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See detailOral glucose tolerance tests in treated patients with schizophrenia. Data to support an adaptation of the proposed guidelines for monitoring of patients on second generation antipsychotics?
De Hert, Marc; Van Eyck, Dominique; Hanssens, Linda et al

in European Psychiatry (2006), 21(4), 224-226

Objective. - A recent consensus conference has proposed guidelines for the monitoring for diabetes in patients with schizophrenia and also identifies the need of long-term prospective studies. Method. - A ... [more ▼]

Objective. - A recent consensus conference has proposed guidelines for the monitoring for diabetes in patients with schizophrenia and also identifies the need of long-term prospective studies. Method. - A large scale prospective study on metabolic risks of antipsychotic medication is currently ongoing. At baseline, patients get a full laboratory screening, ECG and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Baseline data on 100 non-diabetic patients at study inclusion and stable on medication for at least 6 months are presented. Results. - Glucose abnormalities are found in 22% of patients at baseline, A monitoring protocol based only on fasting glucose would not have detected 63.6% of these patients with classifiable glucose abnormalities in our sample. Fasting insulin and measures for insulin resistance have a high predictive value for abnormalities late in the OGTT. Conclusion. - Already at baseline, metabolic problems are frequently present in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Adding assessment of fasting insulin in a monitoring protocol improves detection of glucose abnormalities late in an OGTT. (c) 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti wavelength study of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 - II. Lens model and source reconstruction
Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Sluse, Dominique ULg; Riaud, Pierre ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2006), 451(3), 865-879

Aims. High angular resolution images of the complex gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (a quadruply imaged AGN with a bright Einstein ring) obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and NICMOS ... [more ▼]

Aims. High angular resolution images of the complex gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (a quadruply imaged AGN with a bright Einstein ring) obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and NICMOS instruments onboard the Hubble Space Telescope are analysed to determine the lens model and to reconstruct the host galaxy. Methods. The lens model is constrained by the relative astrometric positions of the lens and point-like images, and by the extended lensed structures. The non-parametric light distribution is recovered in the source plane by means of back ray-tracing. Results. 1-Precise astrometry and photometry of the four QSO lensed images (A-D) and of the lensing galaxy ( G) are obtained. They are found in agreement with an independent study presented in a companion paper. The position and colours of the X object seen in projection close to the lens are found to be only compatible with a satellite galaxy associated with the lens. 2- The Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid plus external shear provides a good fit of the astrometry of images A-D. The positions of extended substructures are also well reproduced. However an octupole ( m = 4) must be added to the lens potential in order to reproduce the observed lens position, as well as the I-B/I-C point-like image flux ratio. The ellipticity and orientation of the mass quadrupole are found similar to those of the light distribution, fitted by a Sersic profile. The lens (z = 0.295) is found to be a massive elliptical in a rich environment and showing possible evolution with respect to z = 0. 3- The host galaxy ( z = 0.658) is found to be a substantially magnified ( M similar to 9) luminous Seyfert 1 spiral galaxy. The angular resolution is sufficient to see regions where stars are intensively forming. Interaction with a closeby companion is also observed. 4- Finally, in the case of RXS J1131-1231, extended lensed structures do not help much in constraining the lens model. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting of primers for the study of cyanobacterial molecular diversity by DGGE
Boutte, C.; Grubisic, Stana ULg; Balthasart, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Microbiological Methods (2006), 65(3), 542-550

Denaturing Gradient Gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a PCR-based technique which is widely used in the study of microbial communities. Here, the use of the three specific 16S rRNA cyanobacterial specific ... [more ▼]

Denaturing Gradient Gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a PCR-based technique which is widely used in the study of microbial communities. Here, the use of the three specific 16S rRNA cyanobacterial specific primers CYA359F, CYA781R(a) and CYA781R(b) on the assessment of the molecular diversity of cyanobacterial communities is examined. Assignments of the reverse primers CYA781R(a) and CYA781R(b) with cyanobacterial strain sequences showed that the former preferentially targets filamentous cyanobacteria whereas the latter targets unicellular cyanobacteria. The influence of the GC clamp position on the forward Or on reverse primer and the use of the two reverse primers separately or in equimolar mixture were investigated. Three environmental samples were subjected to amplification with 6 combinations of primers. The 6 banding patterns as well as the sequences of the bands extracted were analysed and compared. In addition, to assess the effect of the position of the GC clamp, the melting profiles of the sequences of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae PMC9707 and Synechococcus sp. MH305 were determined, with the GC clamp in the 3' or 5' position. Results showed that the use of two separate amplifications allowed a more complete study of the molecular diversity of the cyanobacterial community investigated. Furthermore, similar richness and identical phylogenctic assignments of extracted bands were obtained irrespective of the positioning of the GC clamp. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing exposure to back pain mechanical risk factors
Somville, Pierre ULg; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Seidel, Laurence ULg et al

in International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (2006), 79(6), 499-508

Objective: To validate a self-administered questionnaire assessing exposure to mechanical risk factors, developed for a cohort study aiming at assessing the influence of physical and psycho-social factors ... [more ▼]

Objective: To validate a self-administered questionnaire assessing exposure to mechanical risk factors, developed for a cohort study aiming at assessing the influence of physical and psycho-social factors on the incidence of low back pain (LBP). Methods: The study first involved a criterion validity test. A sample of the cohort workers (n=152) was observed at the workplace during four 30 min periods randomly distributed along the shift. At the end of the work shift, the questionnaire was filled in both by the worker and the observer. Agreements were tested between self-reports and observations, and between self-reports and observer opinion. Secondly, a comparison of exposure-effect relationships based on self-reports to those based on observations was carried out on the whole study cohort (n=716). Both sets of Relative Risks of being an incident case (LBP lasting at least 7 consecutive days in the follow-up year) were tested for heterogeneity. Results: Self-reports agreement levels were better with observer opinion than with observational data and were higher for answers at a dichotomous level. Vehicle driving, manual handling without estimation of weight and frequencies, or trunk bending without rotation showed a fair to good agreement with the external criteria. Limits in the validation procedure did not allow validating the sitting and standing durations. As regards the health outcome comparison, questionnaire and observations led to homogeneous Relative Risks for the variables tested. Conclusions: Results show that self-reports provide a limited accuracy to assess actual frequencies and durations of work activities. Using a questionnaire, classifying the workers into exposure categories is rather relative, but questionnaire and observations seem similar in their relationships to outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailFormer les étudiants en premier baccalauréat de chimie aux techniques de documentation et communication
Collette, Caroline ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2006), 2

Cet article relate l'expérience vécue lors de l'introduction d'un cours de technique de documentation et de communication au niveau de la première année d'études universitaires en chimie à l'Université de ... [more ▼]

Cet article relate l'expérience vécue lors de l'introduction d'un cours de technique de documentation et de communication au niveau de la première année d'études universitaires en chimie à l'Université de Liège. L'objectif du cours est de mettre en contact les étudiants de première année baccalauréat avec la littérature et les bibliothèques scientifiques. [less ▲]

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See detailSpurious systolic hypertension in youth: what does it really mean in clinical practice?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Saint-Remy, Annie ULg

in Journal of Hypertension (2006), 24(6), 999-1001

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See detailValine-based biphenylsulphonamide matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as tumor imaging agents
Oltenfreiter, R.; Staelens, L.; Kersemans, V. et al

in Applied Radiation & Isotopes (2006), 64(6), 677-685

Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the subfamily of gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) is of particular interest due to their ability to degrade type IV collagen and other non-fibrillar collagen domains and ... [more ▼]

Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the subfamily of gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) is of particular interest due to their ability to degrade type IV collagen and other non-fibrillar collagen domains and proteins such as fibronectin and laminin. Whilst malignant cells often over-express various MMPs, the gelatinases have been most consistently detected in malignant tissues and associated with tumor growth, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Radiosynthesis of carboxylic (1') and hydroxamic (2') MMPIs resulted in radiochemical yields of 70 +/- 5% (n = 6) and 60 5% (n = 4), respectively. Evaluation in A549-inoculated athymic mice showed a tumor uptake of 2.0 +/- 0.7%ID/g (3 h p.i.), a tumor/blood ratio of 0.5 and a tumor/muscle ratio of 4.6 at 48 h p.i. for 1'. For compound 2' a tumor uptake of 0.7 +/- 0.2%ID/g (3 h p.i.), a tumor/blood ratio of 1.2 and a tumor/muscle ratio of 1.8 at 24 h p.i. were observed. HPLC analysis of the blood (plasma) showed no dehalogenation or other metabolites of 1' 2 h p.i. For compound 2', 65.4% of intact compound was found in the blood (plasma) and one polar metabolite (31%) was detected whereas in the tumor 91.8% of the accumulated activity was caused by intact compound and only 8.1% by the metabolite. Planar imaging, using a Toshiba GCA-9300A/hg SPECT camera, showed that tumor tissue could be visualized and that image quality improved by decreasing specific activity resulting in lower liver uptake, indicating some degree of saturable binding in the liver. In vivo evaluation of these radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers revealed that MMP inhibitors could have potential as tumor imaging agents, but that further research is necessary. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA stability diagram computation method for milling adapted to automotive industry
Le Lan, Jean-Vincent; Marty, Audrey; Debongnie, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2006, June)

In this paper, a numerical method to compute stability diagrams is presentd. It is adapted to the particular case of automotive parts production where chatter arises due to the lack of stiffness of the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a numerical method to compute stability diagrams is presentd. It is adapted to the particular case of automotive parts production where chatter arises due to the lack of stiffness of the workpiece. The main features of the model are the simultaneous immersion of many teeth, frequency domain computations and the use of the Finite Element Method to provide transfer function. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of laser-assisted hatching on pregnancy rate in fresh and frozen-thawed cycles
Thonon, Fabienne ULg; Gaspard, Olivier ULg; Jouan, Caroline ULg et al

in Human Reproduction (2006, June), 21(Suppl. 1), 124

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See detailTrophic diversity and potential role of detritivorous crustaceans in Posidonia oceanica litter
Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Cox, Anne-Sophie et al

Conference (2006, June)

Detrivorous crustaceans are pivotal components of the trophic food webs and are found to be the main constituents of the macrofauna in Posidonia oceanica litter. The coexistence of many of these species ... [more ▼]

Detrivorous crustaceans are pivotal components of the trophic food webs and are found to be the main constituents of the macrofauna in Posidonia oceanica litter. The coexistence of many of these species in the same biotope raises the question of trophic diversity and of its role in litter degradation process. Diet composition of five common species of detrivorous crustaceans in P. oceanica litter (i.e. the gammarid amphipods Gammarella fusicola and Gammarus aequicauda and the isopods Idotea baltica, Idotea hectica and Zenobiana prismatica) were studied using a combination of gut content and stable isotopes analysis. Despite the common food supply (i.e. Posidonia dead leaf, Posidonia epiphytes or drift macroalgae), there were considerable interspecific differences in diet composition. Gut content observations indicate that P. oceanica leaf litter is an important part of the ingested food of all the species. Algae material (macroepiphytes and drift macroalgae) inhabiting the litter is mainly found in G. fusicola, I. hectica and I. baltica. I. baltica displays a high proportion of crustacean fragments. Isotope ratios showed that most of the species do not assimilate much of the ingested Posidonia. Application of a mixing model using isotopic values to estimate the contribution of the potential different food sources confirms this view. On one hand, the tissue of G. aequicauda could be constituted by more than 50 % of P. oceanica carbon. On the other hand, for the other species studied, P. oceanica represented a minor contribution (10 - 30 %), although it is a major component of the gut contents. This could imply that micro-organism (diatoms, bacteria and fungi) living on the Posidonia detritus is a major food source of detrivorous. Moreover, I. baltica, Z. prismatica and G. fusicola have a diversified diet composed mainly of algae. Crustaceans are an important food source for I. baltica. By contrast, I. hectica indicated a major contribution of algae material. Our results demonstrate the trophic diversity existing between the detrivorous crustaceans species in P. oceanica litter. This trophic diversity is probably one of the factors that allows these species to coexist in the same biotope. The results also underline the potential role of these species in the degradation of P. oceanica litter by fragmenting mechanically the Posidonia detritus and by assimilating directly Posidonia carbon and transferring it to higher trophic level (i.e. coastal fishes). Moreover, it allows us to think that micro-organisms (diatoms, bacteria and fungi) colonising leaf litter may constitute an important food source for litter fauna. [less ▲]

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See detailCOSMOGRAIL: the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses - III. Redshift of the lensing galaxy in eight gravitationally lensed quasars
Eigenbrod, A.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2006), 451(3), 759-766

Aims. We measure the redshift of the lensing galaxy in eight gravitationally lensed quasars in view of determining the Hubble parameter H-0 from the time delay method. Methods. Deep VLT/FORS1 spectra of ... [more ▼]

Aims. We measure the redshift of the lensing galaxy in eight gravitationally lensed quasars in view of determining the Hubble parameter H-0 from the time delay method. Methods. Deep VLT/FORS1 spectra of lensed quasars are spatially deconvolved in order to separate the spectrum of the lensing galaxies from the glare of the much brighter quasar images. A new observing strategy is devised. It involves observations in Multi-Object-Spectroscopy (MOS) which allows the simultaneous observation of the target and of several PSF and flux calibration stars. The advantage of this method over traditional long-slit observations is a much more reliable extraction and flux calibration of the spectra. Results. For the first time we measure the redshift of the lensing galaxy in three multiply-imaged quasars: SDSS J1138+0314 (zlens = 0.445), SDSS J1226-0006 (z(lens) = 0.517), SDSS J1335+0118 (z(lens) = 0.440), and we give a tentative estimate of the redshift of the lensing galaxy in Q 1355- 2257 (z(lens) = 0.701). We confirm four previously measured redshifts: HE 0047-1756 (z(lens) = 0.407), HE 0230-2130 (z(lens) = 0.523), HE 0435-1223 (z(lens) = 0.454) and WFI J2033-4723 (z(lens) = 0.661). In addition, we determine the redshift of the second lensing galaxy in HE 0230-2130 (z(lens) = 0.526). The spectra of all lens galaxies are typical for early-type galaxies, except for the second lensing galaxy in HE 0230-2130 which displays prominent [OII] emission. [less ▲]

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See detailObésité: aube hésitée, et quoi pour moi demain
Battisti, Oreste ULg

Conference (2006, June)

cette journée aborde le cocnept familial, l'aspect communautaire, l'épidémiologie, l'aspect nutritionnel, l'aspect somatique et l'aspect psychologique de l'obésité de l'enfant dans le cadre familial.

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See detailPrediction of the acoustics of coupled rooms with the acoustic-diffusion model
Valeau, Vincent; Billon, Alexis ULg; Hodgson, Murray et al

Conference (2006, June)

A general model is proposed to simulate the acoustics of coupled rooms. It is based on a diffusion equation, solved numerically to perform acoustic predictions. The presence of scattering objects –or the ... [more ▼]

A general model is proposed to simulate the acoustics of coupled rooms. It is based on a diffusion equation, solved numerically to perform acoustic predictions. The presence of scattering objects –or the “fittings”– is also taken into account. Distinct sub-volumes can be defined, representing either coupled volumes or zones with different fitting characteristics. Some sample results are presented, and compared with ray-tracing results and experimental data. Two situations are assessed: two coupled classrooms, and a room divided into two zones, one empty, one fitted. The diffusion-model predictions match the other data satisfactorily, both in terms of sound attenuation and sound decay. Diffusion-based results are obtained with the advantage of low computational time compared to ray-tracing results. [less ▲]

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See detailCompression of the Earth's magnetotail by interplanetary shocks directly drives transient magnetic flux closure
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Palmroth, Minna; Laitinen, Tiera V. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2006), 33(10),

We use a novel method to evaluate the global opening and closure of magnetic flux in the terrestrial system, and to analyse two interplanetary shock passages that occurred during magnetically quiet ... [more ▼]

We use a novel method to evaluate the global opening and closure of magnetic flux in the terrestrial system, and to analyse two interplanetary shock passages that occurred during magnetically quiet periods. We find that, even under these quiet conditions, where the amount of open flux was already low, the compression of the magnetotail by the shocks still created intense but short-lived bursts of flux closure reaching similar to 130 kV, comparable to values obtained shortly after a substorm onset, although no expansion phase developed. The results, supported by a global MHD simulation of the space environment, point to a trigger mechanism of flux closure directly driven by the solar wind compression, independent of the usual substorm expansion phase process. [less ▲]

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See detailMutualité « all inclusive »
Balthasar, Jean-Pierre; Collignon, Fabrice; Collin, Pierre et al

Article for general public (2006)

Promo, carte de fidélité... Les mutuelles s'inscrivent de plus en plus dans une logique de concurrence commerciale sur des aspects qui s'éloignent de la santé. Dans la vie de tous les jours, elle vous ... [more ▼]

Promo, carte de fidélité... Les mutuelles s'inscrivent de plus en plus dans une logique de concurrence commerciale sur des aspects qui s'éloignent de la santé. Dans la vie de tous les jours, elle vous accompagne. Une angine, un accouchement, une jambe cassée aux sports d'hiver, une invalidité, elle vous soulage et vous protège. C'est votre mutuelle. Récemment la nôtre nous a proposé de remplir un questionnaire relatif à ses produits et services complémentaires. Celui-ci répertorie une série d'offres potentielles que le mutualisé standard doit évaluer sur une échelle variant de 1 (aucune importance) à 10 (extrêmement important). Nous nous sommes prêtés à cet exercice. Après les questions relatives à l'objet même d'une mutualité, à savoir les soins de santé, notre opinion est sollicitée par rapport au concept de «carte de fidélité» qui proposerait des avantages (promotions, réductions, remises) sur des produits concernant notre santé et notre bien-être. [...] [less ▲]

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See detailAgricultural tools guidance assistance by using machine vision
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Proceedings of the NCTAM 2006 7th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (2006, May 30)

This paper presents a regulation mechanism aiming to position agricultural tools relatively to the previous lines, while sowing or harvesting. The sowing rows were revealed by a background correction, the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a regulation mechanism aiming to position agricultural tools relatively to the previous lines, while sowing or harvesting. The sowing rows were revealed by a background correction, the background being obtained thanks to a median rank filter. The method was found efficient in eliminating the shadows. For the crop rows (chicory rows), a neural network was used to localise the plants. While the petiole and the leaves were easily separated from the soil, the chicory root and the soil having about the same colour and the lighting condition varying widely, it was more difficult to obtain a good contrast between those parts, which leaves place for some improvements. The adapted Hough transform consisted in computing one transform for each line in the cluster with, for reference, the position and direction of the theoretical position of the row. The different transforms were then added. The position was used in a feedback regulation loop. An articulated mechanism was used to ensure the lateral displacement of the tool relatively to the tractor. The behaviour of the whole outfit was studied during several field tests. The standard deviation of the error, measured as the difference between the observed inter-row distance and its theoretica value, was of 23 mm for sowing and 31 mm for harvesting and its amplitude was less than 100 mm for sowing and less than 115 mm during the harvest, which was sufficient to fulfil the requirements of the application. Sources of systematic errors were also identified as linked to the geometric considerations. Their correction requires an accurate mounting of the camera, which may be possible for a serial montage. [less ▲]

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See detailSlip rate and mode of the Feldbiss normal fault (Roer Valley Graben) after removal of groundwater effects
Demoulin, Alain ULg

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2006), 245(3-4), 630-641

The Feldbiss fault is the main active fault bounding to the southwest the Roer Valley Graben of NW Europe. In order to investigate the reasons of the discrepancy between its short- and long-term slip rate ... [more ▼]

The Feldbiss fault is the main active fault bounding to the southwest the Roer Valley Graben of NW Europe. In order to investigate the reasons of the discrepancy between its short- and long-term slip rate estimates, we have repeatedly surveyed a 2.3 km-long line by levelling at Sittard (The Netherlands) from April 2001 to December 2004. Simultaneously, three superposed aquifers were monitored on both sides of the fault. The across-fault differential groundwater variations are shown to be responsible for a seasonal 0.87 mm/m vertical motion of the fault, mainly through the effect of pore pressure changes in confined aquifers. After removal of this effect, I get a residual trend of -0.60 +/- 0.11 mm/yr for the relative motion of the hangingwall. This trend was disturbed in the summer of 2002 by transient millimetre-level up and down motions temporally associated with the small Eschweiler earthquake that occurred on July 22, 2002 on the Feldbiss fault at a distance of 35 km from Sittard. I explain this as a creep event triggered by the passage of trapped seismic waves. The subsisting discrepancy between the long-term slip rate of 0.06 mm/yr and short-term rates of similar to 1.5 mm/yr (from 1962 to 2001) and 0.6 mm/yr (from 2001 to 2004) is tentatively interpreted as resulting from the current occurrence of a decade-long episode of aseismic slip involving a large part of the fault plane. Occasionally associated with minor seismicity, this aseismic slip event could betray a thickening of the transitional region located below the upper crustal zone of stable sliding. It causes a total fault slip of 5-10 cm in a few tens of years, releasing smoothly all, or a great part of, the strain accumulated during the previous 1-2 ky of fault quiescence. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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