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See detailLa certification des modes de production de la viande sous label
De Longueville, Bertrand; Peeters, Alain; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in Wallonie : Revue du Conseil Economique et Social de la Région Wallonne (2002)

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See detailRepeated intracoronary beta radiation for recurrent in-stent restenosis.
De Benedetti, E; Latchem, D; Roguelov, C et al

in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions (2002), 55(2), 233-236

More than 70% of percutaneous coronary interventions are followed by a stent implantation. In-stent restenosis still occurs in 20-30% of patients and remains a therapeutic challenge. At present only ... [more ▼]

More than 70% of percutaneous coronary interventions are followed by a stent implantation. In-stent restenosis still occurs in 20-30% of patients and remains a therapeutic challenge. At present only vascular brachytherapy has been shown to be an effective treatment option. We report here one case of recurrent in-stent restenosis after vascular brachytherapy that was successfully treated by a second beta radiation treatment. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2002;55:233–236. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of methalothionein in irradiated human rectal carcinoma.
Bouzourene, H; Chabert, P; Gebhardt, S et al

in Cancer (2002), 95(5), 1003-1008

BACKGROUND. Metallothioneins (MT) are low-molecular weight, metal-binding proteins that play a role in cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as in cellular defense mechanisms. They act as ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. Metallothioneins (MT) are low-molecular weight, metal-binding proteins that play a role in cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as in cellular defense mechanisms. They act as scavengers of free radicals produced by irradiation. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have linked overexpression of cellular MT with tumor cell resistance to radiation. This is the first study that investigates whether MT expression is involved in the radioresistance of rectal carcinoma. METHODS. Using a mouse monoclonal antibody, MT expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on surgical samples (n 85) from 85 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma who were treated preoperatively with a hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedule and on tumor biopsies (n 13) obtained before treatment. The potential correlations between MT expression and pathologic variables and survival were examined. RESULTS. MT were expressed strongly in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of tumor cells in 7 biopsy and 42 surgical samples. A comparison of MT expression in biopsy and surgical specimens showed that MT expression did not change after irradiation in most cases. Against all expectations, MT were expressed more frequently in tumors from responders than in those from the nonresponders (P 0.02). There was no correlation between MT expression and tumor stage, histology after radiotherapy, or survival. CONCLUSION. These findings do not support the hypothesis that MT overexpression at the end of radiotherapy is a marker for radiation resistance. Cancer 2002;95: 1003–8. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10780 [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation-associated synovial-sarcoma: clinicopathological and molecular analysis of two cases.
Egger, J-F; Coindre, J-M; Benhattar, J et al

in Modern Pathology : An Official Journal of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc (2002), 15(9), 998-1004

Development of a soft-tissue sarcoma is an infrequent but well-known long-term complication of radiotherapy. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas, extraskeletal osteosarcomas, fibrosarcomas, malignant ... [more ▼]

Development of a soft-tissue sarcoma is an infrequent but well-known long-term complication of radiotherapy. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas, extraskeletal osteosarcomas, fibrosarcomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and angiosarcomas are most frequently encountered. Radiationassociated synovial sarcomas are exceptional. We report the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of two radiationassociated synovial sarcomas. One tumor developed in a 42-year-old female 17 years after external irradiation was given for breast carcinoma; the other occurred in a 34-year-old female who was irradiated at the age of 7 years for a nonneoplastic condition of the left hand. Both lesions showed morphologic features of monophasic spindle cell synovial sarcoma, were immunoreactive for cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, CD99, CD117 (c-kit), and bcl-2 and bore the t(X;18) (SYT-SSX1) translocation. We conclude that synovial sarcoma has to be added to the list of radiation-associated soft-tissue sarcomas. Mod Pathol 2002;15(9):998–1004 [less ▲]

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See detailEthanol-conditioned withdrawal syndrome
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Proceedings of the 22nd European Winterconference on Brain Research (2002)

The withdrawal syndrome is closely related to the concepts of tolerance and physical dependence. The chronic consumption of a drug is believed to induce adaptive changes that are designed to oppose the ... [more ▼]

The withdrawal syndrome is closely related to the concepts of tolerance and physical dependence. The chronic consumption of a drug is believed to induce adaptive changes that are designed to oppose the acute effects of the drug. Such adaptive changes increase the tolerance to acute drug effects but lead to physical dependence, which is revealed by withdrawal symptoms when the drug is cleared from the body. However, another form of adaptive response to repeated drug consumption has been identified. This adaptive response appears after the intermittent repeated administration of a drug in association with the same set of environmental stimuli. After several associations, these environmental stimuli become able to induce a conditioned adaptive response. Such response leads to the phenomenon of “environment-dependent tolerance” that was observed with many drugs of abuse. However, if the drug is not administered, the conditioned stimuli alone may induce a “conditioned withdrawal syndrome”. Although less studied than the classical withdrawal syndrome, this conditioned withdrawal syndrome may be of importance for the development of drug dependence. In our experiments, we have studied the development of a conditioned withdrawal syndrome after repeated associations of a specific set of environmental stimuli with ethanol injections in Wistar rats. After repeated administrations of ethanol, the rats showed a clear environmental-dependent tolerance to ethanol. Furthermore, these conditioned stimuli induced behavioral (hyperexcitation) and neurochemical (increase glutamate release) responses similar to those observed after chronic alcohol withdrawal. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de l'hérédité, du sexe et de la saison sur le type d'épisode dans le trouble bipolaire.
Mortazi, M.; Bertrand, Jean-Marie ULg; Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 171-5

The aim of this work was to investigate if sex, age, family history, season and hypothyroidism have any influence on the type of episodes (manic, depressive, mixed) seen in bipolar patients. This ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to investigate if sex, age, family history, season and hypothyroidism have any influence on the type of episodes (manic, depressive, mixed) seen in bipolar patients. This retrospective study concerns a sample of 208 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (type I or II), who were admitted in one of two psychiatric centers between July 1996 and June 2000. The sex-ratio was 2.8 females for 1 male. Sex, family history and hypothyroidism were not associated with any type of episode. A higher percentage of depressive episodes was observed in the patients who were older than 50 and the average age of depressive patients was higher than that of other patients. There was no seasonal pattern in this study and the season did not influence the type of episode. The results indicate no influence of sex, season, family history and hypothyroidism on the type of episode presented. On the opposite, age seems to favour depression episode. [less ▲]

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See detailDétermination automatique de la taille du pas de temps pour les schémas implicites en dynamique non-linéaire
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Mécanique & Industries (2002), 3(1), 63-77

Pour les problèmes caractérisés par de fortes non-linéarités, ainsi que des phénomènes d'impacts et de contacts, une stratégie d'intégration à pas de temps variables est particulièrement intéressante. Ces ... [more ▼]

Pour les problèmes caractérisés par de fortes non-linéarités, ainsi que des phénomènes d'impacts et de contacts, une stratégie d'intégration à pas de temps variables est particulièrement intéressante. Ces phénomènes sont par exemple rencontrés lors de l'étude dynamique d'une interaction aube-carter d'un moteur d'avion, le cas le plus critique étant la perte de l'aube. Une stratégie d'intégration implicite à pas de temps constant donne rarement satisfaction du fait qu'il est pratiquement impossible de déterminer une durée de pas qui ne conduise pas à la divergence ou à un coût de calcul prohibitif. Une gestion automatique du pas de temps, qui tient compte de l'histoire récente des accélérations dans le corps considéré, est proposée. En fait, l'algorithme est basé sur la mesure de l'erreur d'intégration des équations d'équilibre. Cela permet d'intégrer correctement les phénomènes transitoires avec un pas de temps très long (en régime) ou très petit (lors de la perte d'aube), en garantissant une bonne précision en un temps de calcul raisonnable. De plus, un algorithme qui décide automatiquement de recalculer ou non, la matrice hessienne est proposé. Cet algorithme permet d'éviter un nombre important de remises à jour de cette matrice, ce qui permet de réduire le coût de calcul tout en assurant la convergence. Enfin, un critère de divergence des itérations est proposé. Afin d'illustrer l'efficacité des algorithmes développés, des simulations numériques sont présentées. Il s'agit aussi bien de problèmes académiques que de problèmes industriels (contacts aubes carter). [less ▲]

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See detailLes cuirasses latéritiques et autres formations ferrugineuses tropicales : Exemple du Haut Katanga méridional
Alexandre, Jean ULg

in Annalen. Geologische Wetenschappen = Annales - Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. Sciences Géologiques (2002), 107

In Southern High Katanga, the ferruginous formations such as iron duricrusts and stone lines with lateritic nodules show a diversity as broad as in Western Africa. Bauxites are nevertheless almost absent ... [more ▼]

In Southern High Katanga, the ferruginous formations such as iron duricrusts and stone lines with lateritic nodules show a diversity as broad as in Western Africa. Bauxites are nevertheless almost absent proving that, here, aluminium does not contribute to the genesis of duricrust, leaving iron as the only responsible. Among that wide diversity, the indurated sands form a special case because of their dual origin. Because of a large porosity favouring a fast iron penetration and fixation, some of the sandy concretions or duricrusts may have a short history and some of them may even be very recent. Nevertheless the others have a genesis that fits in with the general longer scheme. The most frequent type of laterite crust is also the most complex one. Its facies is both nodular and vermicular. Several agents and climatic phases are involved in its formation : • A first planation surface with wide-open valleys where the water table lies near the surface induces favourable circumstances for the next step; • In such circumstances, nodules are shaped in the mottled soil horizon. One exceptionally well-preserved site evidences the proximity between mottles (the nodules to be) and water table level at the end of the dry season; • A revival of erosion enhances river down cutting which in turn lowers the water table so that termites can reach the mottled horizon; • Nodules are mechanically concentrated by elimination of the non-indurated zones (relative accumulation): within the soil, by termites (on shaly rocks), at the surface by run off (often, on sandy rocks, unfavourable to termites activity); X • Finally the ran off extends to both types of rock and denudes the indurated zone; • A ferruginous coating forms on different substrates : upper laterite surface, internal joints, termite galleries as well as on any gravel at the soil surface. The coating lies unbroken from one object to the other but the outer surface is frequently eroded. The superficial coating could be a rock varnish formed by bacteria during a desertic period. The coating of galleries partly inhibits bioturbation because they collapse no more. The network of the strengthened galleries constitutes an internal skeleton reinforcing the laterite mantle; • With the return of a less severe climate, termites from below the laterite mantle again bring up material. The resulting upper fine deposit often exceeds 2 meter. All those processes imply important climatic variations : • A steppe vegetation with a scanty grass cover favouring run off and planation; • A relatively arid climate for the coatings formation; • A contrasted seasonal regime, not so different from the present day climate (six months dry season) for vertical erosion and intense termite activity. The weathering of rocky materials except for the iron impregnated ones (nodules, ferricretes and so on) requires a humid climate. This is happening nowadays but the more humid Quaternary phases were more effective in that respect. The characteristics of the outer coatings (thickness, colour, conservation state of the included quartz grains) allow us to identify four levels of ferricrete. Their succession is confirmed by the relative position of the coatings between them and by the correlated continental deposits. Because of their coatings, all those ferricretes are dated back to the Tertiary (because of the desertic climate needed for the formation of the rock varnish). Their levels overlook the Quaternary river terraces. The oldest ferricrete is quite different from the others. It shows neither nodules nor termite galleries. Its facies is thus very different from the nodular/vermiform of the three younger ones. It shows three facies, sometimes superimposed : pisolithic, massive or breccia-like. Moreover, the ferricrete of the corresponding level in West Africa contains bauxite. Its genesis is the result of a very different sequence of processes, some aggressive and linked to a humid climate with a great supply of iron and others resulting from more arid conditions producing the thick pisolith coatings. Ferruginous stone-lines present a wider variety of concretions than duricrast. Their upper part is the result of a concentration mainly by run off that occurred during several periods of the Quaternary. Cover loam is each time built up again by the termites from weathered rocks below the stone-line. The same phenomenon is seen on ferricretes. The soil profile where ferruginous formations can be seen consists of horizons of different ages. Weathering of saprolite and soil lifting are still active nowadays. Whereas some stone-line profiles are renewed at each Quaternary dry phase, the ferricrete profiles are build up during a long period of time extending from the Tertiary till now. A new definition of iron duricrast is proposed that is not based on weathering in depth or on the presence of aluminium [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic stress as a paradigm to elucidate genotype-environment interaction in psychosis
Marcelis, Machteld; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Gielen, Jacques et al

in Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (2002), 105(Suppl. 411), 91

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See detailResearch on Instruction in Physical Education. Review of the Research in Selected Roman Languages.
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Physical Education (2002), 39(1), 12-20

In French, the term "intervention" is used since a few years. The paper will: (1) deal with the topic of instruction limites to teachers' decisions and interventions during the interactive phase in ... [more ▼]

In French, the term "intervention" is used since a few years. The paper will: (1) deal with the topic of instruction limites to teachers' decisions and interventions during the interactive phase in teaching; during this phase, activities planned in the pre-interactive phase are implemented: the interactive phase concerns the task's presentation, the pupils' activity and the control of this activity in terms of behavioural management and of the quality of the eprformance (feedback); (2) refer to the main research methods used in gathering data, and (3) develop the main findings in the domain of instruction: teacher thinking and behaviour, pupils' thoughts and behaviour, management of the class or in other words control of pupils' behaviour. It is evident that thougts and behaviours are closely related and are part of the relationship between teachers and pupils. The paper focused only on texts appearing in French, Portuguese and Spanish published since 1997 in Physical eeducation journals and Proceeddings of international congresses. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary Structure of Selected Archaeal Mesophilic and Extremely Thermophilic Outer Surface Layer Proteins
Claus, Harald; Akça, Erol; Debaerdemaeker, Tony et al

in Systematic & Applied Microbiology (2002), 25

The archaea are recognized as a separate third domain of life together with the bacteria and eucarya. The archaea include the methanogens, extreme halophiles, thermoplasmas, sulfate reducers and sulfur ... [more ▼]

The archaea are recognized as a separate third domain of life together with the bacteria and eucarya. The archaea include the methanogens, extreme halophiles, thermoplasmas, sulfate reducers and sulfur metabolizing thermophiles, which thrive in different habitats such as anaerobic niches, salt lakes, and marine hydrothermals systems and continental solfataras. Many of these habitats represent extreme environments in respect to temperature, osmotic pressure and pH-values and remind on the conditions of the early earth. The cell envelope structures were one of the first biochemical characteristics of archaea studied in detail. The most common archaeal cell envelope is composed of a single crystalline protein or glycoprotein surface layer (S-layer), which is associated with the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. The S-layers are directly exposed to the extreme environment and can not be stabilized by cellular components. Therefore, from comparative studies of mesophilic and extremely thermophilic S-layer proteins hints can be obtained about the molecular mechanisms of protein stabilization at high temperatures. First crystallization experiments of surface layer proteins under microgravity conditions were successful. Here, we report on the biochemical features of selected mesophilic and extremely archaeal S-layer (glyco-) proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the zinc finger Egr1 gene during zebrafish embryonic development
Close, Renaud; Toro, Sabrina; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Mechanisms of Development (2002), 118(1-2), 269-72

Egr1 is a highly conserved zinc finger protein which plays important roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and in the adult. The cDNA coding for zebrafish Egr1 was obtained and its expression ... [more ▼]

Egr1 is a highly conserved zinc finger protein which plays important roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and in the adult. The cDNA coding for zebrafish Egr1 was obtained and its expression pattern was examined during zebrafish embryogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Egr1 mRNA is first detected in adaxial cells in the presomitic mesoderm between 11 and 20 h post-fertilization (hpf), spanning the 4-24 somite stages. Later, Egr1 expression is observed only in specific brain areas, starting at 21 hpf and subsequently increasing in distinct domains of the central nervous system, e.g. in the telencephalon, diencephalon and hypothalamus. Between 24 and 48 hpf, Egr1 is expressed in specific domains of the hypothalamus, mesencephalon, tegmentum, pharynx, retina, otic vesicle and heart. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Mably à Marin. Dans le dédale ornemental de l'imprimeur parisien Quillau (XVIIIe siècle)
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Livre et l'Estampe (Le) (2002), 48(158), 43-69

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See detailLa Cour de cassation entre le pourvoi et les conclusions du ministère public
Boularbah, Hakim ULg; Linsmeau, J.

in Amicus curiae, quo vadis ? (2002)

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See detailA transformed fish cell line expressing a green fluorescent protein-luciferase fusion gene responding to cellular stress
Molina, A.; Carpeaux, Rudy ULg; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Toxicology in Vitro (2002), 16(2), 201-7

We obtained a stable transformed fish (EPC) cell line containing a reporter gene under the control of the tilapia HSP70 promoter. Expression of the reporter gene, coding for a green fluorescent protein ... [more ▼]

We obtained a stable transformed fish (EPC) cell line containing a reporter gene under the control of the tilapia HSP70 promoter. Expression of the reporter gene, coding for a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-luciferase fusion protein, was assessed by measuring the luciferase enzymatic activity by luminometry and the GFP expression by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The clone was characterized for its capacity to respond to heat shock treatment. The results show high induction after 1 h at 37 degrees C of treatment, up to 500-fold. In addition, its convenience to detect a large range of cellular stressors was evaluated. We observed high induction when Cd2+, Zn2+, Hg2+ or Cu2+ was added, but not Pb2+. In addition, activation of the reporter gene was observed in the presence of other compounds such as acetyl chloride, tetrachlorophenol, chloroacetamide and sodium arsenite. In conclusion, this cell line can be used as a rapid, cheap and easy biological test to determine cellular stress induced by environmental pollutants, alone or in conjunction with other, more specific assays. [less ▲]

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See detailFeedbacks Via Internet (FVI)
Gilles, Jean-Luc ULg; Pirson, Marc ULg

Software (2002)

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See detailThe use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for studies of genetic variation in populations of Coccinella septempunctata in Belgium.
Haubruge, Eric ULg; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie; Collignon, Pierre et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 557-61

The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators ... [more ▼]

The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled from Belgium and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Twenty decamer primers generated more than hundred polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). This study shows that while a number of factors can complicate the use and interpretation of RAPD fragments as genetic markers, RAPD analysis can be a valuable technique for studies of intra-specific genetic variation in C. septempunctata. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de l’ouvrage de Gianluca Mori : Bayle philosophe
Donneau, Olivier ULg

in Hieros : Bulletin Annuel de la Société Belgo-luxembourgeoise d'Histoire des Religions (2002), 6

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