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See detailM-N interaction in beam-to-column joints - Development of a design model
Demonceau, Jean-François ULiege; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULiege

in Zingoni, Alphose (Ed.) Proceedings of the SEMC 2010 International Conference (2010, September 06)

The component method is a nowadays widely recognized procedure for the evaluation of the design properties of structural joints. It is used as a reference method in the Eurocodes and the proposed rules in ... [more ▼]

The component method is a nowadays widely recognized procedure for the evaluation of the design properties of structural joints. It is used as a reference method in the Eurocodes and the proposed rules in these codes are mainly devoted to the characterization of joints subjected to bending moments and shear forces. However, in some situations, these joints can be subjected to combined axial loads and bending mo-ments, for instance in frames subjected to an exceptional event leading to the loss of a column, situation where significant tying forces can developed in the structural beams above the lost column. In this paper, a design model, founded on the component method, aiming at predicting the behaviour of joints subjected to com-bined axial loads and bending moments is presented. In particular, it is illustrated how this model was vali-dated through comparisons to recent experimental tests performed on steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of volume constraint and mass constraint in structural topology optimization with multiple materials
Gao, Tong; Zhang, Weihong; Duysinx, Pierre ULiege

in Rodrigues, Helder (Ed.) Book of abstracts and proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Engineering Optimization (2010, September 06)

Instead of adopting the common idea of using volume constraint in topology optimization, this work investigates alternative formulations of the design problem of multiphase structures based on other mass ... [more ▼]

Instead of adopting the common idea of using volume constraint in topology optimization, this work investigates alternative formulations of the design problem of multiphase structures based on other mass and single phase volume constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonal Learning Environment on a Procrustean Bed – Using PLEM in a Secondary-School Lesson
Verpoorten, Dominique ULiege; Chatti, M; Westera, W et al

in Shoniregun, C; Akmayeva, G (Eds.) Proceedings of the London International Conference on Education (LICE-2010) (2010, September 06)

This paper reports on the use of a Web 2.0 artifact by nine 14/15 year-old pupils in a formal learning context. The gathered data provides a first appreciation of how the participants saw the action of ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on the use of a Web 2.0 artifact by nine 14/15 year-old pupils in a formal learning context. The gathered data provides a first appreciation of how the participants saw the action of tagging resources as affecting four dimensions of their learning experience: satisfaction, feeling of learning, effects on memorization and understanding and personalization of the learning sequence. Based on these self-reported judgments, a discussion is opened on the mere decision to divert highly complex Web 2.0 tools into "ordinary" learning Tools. [less ▲]

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See detailLe minerai de fer (autour) de la Haute Ardenne, Cartographie, Histoire et Géologie
Denayer, Julien ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

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See detailImplémentation d'une méthode de détection du virus de la diarrhée virale bovine au sein de la fondation de la promotion des productions andines Proinpa (Bolivie)
Martin, Marjolaine ULiege

Master's dissertation (2010)

An animal infected by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus will have diarrheas, which can lead to milk production reduction, reproduction problems (and particularly abortion problems) and general weakness ... [more ▼]

An animal infected by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus will have diarrheas, which can lead to milk production reduction, reproduction problems (and particularly abortion problems) and general weakness. This all leads to an economic loss. This is why the virus detection and the carriers, or Persistently Infected (PI) animals, eradication are important. If the virus presence was previously suspected in Bolivia, since 2009 it is certain that there is BVDV infection and the prevalence is high in comparison with others areas. Furthermore, this virus can also infect « New Worlds camelids » which are the alpacas, lamas, vicunas and guanacos species living in South-America. The aim of this study was to implement a BVDV detection method for the Foundation of Andeans Productions Promotion PROINPA in Bolivia. This objective was first met by a prevalence evaluation of the virus using ELISA anti-antibodies analysis. Then, a screening of the tested herds containing animals with a positive serology was done by real-time PCR and finally the PI animals were detected by individual real-time PCR analysis or by two ELISA anti-antigens analysis’s in a 3 week's interval. There was no problem from an infrastructure viewpoint; the laboratories have all the necessary material and equipment and the labor was qualified for both analyses. But the logistic part was more difficult, because the molecular kit has to be preserved at minus twenty degrees. And this kit took 10 days to arrive from Belgium. Because none of the molecular analysis’s succeeded, we concluded that the kit had been damaged during the travel and had been degraded. The kit conservation conditions seemed to be a problem and that is why the elaboration of a new lyophilized kit was tried in Belgium. The lyophilisation of the BVDV sequences, the IPC and EPC was easy but wasn’t possible for the Master MIX (containing the Taq Polymerase (Taq)) and the Reverse Transcriptase (RT). The « Illustra Ready-To-GoTM RT-PCR Beads », from GE Healthcare, are beads made of Taq and RT that can be stored at room temperature. The combination of a lyophilized part of the LSI kit (BVDV sequences, EPC and IPC) with those beads will lead to a molecular BVDV detection kit that can be stored at room temperature. However, this combination doesn’t seem to work. This can be due to a lot of different things like the incompatibility between the primers size and design and the Taq, the temperature activities of the Taq and the RT, the salt concentration, etc. In conclusion, different experiments are required to finalize a qPCR kit resistant to long trip conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailBioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil - Improvement of in situ bioremediation by bioaugmentation with endogenous and exogenous strains
Tarayre, Cédric ULiege

Poster (2010, September 03)

Petroleum pollution has now become a real problem because hydrocarbons are persistent contaminants in soils and water. Contamination problems increase when ages of relevant facilities, such as oil storage ... [more ▼]

Petroleum pollution has now become a real problem because hydrocarbons are persistent contaminants in soils and water. Contamination problems increase when ages of relevant facilities, such as oil storage tanks and pipelines, increase over time. The evolution of Legislation concerning soil pollution has led to the need of efficient techniques able to restore the polluted ground. Unfortunately, these techniques are expensive. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soils has been recognized as an efficient, economic and environmentally sound treatment. Particularly biostimulation and bioaugmentation are being studied in labs. A lot of studies tried to determine which method is the most efficient, but the conclusions diverge. Moreover, conditions are different in labs and contaminated sites. [less ▲]

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See detailL'importance de ne pas être aveugle à la dimension de genre dans l'étude de la participation sociale, civique et politique des jeunes
Gavray, Claire ULiege; Born; Waxweiler, Charline ULiege

Conference (2010, September 02)

le traitement des données de l'European Social Survey' montre l'intérêt de prendre en compte la question de la socialisation genrée dans l'analyse de l'engagement politique et civique des jeunes

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See detailStructure trophique et diversité des macro-organismes associés aux litières de Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, dans la baie de Calvi en Corse.
Remy, François ULiege

Master's dissertation (2010)

Le but de ce travail était d'évaluer la diversité et la variabilité à petite échelle des macro-invertébrésassociés à la litière de feuilles mortes de Posidonia oceanica, ainsi que de caractériser les ... [more ▼]

Le but de ce travail était d'évaluer la diversité et la variabilité à petite échelle des macro-invertébrésassociés à la litière de feuilles mortes de Posidonia oceanica, ainsi que de caractériser les relations trophiques existant entre ces organismes. Le volet trophique du travail a été étudié en utilisant deux méthodes : l'examen de contenus stomacaux et la mesure des rapports isotopiques du carbone et de l'azote. La campagne de prélèvements a eu lieu en novembre 2009, à deux stations situées dans la Baie de la Revellata à proximité de la station STARESO (Calvi, Corse). Les prélèvements ont été effectués sur deux accumulayions de litière, c'est-à-dire de feuilles mortes de posidonie associées à des macroalgues arrachées et à des pousses vivantes de posidonie. Les crustacés, et plus particulièrement les amphipodes gammaridés dominent largement les prélèvements. L'espèce Gammarella fucicola représente à elle seule 55% des organismes prélevés. Les espèces trouvées dans nos prélèvements sont également souvent présentes au sein de l'herbier de posidonie. Nous pensons que les différences existant entre les deux sites de prélèvements du point de vue de l'abondance, la densité et la diversité des organismes sont principalement dues aux caractéristiques physicochimiques de la litière et à son état de stabilité. En effet, il est probable que l'état de dégradation influence l'assemblage d'espèces présentes dans la litière. La combinaison des contenus stomacaux et des rapports isotopiques nous ont permis de confirmer le régime alimentaire détritivore des amphipodes et Idotea baltica, et donc leur rôle dans la fragmentation de la litière. Nous avons également pu mettre en évidence pour Athanas nitescens et Liocarcinus arcuatus, deux décapodes, un niveau trophique intermédiaire entre consommateur primaire et détritivore. Palaemon adspersus, un autre décapode, semble être le seul consommateur secondaire vrai que nous ayons pu analyser et les données suggèrent qu'il se nourrisse principalement d'Amphipodes. Bien qu'ils ne l'assimilent pas tous de la même façon, la plupart des organismes ingèrent une quantité non-négligeable de litière, ce qui suggère que ces animaux jouent tous un rôle plus ou moins important dans la fragmentation des feuilles, et donc dans le flux de carbone de la litière vers les niveaux supérieurs du réseau trophique. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation du succès de restaurations de pelouses calcicoles de la vallée du Viroin : densité en individus et succès reproducteur de deux espèces cibles.
Harzé, Mélanie ULiege

Master's dissertation (2010)

Calcareous grasslands are local biodiversity « hotspots ». Unfortunately, these exceptional ecosystems have undergone a drastic fragmentation since the abandonment of traditional agro pastoral practices ... [more ▼]

Calcareous grasslands are local biodiversity « hotspots ». Unfortunately, these exceptional ecosystems have undergone a drastic fragmentation since the abandonment of traditional agro pastoral practices. Consequently, many calcareous grassland species are now in danger. In Belgium, since 1990, many hectares of these habitats have been restored to reassemble remaining fragments of calcareous grasslands. The main goal of this work is to participate at the scientific evaluation of calcareous grasslands restoration which took place in the Viroin valley (Namur, Belgium). To reach this goal, information about global and local densities of 2 grasslands species (Helianthemum nummularium and Sanguisorba minor) have been collected on 6 working zones (2 reference grasslands, 2 restored in 1990 and 2 restored in 2006) situated on 2 different sites. Reproductive success traits have been measured on 120 individual samples of each species. Moreover, individuals’ size parameters and some environmental data (soil depth and vegetation structure) have been collected. Results show that global and local densities are lower on recently restored grasslands for both species studied. On the other hand, older restorations and reference grasslands are not significantly different. With regards to the reproductive success of species, individuals on grasslands restored in 2006 have the best results. They produce more flowers, or inflorescences, and more seeds. Differences observed for individuals’ reproductive success have their more probable cause in vegetation structure. The vegetation in the zones that have been restored more recently is more open as the shrubs and trees layer is lower. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du terroir mahorais et de l'influence des paramètres environnementaux sur la qualité de l'huile essentielle d'ylang-ylang (Cananga orodata (Lam.) Hook. & Thoms.) à Mayotte)
Hick, Aurélie ULiege

Master's dissertation (2010)

La présente étude découle d’une série de travaux de recherche sur l’huile essentielle d’ylang-ylang dans l’océan Indien, commencée en 2006 aux Comores. Cet arbre à parfum est essentiellement produit dans ... [more ▼]

La présente étude découle d’une série de travaux de recherche sur l’huile essentielle d’ylang-ylang dans l’océan Indien, commencée en 2006 aux Comores. Cet arbre à parfum est essentiellement produit dans cette région du globe où les conditions climatiques sont propices à son développement. L’ylang-ylang n’est cependant pas endémique à ces îles. Il a été importé dans l’océan Indien et plus particulièrement, à La Réunion par les planteurs, dans les années 1850. Il fut, par la suite, introduit à Madagascar et dans l’archipel comorien. L’Union des Comores, Madagascar et l’île de Mayotte se partagent le marché mondial de cette huile essentielle. Néanmoins, la filière mahoraise de l’Ylang est, depuis une dizaine d’années, en déclin. C'est pourquoi une labellisation de l’huile mahoraise pourrait aider l’île à protéger cette culture qui lui est chère. L’objectif de ce travail est donc de caractériser le terroir mahorais et d’évaluer l’impact des différents paramètres environnementaux étudiés sur les huiles essentielles d’ylang-ylang. La caractérisation du terroir mahorais révèle l’importance des facteurs humains. L’histoire de l’ylang-ylang à Mayotte démontre l’antériorité du produit. Néanmoins, aucun écrit n’existe à ce sujet. Les Mahorais ont également adapté leur processus de distillation à l’alambic en galvas, le plus utilisé sur l’île. Une modernisation vers l’utilisation d’un alambic en inox pourrait orienter la production vers une recherche de qualité supérieure de l’huile essentielle. Néanmoins, un suivi devrait être mis en place. L’étude des facteurs naturels révèle la richesse en diversité des conditions environnementales de l’île de Mayotte. Les plantations d’ylang-ylang étudiées présentent une variabilité intraparcellaire. Néanmoins, la variabilité entre les plantations est plus marquée. Ce constat s’est également traduit dans l’analyse de la composition des huiles essentielles. Les huiles provenant d’une même plantation sont globalement homogènes. Les huiles diffèrent néanmoins d’une plantation à l’autre. Cette différence est, entre autres, le fruit de la variation des conditions environnementales. Néanmoins, un seul paramètre ne peut pas expliquer les variations d’huile essentielle d’ylang-ylang. C’est en réalité une interaction de ces paramètres qui modifie la composition de l’huile. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Trade of Nuclear Materials and Equipment
Michel, Quentin ULiege

Learning material (2010)

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See detailNew findings on the prototypical Of?p stars
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Ud-Doula, Asif; Spano, Maxime et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 520

<BR /> Aims: In recent years several in-depth investigations of the three prototypical Of?p stars were undertaken. These multiwavelength studies revealed the peculiar properties of these objects (in the X ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: In recent years several in-depth investigations of the three prototypical Of?p stars were undertaken. These multiwavelength studies revealed the peculiar properties of these objects (in the X-rays as well as in the optical): magnetic fields, periodic line profile variations, recurrent photometric changes. However, many questions remain unsolved. <BR /> Methods: To clarify some of the properties of the Of?p stars, we have continued their monitoring. A new xmm-Newton observation and two new optical datasets were obtained. <BR /> Results: Additional information about the prototypical Of?p trio has been found. HD 108 has now reached its quiescent, minimum-emission state for the first time in 50-60 yr. The échelle spectra of HD 148937 confirm the presence of the 7d variations in the Balmer lines and reveal similar periodic variations (though of lower amplitudes) in the He i λ 5876 and He ii λ 4686 lines, underlining its similarities with the other two prototypical Of?p stars. The new xmm-Newton observation of HD 191612 was taken at the same phase in the line modulation cycle, but at a different orbital phase from previous data. It clearly shows that the X-ray emission of HD 191612 is modulated by the 538d period and not by the orbital period of 1542d - it is thus not of colliding-wind origin. The phenomenon responsible for the optical changes appears also at work in the high-energy domain. There are problems however: our MHD simulations of the wind magnetic confinement predict both a harder X-ray flux of a much larger strength than what is observed (the modelled differential emission measure peaks at 30-40 MK, whereas the observed one peaks at 2 MK) and narrow lines (hot gas moving with velocities of 100-200 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP], whereas the observed full width at half maximum is ~2000 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]). Based on observations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory, at the La Silla and San Pedro Mártir Observatories, and with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XII. CoRoT-12b: a short-period low-density planet transiting a solar analog star
Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Hatzes, A.; Csizmadia, Szilard et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 520

We report the discovery by the CoRoT satellite of a new transiting giant planet in a 2.83 days orbit about a V = 15.5 solar analog star (M_* = 1.08 ± 0.08 M_ȯ, R_* = 1.1 ± 0.1 R_ȯ, T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 5675 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery by the CoRoT satellite of a new transiting giant planet in a 2.83 days orbit about a V = 15.5 solar analog star (M_* = 1.08 ± 0.08 M_ȯ, R_* = 1.1 ± 0.1 R_ȯ, T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 5675 ± 80 K). This new planet, CoRoT-12b, has a mass of 0.92 ± 0.07 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and a radius of 1.44 ± 0.13 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]. Its low density can be explained by standard models for irradiated planets. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Program), Germany and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-24 b: A New Transiting Close-in Hot Jupiter Orbiting a Late F-star
Street, R. A.; Simpson, E.; Barros, S. C. C. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2010), 720

We report the discovery of a new transiting close-in giant planet, WASP-24 b, in a 2.341 day orbit, 0.037 AU from its F8-9 type host star. By matching the star's spectrum with theoretical models, we infer ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of a new transiting close-in giant planet, WASP-24 b, in a 2.341 day orbit, 0.037 AU from its F8-9 type host star. By matching the star's spectrum with theoretical models, we infer an effective temperature T [SUB]eff[/SUB] = 6075 ± 100 K and a surface gravity of log g = 4.15 ± 0.10. A comparison of these parameters with theoretical isochrones and evolutionary mass tracks places only weak constraints on the age of the host star, which we estimate to be 3.8[SUP]+1.3[/SUP] [SUB]-1.2[/SUB] Gyr. The planetary nature of the companion was confirmed by radial velocity measurements and additional photometric observations. These data were fit simultaneously in order to determine the most probable parameter set for the system, from which we infer a planetary mass of 1.071[SUP]+0.036[/SUP] [SUB]-0.038[/SUB] M [SUB]Jup[/SUB] and radius 1.3[SUP]+0.039[/SUP] [SUB]-0.037[/SUB] R [SUB]Jup[/SUB]. [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XI. CoRoT-8b: a hot and dense sub-Saturn around a K1 dwarf
Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Deleuil, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 520

<BR /> Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-8b, a dense small Saturn-class exoplanet that orbits a K1 dwarf in 6.2 days, and we derive its orbital parameters, mass, and radius. <BR /> Methods: We ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-8b, a dense small Saturn-class exoplanet that orbits a K1 dwarf in 6.2 days, and we derive its orbital parameters, mass, and radius. <BR /> Methods: We analyzed two complementary data sets: the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-8b as measured by CoRoT and the radial velocity curve of CoRoT-8 as measured by the HARPS spectrometer. <BR /> Results: We find that CoRoT-8b is on a circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.063 ± 0.001 AU. It has a radius of 0.57 ± 0.02 R[SUB]J[/SUB], a mass of 0.22 ± 0.03 M[SUB]J[/SUB], and therefore a mean density of 1.6 ± 0.1 g cm[SUP]-3[/SUP]. <BR /> Conclusions: With 67% of the size of Saturn and 72% of its mass, CoRoT-8b has a density comparable to that of Neptune (1.76 g cm[SUP]-3[/SUP]). We estimate its content in heavy elements to be 47-63 {M}_⊕, and the mass of its hydrogen-helium envelope to be 7-23 {M}_⊕. At 0.063 AU, the thermal loss of hydrogen of CoRoT-8b should be no more than 0.1% over an assumed integrated lifetime of 3 Ga. Observations made with SOPHIE spectrograph at Observatoire de Haute Provence, France (PNP.07B.MOUT), and the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (081.C-0388 and 083.C-0186). The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.Both data sets are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/520/A66">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/520/A66</A> [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. X. CoRoT-10b: a giant planet in a 13.24 day eccentric orbit
Bonomo, A. S.; Santerne, A.; Alonso, R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 520

Context. The space telescope CoRoT searches for transiting extrasolar planets by continuously monitoring the optical flux of thousands of stars in several fields of view. <BR /> Aims: We report the ... [more ▼]

Context. The space telescope CoRoT searches for transiting extrasolar planets by continuously monitoring the optical flux of thousands of stars in several fields of view. <BR /> Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-10b, a giant planet on a highly eccentric orbit (e = 0.53 ± 0.04) revolving in 13.24 days around a faint (V = 15.22) metal-rich K1V star. <BR /> Methods: We used CoRoT photometry, radial velocity observations taken with the HARPS spectrograph, and UVES spectra of the parent star to derive the orbital, stellar, and planetary parameters. <BR /> Results: We derive a radius of the planet of 0.97 ± 0.07 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and a mass of 2.75 ± 0.16 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]. The bulk density, ρ[SUB]p[/SUB] = 3.70 ± 0.83 g cm[SUP]-3[/SUP], is ~2.8 that of Jupiter. The core of CoRoT-10b could contain up to 240 M_⊕ of heavy elements. Moving along its eccentric orbit, the planet experiences a 10.6-fold variation in insolation. Owing to the long circularisation time, τ[SUB]circ[/SUB] > 7 Gyr, a resonant perturber is not required to excite and maintain the high eccentricity of CoRoT-10b. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle cible tensionnelle idéale pour nos patients hypertendus en 2010?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; Saint-Remy, Annie ULiege

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2010), 6

Les directives du traitement de l'hypertension artérielle de 2007 ont été rediscutées en 2009. Quelle que soit la pathologie associée à l'hypertension artérielle, la cible à atteindre est : 130 à 139 mmHg ... [more ▼]

Les directives du traitement de l'hypertension artérielle de 2007 ont été rediscutées en 2009. Quelle que soit la pathologie associée à l'hypertension artérielle, la cible à atteindre est : 130 à 139 mmHg pour la systolique et 80 à 85 mmHg pour la diastolique. Si le patient peut tolérer une pression plus basse, on ne freinera pas l’abaissement de pression. Beaucoup de questions restent cependant encore sans réelles réponses quant à des cibles plus basses en fonction de l’âge et de situations pathologiques individuelles. Le choix des agents antihypertenseurs devient primordial lors d’un risque cardiovasculaire majeur. Il convient toujours d’appliquer des règles hygiéno-diététiques à l’ensemble de la population hypertendue et d’agir sur tous les facteurs de risque associés. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency of Solar-like Systems and of Ice and Gas Giants Beyond the Snow Line from High-magnification Microlensing Events in 2005-2008
Gould, A.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2010), 720

We present the first measurement of the planet frequency beyond the "snow line," for the planet-to-star mass-ratio interval –4.5 < log q < –2, corresponding to the range of ice giants to gas giants. We ... [more ▼]

We present the first measurement of the planet frequency beyond the "snow line," for the planet-to-star mass-ratio interval –4.5 < log q < –2, corresponding to the range of ice giants to gas giants. We find \endgraf\vbox{\begin{center}$\displaystyle{d^2 N{_{\rm pl}}\over d\log q\, d\log s} = (0.36\pm 0.15)\;{\rm dex}^{-2}$\end{center}}\noindentat the mean mass ratio q = 5 × 10 –4 with no discernible deviation from a flat (Öpik's law) distribution in log-projected separation s. The determination is based on a sample of six planets detected from intensive follow-up observations of high-magnification ( A>200) microlensing events during 2005-2008. The sampled host stars have a typical mass M host ~ 0.5 M sun [less ▲]

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