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See detailClinical and angiographic analysis with a Cobalt Alloy Coronary Stent (Driver) in stable and unstable angina pectoris
LEGRAND, Victor ULg; Kelbaek, H.; Hauptmann, K. E. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2006), 97(3), 349-352

The Clinical and Angiographic analysis with a Cobalt Alloy Coronary Stent (Driver) (CLASS) study was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study designed to assess the safety and efficacy of a cobalt ... [more ▼]

The Clinical and Angiographic analysis with a Cobalt Alloy Coronary Stent (Driver) (CLASS) study was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study designed to assess the safety and efficacy of a cobalt-chromium alloy-based stent in patients with stable or unstable angina pectoris. A total of 203 lesions were treated in 202 enrolled patients. The percentage of major adverse cardiac event-free patients was 87.6% (177 of 202) at 6 months (primary safety end point; major adverse cardiac events were defined as death, myocardial infarction, emergency bypass surgery, or target lesion revascularization [percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting]). The angiographic success rate (primary efficacy end point) was 100%, and the procedural success rate was 98%. The binary in-stent restenosis rate at 6 months was 12.6%. Our results have demonstrated that the Driver cobalt-chromium alloy stent can be used with a low 6-month incidence of major adverse cardiac events, a low 6-month binary restenosis rate, and high angiographic and procedural success rates. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrografting of thin polymer films: Three strategies for the tailoring of functional adherent coatings
Voccia, Samuel; Gabriel, Sabine ULg; Serwas, Harry et al

in Progress in Organic Coatings (2006), 55(2), 175-181

Cathodic electrografting is an efficient technique to impart adhesion to poly(meth)acrylate coatings onto inorganic conducting surfaces. Although this technique was restricted for many years to very few ... [more ▼]

Cathodic electrografting is an efficient technique to impart adhesion to poly(meth)acrylate coatings onto inorganic conducting surfaces. Although this technique was restricted for many years to very few monomers ((meth)acrylonitrile and (meth)acrylates) and to deposition of very thin polymer films, recent developments have overcome these limitations. First of all, classical controlled/living polymerization techniques have been combined with cathodic electrografting as a powerful strategy for tuning thickness, properties and reactivity of the chemisorbed organic films. Secondly, thanks to the successful electrografting of a new reactive monomer bearing an activated ester, electrografted surfaces are now available for further derivatization by a wide variety of nucleophiles. Finally, the electrografting process has been extended to the direct electrografting of reactive polymers, i.e. preformed polymers beating pendant acrylic functions, which opens the way to the grafting of, e.g., polycondensates. [less ▲]

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See detailL'astronomie dans le monde
Manfroid, Jean ULg

Article for general public (2006)

Pôle errant; Pluton et Charon; Du côté d'Uranus !; Stardust; G29-38; La chasse aux planètes; Etoile polaire; Véga; Vers un interféromètre infrarouge à base kilométrique; Des pulsars extraordinaires; Trous ... [more ▼]

Pôle errant; Pluton et Charon; Du côté d'Uranus !; Stardust; G29-38; La chasse aux planètes; Etoile polaire; Véga; Vers un interféromètre infrarouge à base kilométrique; Des pulsars extraordinaires; Trous noirs intermédiaires; Le trou noir central de la Galaxie; N44; Tornade spatiale [less ▲]

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See detailScience et symbole. Libres propos autour des méthodes de recherche.
Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (2006, February)

Theoretically, a research worker tries to understand the unknown world around himself. To answer his question, he follows a road called scientific methodology. Is it the only possible way to find ? The ... [more ▼]

Theoretically, a research worker tries to understand the unknown world around himself. To answer his question, he follows a road called scientific methodology. Is it the only possible way to find ? The objective of this paper is to draw a picture introducing the scientific and the symbolic methodologies to approach new knowledges. [less ▲]

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See detailA survey of optimal network congestion control for unicast and multicast transmission
Bonmariage, Nicolas; Leduc, Guy ULg

in Computer Networks (2006), 50(3), 448-468

In the last few years, there has been a large body of literature on congestion control based on optimization and control theories. This paper provides an overview of optimization flow control starting ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, there has been a large body of literature on congestion control based on optimization and control theories. This paper provides an overview of optimization flow control starting from the first original papers, and traces the development in a unified framework, from unicast to multicast, from theory to algorithms to implementation issues. The optimal congestion control problem is formulated, both for unicast and multicast. Decentralized theoretical solutions are derived by applying duality theory. Based on these results, actual generic algorithms and implementations are proposed for solving these problems in a distributed way. Some alternative methods not based on duality theory are also reviewed. Finally the complementary problem of choosing suitable utility functions in the optimization problem is addressed. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMise au point d'un dynamomètre de la puissance musculaire
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg

Doctoral thesis (2006)

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See detailLes éditeurs belges face à Google Book Search
Habrand, Tanguy ULg

Article for general public (2006)

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See detailFinalisation et validation d'une formule de calcul de la distance minimale d'implantation des porcheries et des poulaillers applicable en Région wallonne.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cobut, Pierre; Otte, Benoît

Report (2006)

La présente étude fait suite à deux études que l'unité de recherche "Surveillance de l'environnement" a réalisées sur le sujet de la distance d'implantation des bâtiments d'élevage par rapport aux ... [more ▼]

La présente étude fait suite à deux études que l'unité de recherche "Surveillance de l'environnement" a réalisées sur le sujet de la distance d'implantation des bâtiments d'élevage par rapport aux habitations. La première, à l'initiative de la DGRNE, avait comme objectif de comparer les différentes directives et recommandations existant dans différents pays[1] et la seconde, pour le compte de la Filière Porcine Wallonne et de la Filière Avicole et Cunicole Wallonne, consistait à imaginer une première version d'une formule de calcul des distances applicable en Région wallonne[2]. Comme résultat de cette dernière étude, il avait été proposé une forme générale de formule de calcul ainsi qu'une première proposition de valeurs de ses paramètres. La présente étude se propose de finaliser, puis de valider cette formule, pour aboutir à un outil d'aide à la décision pour les agents traitant les dossiers d'implantation de bâtiments d'élevage. Cette formule pourrait constituer une référence propre à la Région wallonne et permettre ainsi d'éviter d'utiliser des méthodes étrangères (Allemagne, Pays-Bas, Autriche, …), parfois inadaptées à la situation locale wallonne. La formule proposée se base cependant sur les acquis des autres pays. Elle constitue un compromis entre différentes méthodes, notamment, la formule autrichienne, dont la philosophie générale a semblé intéressante, les VDI allemandes, qui résultent de nombreuses études scientifiques très poussées et la réflexion hollandaise, notamment en ce qui concerne la prise en compte des catégories de voisinage. L'étape de validation a consisté essentiellement à confronter cette méthode de calcul et le choix de ses paramètres aux observations de terrain réalisées dans une trentaine d'élevages en Région wallonne (au départ : 15 porcheries et 15 élevages de volaille). Un des objectifs de la démarche a été de référencer les trois zones de voisinage spécifiques à l'urbanisme wallon et d'envisager les types d'élevage, de bâtiments, de ventilation et de climat ou de relief recensés dans la région. Selon le cahier des charges initial, la version finale ne devait pas être limitée à une proposition unique et immuable de formule de calcul, mais devait laisser à l'agent traitant une latitude de décision en fonction du cas étudié. En particulier, le rapport final devait fournir une discussion sur la pertinence et la sensibilité des différents paramètres de la formule, de façon à pouvoir identifier ceux d'entre eux sur lesquels il y a moyen d'agir pour réduire les nuisances olfactives. En effet, un des objectifs d'une telle méthode pour l'agent traitant est également de pouvoir recommander certaines techniques d'élevage ou de ventilation dans les conditions sectorielles ou les conditions particulières. Quelques priorités avaient été identifiées au cours de réunions préparatoires. • Rendre possible une tolérance pour les exploitations existantes par rapport aux nouveaux projets. • Pour le facteur de voisinage, prendre en compte la zone où se situent les habitations et non nécessairement la zone où se trouve l'exploitation, car l’objectif de cette méthode est de favoriser l’acceptation des projets par les riverains. • Préciser le type de courbe enveloppe à utiliser dans les cas où l’exploitation est composée de plusieurs bâtiments. • Concevoir la ligne-guide pour un usage simple pour l’administration et les autorités compétentes : mettre en place un arbre de décision complété par un mode d’emploi et une brochure de vulgarisation. Une attention particulière sera portée sur la clarté des termes utilisés (ex. : séchage forcé, ventilation naturelle, …), afin d'éviter toute ambiguïté dans l'affectation des facteurs. La méthode doit devenir un outil pratique d'aide à la décision. • Définir au départ un état de conditions de propreté normales (qui sera pris en compte dans le modèle). • Envisager une réponse de la méthode dans les cas où un élevage de bovins coexiste avec un élevage de porcs ou de volaille, sans cependant que l'élevage de bovins ne soit considéré explicitement par la méthode. • Considérer dans le facteur technique la manière et la fréquence dont le lisier ou le fumier sont évacués. • Considérer seulement les élevages en étables et non les élevages exclusivement en plein air. L'option choisie pour ce rapport final est de présenter d'emblée le résultat de l'étude, c'est-à-dire la formule elle-même, avec les valeurs possibles de ses paramètres, puis de justifier et de discuter ces choix par la suite. La latitude sur l'utilisation de la formule demandée par le cahier des charges est notamment traduite par l'option, pour certains paramètres, de ne pas les figer en catégories précises, parfois difficile à évaluer, mais plutôt de les prendre en compte par le biais de recommandations. D'autres libertés sont laissées à l'utilisateur, par exemple en ce qui concerne l'influence de la direction des vents dominants ou l'identification exacte de la classe de voisinage à considérer en finale. Pour garantir au maximum la lisibilité de la formule, les termes employés et les choix de prendre en compte certaines caractéristiques de l'élevage ont été discutés avec des spécialistes dans différents domaines. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'effet des produits neutralisants de l'odeur dans une porcherie.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cobut, Pierre

Report (2006)

La Filière Porcine Wallonne a commandé à l'unité "Surveillance de l'Environnement" de l'Université de Liège une étude visant à analyser l'effet des produits "neutralisants" des odeurs en porcherie. La ... [more ▼]

La Filière Porcine Wallonne a commandé à l'unité "Surveillance de l'Environnement" de l'Université de Liège une étude visant à analyser l'effet des produits "neutralisants" des odeurs en porcherie. La proposition visait plusieurs objectifs : • Une petite revue bibliographique sur le sujet, de manière à tenter de répondre à des questions du type : "les produits neutralisants ont-ils réellement une action destructrice sur les odeurs ou leur effet est-il un simple masquage ?", "d'autres études scientifiques sur ce sujet ont-elles montré une amélioration du problème de la nuisance olfactive ?" • Des analyses physico-chimiques par chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse sur base d'un prélèvement en cartouche adsorbante o de l'effluent d'élevage seul o du produit ECOLAIR seul o de l'effluent d'élevage en mélange avec le produit. Cette partie de l'étude vise à l'identification des composés et à une analyse semi-quantitative de ceux-ci. • La détermination de la concentration de l'odeur dans le local de la porcherie par olfactométrie dynamique, sans injection du produit, avec injection d'eau et avec injection du produit. Les échantillons prélevés peuvent aussi servir à apprécier le caractère hédonique (tonalité affective) de l'odeur. Cette dernière partie de l'étude est destinée à apprécier la différence qualitative et quantitative entre l'effluent d'élevage seul et le même effluent traité par le produit [less ▲]

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See detailProduct policy in the context of the indoor environmental quality
Spruyt, Maarten; Kuske, Martyna; Goelen, Eddy et al

Report (2006)

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials ... [more ▼]

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials. Construction products could emit or contain dangerous substances that have been defined as dangerous substances under Commission directives and national regulations. In the future construction products may only be placed on the market in the European Union if they accord with the (second generation) harmonized technical specifications including health aspects and bear the CE mark. B. Objectives The goal of this research project is to improve the flow of knowledge and information vis-à-vis normalisation activities in the domain of indoor air measurements, indoor product emission testing, labeling and certification by proposing an evaluation method and standardized assessment methods for a harmonized approach relating to emissions from building materials into indoor air for implementation in Belgium. This approach will comply with current European harmonizing efforts ongoing on European level. C. Conclusions  International tendencies as well as national developments indicate the growing importance of building material emission testing  Harmonisation of governmental schemes to assess volatile organic emissions in the context of the CPD is necessary to obtain transparency  The topic of different limit values in different countries is a difficult problem to solve  It was demonstrated that it is possible with alternative methods (µ-chamber and FLEC) to achieve a qualitative and quantitative correlation with the reference method. However there is a need to extend this comparative study to more materials  The important influence of the quantification procedure on the emission results was demonstrated  The possiblity to investigate microbial resistance of building materials with the so called µ-chamber technique was demonstrated  A twofold methodology for the odour determination of building materials was developed: a quantitative method based on intensity and a qualitative method based on hedonic scale. Furthermore the basis for the development of an electronic nose specific for evaluation of building materials was laid down  A possible evaluation scheme for Belgium on the basis of AFSSET/AgBB/prEN15052 was proposed with two modifications: - Time path modification (7 or 10 days) - Prescreening with alternative method (< 20 L) D. Contribution of the project in a context of scientific support to transfer of knowledge and innovation This research project for implementation of the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and the environment” of the Construction Products Directive has besides its informative and sensitizing role also performed a supporting role in the development of new innovative low emission construction products. The research project has also ensured a Belgian input in the validation work of the draft standard "Emissions into indoor air" - WI 351009 - Construction products - Assessment of emissions of regulated dangerous substances from construction products - Determination of emissions into indoor air” in development in working group 2 of CEN/TC 351. Furthermore this research project has lead to the development of new innovative test methods tailored to the specific needs of construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailOn-line coupling of cyclodextrin mediated nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis to mass spectrometry for the determination of salbutamol enantiomers in urine
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Mol, Roelof et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2006), 40(3), 752-757

The usefulness of the on-line coupling of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) using heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin ... [more ▼]

The usefulness of the on-line coupling of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) using heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDAS-beta-CD) was demonstrated for the enantioselective determination of low concentrations of salbutamol in human urine. After optimization of several parameters, such as sheath-liquid composition and flow rate, nebulizing gas pressure, CE counter-pressure and position of the CE capillary outlet, a limit of quantification of 18 and 20 ng/ml was obtained for salbutamol enantiomers. Moreover, the relative standard deviation values for repeatability at a concentration of 30 ng/ml were below 7% for both enantiomers. Typical regression lines obtained after application of a simple linear regression model revealed a pod relationship between peak area and analyte concentration (with 0.9988 and 0.9966 as coefficients of determination). This paper proposes an easy to use and sensitive NACE-MS method to determine enantiomers of a basic chiral drug in biological fluids preceded by solid-phase extraction as sample cleanup. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle de l'immobilier sur les mutations commerciales urbaines
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Distribution d'Aujourd'hui (2006), 1

Courte présentation du secteur de l'immobilier commercial et mise en évidence de son rôle dans le domaine des mutations urbaines

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See detailMédias et pouvoirs. Comment se réapproprier démocratiquement l’information ?
Durand, Pascal ULg

Article for general public (2006)

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See detailUltrastructure and taxonomic position of two species of the cyanobacterial genus Schizothrix
Komarek, J.; Taton, A.; Sulek, J. et al

in Cryptogamie Algologie (2006), 27(1), 53-62

The cyanobacterial genus Schizothrix is traditionally classified in the special family Schizotrichaceae (order Oscillatoriales) according to the structure of the filaments and thallus: one, two, or more ... [more ▼]

The cyanobacterial genus Schizothrix is traditionally classified in the special family Schizotrichaceae (order Oscillatoriales) according to the structure of the filaments and thallus: one, two, or more ensheathed and fasciculated trichomes are enveloped by common sheaths. The fine Structure of cells and filaments of two natural populations of typical Schizothrix-species (S. facilis, S lacustris) were investigated in our Study. The ultrastructure of trichomes was found to be similar to the pseudartabaenacean types (thylakoid arrangement, inclusions, cell wall), and indicates the close relationship to this group of simple filamentous cyanobacteria. The special life form, which was considered as the most important phenotypic intergeneric (and interfamilial) differentiating character was proven: Fasciculated trichomes are enveloped by their own sheaths, and form (usually heteropolar) filaments enveloped by mother common sheath. However, in spite of the fact that the ultrastructure and morphology of trichomes were found to be similar to other pseudanabacnacean types, the relationship to Pseudanabaenaceae must await detailed molecular studies to be more completely evaluated. The first molecular results concerning a few Schizothrix-like strains from Antarctica show that most belong to a cluster, which is separated from the other oscillatorian clusters. This could support the genetic basis of the Schizothrix genus. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Na doping and sintering temperature on increasing Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 superconducting phase content in powder-form materials
Rahier, Sébastien ULg; Stassen, S.; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in Materials Letters (2006), 60(3), 298-300

This paper proposes a systematic way to explore the effects of Na on Bi-2212 phase formation. The influence of sodium metal is correlated with the 2212 fraction formed in the sample. The effect on the ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a systematic way to explore the effects of Na on Bi-2212 phase formation. The influence of sodium metal is correlated with the 2212 fraction formed in the sample. The effect on the sintering temperature and the importance of the substitution site is studied. Samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results clearly show that the 2212 phase content is enhanced and sintering temperatures can be lowered with regard to the undoped samples. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPréoperative hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) immediately followed by surgery. A prospective trial.
Coucke, Philippe ULg; Notter, M; Matter, M et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2006), 79

Abstract Background and purpose: We aim to report on local control in a phase II trial on preoperative hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedule (HART) in locally advanced resectable rectal ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background and purpose: We aim to report on local control in a phase II trial on preoperative hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedule (HART) in locally advanced resectable rectal cancer (LARC). This fractionation schedule was designed to keep the overall treatment time (OTT) as short as possible. Patients and methods: This is a prospective trial on patients with UICC stages II and III rectal cancer. The patients were submitted to a total dose of 41.6 Gy, delivered in 2.5 weeks at 1.6 Gy per fraction twice a day with a 6-h interfraction interval. Surgery was performed within 1 week after the end of irradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in a subset of patients. Results: Two hundred and seventy nine patients were entered and 250 are fully assessable, with a median follow-up of 39 months. The 5-years actuarial local control (LC) rate is 91.7%. The overall survival (OS) is 59.6%. The freedom from disease relapse (FDR) is 71.5%. Downstaging was observed in 38% of the tumors. Conclusion: The actuarial LC at 5 years is 91.7%, although we are dealing with stages II–III LARC, mainly located in the lower rectum (median distanceZ5 cm). The pattern of failure is dominated by distant metastases and treatment intensification will obviously require a systemic approach. q 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 79 (2006) 52–58. [less ▲]

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See detailProvasopressin expression by breast cancer cells: implications for growth and novel treatment strategies
Keegan, B. P.; Akerman, B. L.; Pequeux, Christel ULg et al

in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (2006), 95(3), 265-277

The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene is expressed in certain cancers such as breast cancer, where it is believed to act as an autocrine growth factor. However, little is known about the regulation of the ... [more ▼]

The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene is expressed in certain cancers such as breast cancer, where it is believed to act as an autocrine growth factor. However, little is known about the regulation of the AVP protein precursor (proAVP) or AVP-mediated signaling in breast cancer and this study was undertaken to address some of the basic issues. The cultured cell lines examined (Mcf7, Skbr3, BT474, ZR75, Mcf10a) and human breast cancer tissue extract were found to express proAVP mRNA. Western analysis revealed multiple forms of proAVP protein were present in cell lysates, corresponding to those detected in human hypothalamus extracts. Monoclonal antibodies directed against different regions of proAVP bound to intact live Mcf7 and Skbr3 cells. Dexamethasone increased the amount of proAVP-associated glycopeptide (VAG) secreted by Skbr3 cells and a combination of dexamethasone, IBMX and 8br-cAMP increased cellular levels of VAG. Exogenous AVP (1, 10, and 100 nM) elevated phospho-ERK1/2 levels, and increased cell proliferation was observed in the presence of 10 nM AVP. Concurrent treatment with the V1a receptor antagonist SR49059 reduced the effects of AVP on proliferation in Mcf7 cells, and abolished it in Skbr3 cells. Results here show that proAVP components are found at the surface of Skbr3 and Mcf7 cells and are also secreted from these cells. In addition, they show that AVP promotes cancer cell growth, apparently through a V1-type receptor-mediated pathway and subsequent ERK1/2 activation. Thus, strategies for targeting proAVP should be examined for their effectiveness in diagnosing and treating breast cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailL'ischemie intestinale chronique et la revascularisation par pontage: a propos d'un cas
Marival, T.; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(2), 71-5

Intestinal angina is a rare affection with a high morbidity-mortality rate if not diagnosed. It is characterized by abdominal pain and postprandial vomiting, weight loss and anorexia. Arteriography allows ... [more ▼]

Intestinal angina is a rare affection with a high morbidity-mortality rate if not diagnosed. It is characterized by abdominal pain and postprandial vomiting, weight loss and anorexia. Arteriography allows confirmation of the diagnosis. The following case is a typical example of its clinical presentation and surgical treatment. Different techniques of revascularisation in case of a stenosis of the main digestive arteries are discussed. [less ▲]

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