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See detailLe coma hypoglycemique, un phenomene paroxystique redoute chez le patient diabetique de type 1.
Radermecker, Régis ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(5), 265-9

The hypoglycaemic coma is a severe complication for type 1 diabetic patients. Rarely fatal it may be associated with various paroxysmal accidents, potentially harmful, especially during driving ... [more ▼]

The hypoglycaemic coma is a severe complication for type 1 diabetic patients. Rarely fatal it may be associated with various paroxysmal accidents, potentially harmful, especially during driving. Hypoglycaemia certainly alters the quality of life because it markedly increases the anxiety of both the patient and his/her family. It is considered as a major limiting factor in the glycaemic management of type 1 diabetic patients. Being the consequence of numerous causal factors, hypoglycaemic coma is not always easy to prevent and may occur as a paroxysmal phenomenon, sometimes without obvious contributing circumstances. After having defined the various hypoglycaemic thresholds, we will analyse the pathophysiology of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and of its hormonal counterregulation, and we will describe the hypoglycaemia unawareness phenomenon. These elements should help to better understand why a hypoglycaemic coma may suddenly occur in a diabetic patient. Some advices will also be given to reduce the risk of such a paroxysmal complication in patients with type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Ezetimibe (Ezetrol).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(4), 246-50

Ezetimibe (Ezetrol), recently launched in Belgium by Merck Sharp& Dohme and Schering Plough, is presented as 10 mg tablets. It belongs to a new class of lipid-lowering agents that selectively inhibit the ... [more ▼]

Ezetimibe (Ezetrol), recently launched in Belgium by Merck Sharp& Dohme and Schering Plough, is presented as 10 mg tablets. It belongs to a new class of lipid-lowering agents that selectively inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and phytosterols. Its mechanism of action results in a synergistic cholesterol-lowering effect together with a statin that inhibits cholesterol synthesis by the liver. Ezetimibe, at a daily dose of 10 mg, is indicated, in combination with a statin, as adjuvant treatment to diet in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia (homozygote or heterozygote familial form and non-familial polygenic form) not well controlled with a statin alone. In case of statin contra-indication or intolerance, ezetimibe can be used in monotherapy. Its tolerance profile is excellent. Statin-ezetimibe combination allows to significantly reduce total and LDL cholesterol levels and increases the percentage of hypercholesterolaemic patients who will reach the target levels recommended in the international guidelines against atherosclerosis. However, such a combination should still prove its efficacy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in large prospective clinical trials. [less ▲]

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See detailL'hypoglycemie reactive: un phenomene critique mysterieux, insidieux, mais non dangereux.
Scheen, André ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(4), 237-42

Numerous individuals complain of malaise attributed to hypoglycaemia. However, the diagnosis of hypoglycaemia is rarely documented and most often overstated. Reactive hypoglycaemia in the postprandial ... [more ▼]

Numerous individuals complain of malaise attributed to hypoglycaemia. However, the diagnosis of hypoglycaemia is rarely documented and most often overstated. Reactive hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state is rather exceptional. The diagnosis relies upon the measurement of plasma glucose concentration (< 3 mmol/l or 55 mg/dl) at the time of the malaise. Reactive hypoglycaemia is generally associated with adrenergic symptoms and, less often, with cognitive disturbances. Importantly, a plasma glucose concentration below 3 mmol/l during an oral glucose tolerance test is not sufficient to decide that the patient suffers from reactive hypoglycaemia. Treatment is based on dietary advices including frequent small split meals and limitation of carbohydrates with high glycaemic index. Acarbose, a specific inhibitor of gut alpha-glucosidase enzymes, may be helpful in case of diet failure. As compared with true reactive hypoglycaemia, a postprandial hyperadrenergic reaction without real concomitant hypoglycaemia is much more prevalent. Careful anamnesis may suspect such a diagnosis, but other diagnoses such as panic attack or vasovagal reaction should be excluded. Treatment is purely symptomatic and essentially empiric. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. REVERSAL et PROVE-iT: confirmation du concept the lower, the better" dans le traitement de l'hypercholesterolemie chez le patient coronarien."
Scheen, André ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(3), 167-73

Statins, as compared to placebo, have proven their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with or without cardiovascular disease and in a large range of cholesterol levels. Two new head-to ... [more ▼]

Statins, as compared to placebo, have proven their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with or without cardiovascular disease and in a large range of cholesterol levels. Two new head-to-head randomised trials comparing intensive treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg/day with moderate treatment with pravastatin 40 mg/day were recently completed. The mechanistic "Reversing Atherosclerosis with Aggressive Lipid Lowering" (REVERSAL) trial randomised 502 patients with stable coronary disease. Atorvastatin 80 mg (leading to a mean LDL cholesterol of 79 mg/dl) was superior to pravastatin 40 mg (mean LDL of 110 mg/dl) in terms of limiting the progression of atheroma assessed with the use of intravascular ultrasonography after 18 months of follow up (p = 0.02). These differences may be related to the greater reduction in atherogenic lipoprotein (-46% versus -26%, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (-36% versus -5%, p < 0.001) in patients treated with atorvastatin as compared to pravastatin. In the clinical "Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy" (PROVE-IT) trial, 4162 patients with acute coronary syndromes were randomised to either atorvastatin 80 mg or pravastatin 40 mg and followed for a mean of 24 months. Again, atorvastatin (mean LDL of 62 mg/dl) was superior to pravastatin (mean LDL of 95 mg/dl), resulting in a 16% percent lower risk of the primary end point, a composite of major cardiovascular events (p = 0.005). Thus, both REVERSAL and PROVE-IT support the concept "the lower, the better". However, they do not allow to disentangle the independent and interdependent effects of statins on LDL cholesterol and the process of arterial inflammation. What so ever, the results suggest that the target LDL cholesterol level may be lower than recommended in the current guidelines in high-risk patient so that a sea change in the prevention and management of atherosclerotic vascular disease may occur very soon. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Insuline glargine (Lantus).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(2), 110-4

Insulin glargine (Lantus) is a human insulin analogue produced by recombinant DNA technology and recently launched by Aventis. Modification of the human insulin molecule at position A21 and at the C ... [more ▼]

Insulin glargine (Lantus) is a human insulin analogue produced by recombinant DNA technology and recently launched by Aventis. Modification of the human insulin molecule at position A21 and at the C-terminus of the B-chain results in the formation of a stable compound that is soluble at pH 4.0, but forms amorphous microprecipitates in subcutaneous tissue (pH > 7,4) from which small amounts of insulin glargine are gradually released. The plasma concentration versus time profile of insulin glargine is therefore relatively constant over 24 hours as compared to conventional human insulins, especially NPH. This allows once-daily injection as basal insulin therapy, at any moment of the clock time (but if possible at the same time from day to day). Reproducibility of plasma insulin levels is also improved with insulin glargine as compared to human NPH insulin. Insulin glargine administration should be combined to rapid insulin injections, before each meal in order to control postprandial hyperglycaemia, or with oral antidiabetic agents in type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic properties of insulin glargine allow an easier titration of basal insulin dose, which should facilitate adequate blood glucose control while decreasing the risk of hypoglycaemia, especially during night time. Insulin glargine use is safe with no increased antigenicity, immunogenicity or mitogenicity reactions as compared to human insulin. Optimal use of this new insulin analogue should be integrated in a global management of the diabetic patient as well as in a new culture of insulin therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of opposition and coeducation within a martial arts school
Lenzen, Benoît; Dejardin, Robert; Cloes, Marc ULg

in STAPS : Revue Internationale des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique (2004), 66

In Japanese martial arts, the regulation of opposition does not lie on impersonal rules as in combat sports. Assuming that a control regulation from the teachers and an autonomous regulation from the ... [more ▼]

In Japanese martial arts, the regulation of opposition does not lie on impersonal rules as in combat sports. Assuming that a control regulation from the teachers and an autonomous regulation from the learners jointly contribute to the solving of this concrete problem, this study tried (1) to identify and describe strategies used by the members (male and female) of a traditional private school to regulate the opposition on the tatami, and (2) to understand the rationality underlying these strategies. A qualitative analysis based on the use of several sources of data (interviews, observations, various documents) and of an original model revealed that what gender considered, the weakest practitioners were driven by a security stake. This common stake was coupled for men with a symbolic stake of preservation of their male sexual status, driving them to adopt tacit avoiding strategies. On the contrary, women negotiated openly with their rough partners, putting their feminine condition forward. The pedagogical intervention should take the existence of such a sexed autonomous regulation into account. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpathie et Trouble Oppositionnel chez l'enfant de 8 à 12 ans
Dahmen, Caroline; Malpas, Anne; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2004), IX(1), 3-11

A literature review underlines strong links between facial expression recognition difficulty, lack of empathy and behaviour disorder. The main goal of this study was to assess if, as it is suggested in ... [more ▼]

A literature review underlines strong links between facial expression recognition difficulty, lack of empathy and behaviour disorder. The main goal of this study was to assess if, as it is suggested in the literature, oppositional children presented an empathy deficit that can make them more aggressive. Forty children between 8 and 10 years old (15 control children and 15 oppositional children) were subjected to the “Empathy Response Task” from Ricard et Kamberk-Kilicci (1995). As expected, results show that oppositional children are significantly less empathic that control children. Anger is often assigned to protagonists even when it isn’t present. This can be interpreted by the “hostile attribution distortion” according to wich the children with behaviour disorders tend to allocate hostile intentions to others (Milich & Dodge, 1984). Working on empathy must be integrated in behaviour disorder children therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailJacques Ochs et l’Action wallonne (1933-1940)
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Jacques Ochs (1883-1971) (2004)

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois: Clarte pulmonaire unilaterale.
Quaedvlieg, Valérie ULg; Duysinx, Bernard ULg; Ghaye, Benoît ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(12), 691-4

MacLeod syndrome is a rare cause of localized hypertransradiancy of the lung. This syndrome is defined by radiological features: localized hypertransradiancy due to oligemia and presence of air-trapping ... [more ▼]

MacLeod syndrome is a rare cause of localized hypertransradiancy of the lung. This syndrome is defined by radiological features: localized hypertransradiancy due to oligemia and presence of air-trapping on expiratory chest radiography. Involvement of one entire lung is called "unilateral hyperlucent lung". Whereas the etiology is different, the physiopathology is probably identical to that of the panacinar emphysema of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The syndrome is believed to be related to acute bronchiolitis during infancy. Clinical manifestations and prognosis depend mainly on the presence of other lesions due to the same infectious agent like bronchiectasis. Pulmonary function tests, chest CT-scan, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy and, if necessary, bronchoscopy help the differential diagnosis and detect associated bronchiectasis. [less ▲]

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See detailObserver pour favoriser l’apprentissage et l’éducation
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

Part of book (2004)

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See detailMotiver pour éduquer, un éclairage qualitatif
Cloes, Marc ULg; Ledent, Maryse ULg; Piéron, Maurice ULg

in Carlier, Ghislain (Ed.) Si l’on parlait du plaisir d’enseigner l’éducation physique (2004)

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See detailSegregation of the bulk blend fertilizers
Miserque, Olivier; Pirard, Eric ULg

in Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems (2004), 74(1), 215-224

Bulk blend fertilizers are a mixture of different kinds of fertilizers in order to obtain a predicted N-P-K chemical composition. Although this production method has some advantages, segregation appears ... [more ▼]

Bulk blend fertilizers are a mixture of different kinds of fertilizers in order to obtain a predicted N-P-K chemical composition. Although this production method has some advantages, segregation appears at different stages, from the production to the final spreading on the field. An experiment has been implemented to predict and quantify the influence of some physical properties on the occurrence of segregation. The principle was to blend two fertilizers having identical physical properties except for one, such as size, shape or density and to measure the segregation of the blend following various operations, such as filling or emptying a container. Results show that the spread of the fragment size distribution has a big influence on the segregation of the generated heap. In order to reduce this phenomenon, the granulometric spread index (GSI) [(d(84)-d(16))/2d(50)] must be smaller than 10. Other properties don't seem to have an influence. The granulometric segregation can lead to a chemical heterogeneity. The absolute sum of the difference between d(16) and d(84) must be limited around 0.5 mm. Above this value, the chemical segregation begins to be excessive. It seems also that if there is a limited difference in size for the components, the chemical segregation is amplified if the density of the fertilizer with the biggest particles is lower. It is not the case for the difference in shape. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA generic approach for image classification based on decision tree ensembles and local sub-windows
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Piater, Justus ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 6th Asian Conference on Computer Vision (2004)

A novel and generic approach for image classification is presented. The method operates directly on pixel values and does not require feature extraction. It combines a simple local sub-window extraction ... [more ▼]

A novel and generic approach for image classification is presented. The method operates directly on pixel values and does not require feature extraction. It combines a simple local sub-window extraction technique with induction of ensembles of extremely randomized decision trees. We report results on four well known and publicly available datasets corresponding to representative applications of image classification problems: handwritten digits (MNIST), faces (ORL), 3D objects (COIL-100), and textures (OUTEX). A comparison with studies from the computer vision literature shows that our method is competitive with the state of the art, an interesting result considering its generality and conceptual simplicity. Further experiments are carried out on the COIL-100 dataset to evaluate the robustness of the learned models to rotation, scaling, or occlusion of test images. These preliminary results are very encouraging [less ▲]

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See detailMineral mapping in salt lakes from Sud Lipez (Bolivia) using Aster images
Caceres, Fernando; Ali-Ammar, Hamid; Pirard, Eric ULg

in Geological Remote Sensing Group Newsletter (2004), (38), 15-19

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See detailImage Analysis of Iron Oxides under the Optical Microscope.
Pirard, Eric ULg; Lebichot, Sophie

in Tassinari, L. M.; Pecchio, M.; Andrade, F. R. (Eds.) et al Applied Mineralogy: Developments in Science and Technology (2004)

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See detailDirect estimation of sieve size distributions from 2-D image analysis of sand particles
Pirard, Eric ULg; Vergara, Nicolas; Chapeau, Vincent

in Proceedings PARTEC 2004 (2004)

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See detailTélédétection et télégestion des informations géologiques : de nouvelles technologies au service du développement.
Pirard, Eric ULg; Caceres, Fernando

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2004), 50(3), 321-348

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See detailContribution to the study of the relations between fish of the family of Carapidae and their holothurian hosts
Parmentier, Eric ULg

in SPC Bêche de mer, Information Bulletin (2004), 19

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