolymers. The composition and the architecture (diblock and triblock architectures) of the PMVE-b-PIBVE copolymers have been varied. The investigated copolymers had an asymmetric composition with a major PMVE block, While the PIBVE blocks are hydrophobic, the PMVE blocks are hydrophilic at room temperature and become hydrophobic above their demixing temperature (around 36 degrees C) as a result of the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior. At room temperature, the amphiphilic copolymers aggregate in water above a critical micelle concentration, which has been experimentally measured by hydrophobic dye solubilization. The hydrodynamic diameter of the structures formed above the cmc has been measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) while their morphology has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). H-1 NMR measurements in D2O at room temperature reveal that the aggregates contain PIBVE insoluble regions surrounded by solvated PMVE chains. These investigations have shown that polydisperse spherical micelles are formed for asymmetric PMVE-b-PIBVE copolymers containing at least 9 IBVE units. For copolymers containing less IBVE units, loose aggregates are formed. Finally, the thermo-responsive, reversible properties of these structures have been investigated. Above the cloud point of the copolymers, the loose aggregates precipitate while the micelles form large spherical structures. [less ▲]

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See detailAbility of nitrones of various structures to control the radical polymerization of styrene mediated by in situ formed nitroxides
Sciannamea, Valérie; Guerrero-Sanchez, Carlos; Schubert, Ulrich S. et al

in Polymer (2005), 46(23), 9632-9641

The ability of several nitrones to control the radical polymerization of styrene at 110 °C has been investigated by high-throughput experimentation. The nitrone/free radical initiator pair dictates the ... [more ▼]

The ability of several nitrones to control the radical polymerization of styrene at 110 °C has been investigated by high-throughput experimentation. The nitrone/free radical initiator pair dictates the structure of the nitroxide and the alkoxyamine formed in situ, which determines the position of the equilibrium between the active and the dormant species operating in the nitroxide-mediated polymerization. For the styrene polymerization to be controlled, the nitrone must be reacted with 2,2'-azo-bis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN) at 85 °C, prior to addition of styrene and polymerization at 110 °C. The effect of the nitrone structure on the kinetics of the styrene polymerization has been emphasized. Amongst all the nitrones tested, those of the C-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) type are the most efficient in terms of polymerization rate, control of molecular weight and polydispersity. Electrophilic substitution of the phenyl group of PBN by either an electrodonor or an electroacceptor group has only a minor effect on the polymerization kinetics. Importantly, the polymerization rate is not governed by the thermal polymerization of styrene but by the alkoxyamine formed in situ during the pre-reaction step. The initiation efficiency is, however, very low, consistent with a limited conversion of the nitrone into nitroxide and alkoxyamine. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph
Mawet, D.; Riaud, Pierre ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2005), 633

We present a new phase mask coronagraph consisting in an optical vortex induced by a space-variant surface relief subwavelength grating. Phase mask coronagraphy is a recent technique aiming at ... [more ▼]

We present a new phase mask coronagraph consisting in an optical vortex induced by a space-variant surface relief subwavelength grating. Phase mask coronagraphy is a recent technique aiming at accommodating both high dynamic and high angular resolution imaging of faint sources around bright objects such as exoplanets orbiting their parent stars or host galaxies of active galactic nuclei. Subwavelength gratings are known to be artificially birefringent. Their unique dispersive characteristics can be controlled through the grating geometry in order to synthesize achromatic phase shifters. We show that implementing them in a ring-shaped way produces a fully symmetric and achromatic coronagraph without any gap or ``dead zone.'' The practical manufacturing of the device is also discussed. [less ▲]

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