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See detailAVPRO-LBR5, an Initial Design Software Suite with Scantling Optimization Capabilities
Goubault, P.; Besnard, N.; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in IMDC’2003, Eighth International Marine Design Conference, Grèce, Edited by A. Papanikolaou (NTUA, Athènes), Vol2, May 2003 (2003, May)

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See detailHow to minimise production costs at the preliminary design stage - scantling optimization
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in IMDC’2003, Eighth International Marine Design Conference, Grèce,Vol2 (2003, May)

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See detailLeast Cost Optimisation of a Medium Capacity Gas Carrier
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Toderan, C.

in COMPIT’03, 2nd Int. EuroConference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries,Hamburg, Ed. V. Bertram, 14-17 May 2003 (2003, May)

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See detailOrganising access to evidence-based medicine resources on the web
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Computer Methods & Programs in Biomedicine (2003), 71(1), 1-10

The continuing education is a challenge for health care professionals, considering the growing amount and variable quality of information in this field. In this context, we developed a method allowing ... [more ▼]

The continuing education is a challenge for health care professionals, considering the growing amount and variable quality of information in this field. In this context, we developed a method allowing clinicians to have a centralised access to the best current medical evidence supporting medical decision-making. Relevant data has been gathered according to the rules stated for Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and organised in a free-of-charge Web site, created by using common software applications. The general aim of our study was to encourage individual practice of EBM by providing tutorials as well as a selection of free access tools for searching medical information on the Web. In addition to the education part, we provided clinicians, through a Web interface, with up-to-date, accurate and quality data obtained from heterogeneous sources and presented in a full text format when available. The developed methodology has been applied to human prostate cancer. URL address: http://www.ebm.lib.ulg.ac.be/prostate/index.htm. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the thymus in the development of tolerance and autoimmunity towards the neuroendocrine system
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Brilot, Fabienne

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2003), 992

The thymus is the unique lymphoid organ inside which a confrontation occurs throughout life between neuroendocrine self-antigens and a recently evolved system with original recombination machinery driving ... [more ▼]

The thymus is the unique lymphoid organ inside which a confrontation occurs throughout life between neuroendocrine self-antigens and a recently evolved system with original recombination machinery driving random generation of immune response diversity. Through transcription of neuroendocrine genes in the thymus stromal network and expression of cognate receptors by immature T cells, the neuroendocrine system regulates early T cell differentiation. In addition and more specifically, intrathymic presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by, or in close association with, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is responsible for the establishment of central immune self-tolerance of neuroendocrine principles. All members of the insulin gene (INS) family are expressed in the thymus stroma according to a precise hierarchy and cell topography: IGF2 (thymic epithelial cells) > IGF1 (thymic macrophages) much greater than INS (thymic medullary epithelial cells and/or dendritic cells). Given this hierarchical pattern in gene expression, the protein IGF-2 is more tolerated than INS. Igf2 transcription is defective in the thymus of bio-breeding (BB) rat, one animal model of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This thymus-specific defect in Igf2 expression may explain both the absence of central tolerance to INS-secreting beta cells and the lymphopenia (including lack of regulatory RT6(+) T cells) in diabetes-prone BB rats. INS B:9-23 and the homologous sequence of IGF-2 compete for binding to DQ8, an MHC class II allele conferring major susceptibility to T1DM. In young DQ8(+) T1DM patients, INS B:9-23 presentation by DQ8 elicits a dominant IFN-gamma secretion by isolated PBMCs, whereas presentation of the IGF-2 self-antigen promotes a dominant regulatory interleukin-10 secretion. These data demonstrate that opposite immune responses are driven by MHC presentation of a self-antigen (here, IGF-2) and an autoantigen (INS, as "altered" self). The important tolerogenic properties of thymic self-antigens deserve now to be exploited for prevention and/or cure of devastating autoimmune diseases such as T1DM. [less ▲]

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See detailOne phase rural distribution installation with direct connection to HV trunk line
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; Monfils, Pierre-André; Omboua, Alphonse

in 17th International Conference on Electricity Distribution - CIRED (2003, May)

One original application of the distribution network development, based on existing HV network, is presented for the rural electrification of developing countries. Supply of a few kVA to remote site needs ... [more ▼]

One original application of the distribution network development, based on existing HV network, is presented for the rural electrification of developing countries. Supply of a few kVA to remote site needs specific installations. We have developed, installed and experimented one practical application from April 17th, 2002 in Makola (Congo-Brazzaville, 30 km far from Pointe Noire). We have investigated the case where a HV OHL exists in the vicinity of the village. Our application is a one-phase connection to a 220 kV line with a local demand estimated at 50 kVA (about 500 people) in a first step. We have adapted the existing technology of SF6 inductive voltage transformer in order to supply 50 kVA instead of a few VA. The paper will present the problems met during the design of this specific installation compared to classical substation, and the results of first months of use. [less ▲]

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See detailDepistage des cancers du sein et du col de l'uterus: attitudes et comportements de la population feminine liegeoise
Escoyez, Bernadette; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(5), 319-26

Several surveys have shown that in Belgium the coverage of the female population for both breast and cervix cancers screening is too low and not evenly distributed in the target population. In order to ... [more ▼]

Several surveys have shown that in Belgium the coverage of the female population for both breast and cervix cancers screening is too low and not evenly distributed in the target population. In order to highlight modifiable behavioural factors about cancer screening and to know the profile of women who exhibit an inadequate preventive behaviour, a postal survey has been conducted in the city of Liege. A self-administrated questionnaire was sent to a randomised sample of 1.000 women from two age groups (25-37 and 45-57 years); 444 women returned the questionnaire (response rate: 45.4%). The results show that the responders who do not comply with the recommendations for cancer screening are more often unemployed women with a low educational level, women who have a poor perception of their health, or women who are not regularly followed by a gynaecologist. Those women have more often poor knowledge and wrong beliefs about prevention, a negative perception of the curability of a cancer detected early and of the efficacy of screening tests. In spite of an overrepresentation of women with an university degree among the responders, it was also observed that more than 1 woman out of 4 in the 25-37 years age group is not convinced of the pap smear efficacy. In view of these results, the design of screening campaigns for cancer prevention has to involve specific efforts targeted at under-privileged subgroups within the female population. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro pre-digestion to estimate fermentability of feedstuffs in pig large intestine
Boudry, Christelle ULg; Estrada, Fernando; Schoeling, Olivia et al

in Ball, Ronald O. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs (2003, May)

The aim of this study was to compare ileal and faecal digestibilities to gas production in syringes, preceded or not by an in vitro enzymatic digestion of two pig diets containing different amounts of non ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare ileal and faecal digestibilities to gas production in syringes, preceded or not by an in vitro enzymatic digestion of two pig diets containing different amounts of non starch polysaccharides (NSP). In vivo, only nitrogen faecal digestibility differed between the two diets. Their enzymatic pre-digestion led to a higher gas production after 16 h of incubation in syringes for the diet with the lowest N faecel digestibility but not without pre-digestion. We may conclude that an in vitro pre-digestion before incubation in syringes is necessary to evaluate feed fermentescibility in pig large intestine. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications de l'approche bayésienne à la représentation des pluies mensuelles africaines par la loi des fuites.
Bernier, Jacques; Parent, Eric; Boreux, Jean-Jacques ULg

Conference (2003, May)

Ce texte présente une analyse bayésienne d'un processus ponctuel marqué particulier (la loi des fuites) avec application à des problèmes de modélisation environnementale hydrométéorologique sur les ... [more ▼]

Ce texte présente une analyse bayésienne d'un processus ponctuel marqué particulier (la loi des fuites) avec application à des problèmes de modélisation environnementale hydrométéorologique sur les données africaines de Ghezala (Tunisie) et Ataktamé (Togo). [less ▲]

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See detailContribution to the optimization of closed-loop multibody systems : application to parallel manipulators
Collard, Jean-François; Fisette, Paul; Duysinx, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the 5th World Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization WCSMO5 (2003, May)

This paper describes an original and robust method to optimize the design of closed-loop mechanisms, especially parallel manipulators. In other words, these mechanisms include assembling constraints we ... [more ▼]

This paper describes an original and robust method to optimize the design of closed-loop mechanisms, especially parallel manipulators. In other words, these mechanisms include assembling constraints we solved using a Newton-Raphson algorithm which may fail when the Jacobian matrix of the constraints is ill-conditioned. Therefore, the technique we propose takes advantage of that conditioning to penalize properly the objective function. Applications are shown: on the one hand, a simple example about the design of a planar ejector and, on the other hand, more realistic examples about the kinematical properties of parallel robots, in particular Delta-type and HexaSlide-type manipulators. [less ▲]

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See detailLe douglas sur substrat calcaire. Etude de ses potentialités forestières en Calestienne
Mouchet, F.; Claessens, Hugues ULg; Laroche, J.

in Forêt Wallonne (2003), (64), 27-32

Pour la sylviculture, la principale caractéristique de la Calestienne est très certainement la combinaison entre sa haute biodiversité et sa faible aptitude à la production de bois. Ainsi, la difficulté ... [more ▼]

Pour la sylviculture, la principale caractéristique de la Calestienne est très certainement la combinaison entre sa haute biodiversité et sa faible aptitude à la production de bois. Ainsi, la difficulté de trouver une essence économiquement rentable pouvant valoriser des sols souvent très ingrats a poussé plusieurs générations de forestiers à effectuer de nombreux essais sylviculturaux. Parmi ceux-ci, la célèbre introduction du pin noir, et plus récemment et plus discrètement, celle du douglas. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point sur la maladie du hêtre en Wallonie
Huart, O.; De Proft, M.; Grégoire, J. C. et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2003), (64), 2-20

Le hêtre, troisième essence feuillue (en volume) de Wallonie, est actuellement victime, essentiellement en Ardenne et en Gaume, d’un important problème sanitaire mettant en jeu des attaques d’insectes et ... [more ▼]

Le hêtre, troisième essence feuillue (en volume) de Wallonie, est actuellement victime, essentiellement en Ardenne et en Gaume, d’un important problème sanitaire mettant en jeu des attaques d’insectes et de champignons, communément appelé « maladie du hêtre ». Les premiers symptômes inquiétants du phénomène ont été identifiés à l’automne 1999, puis se sont considérablement amplifiés en 2000 et surtout en 2001, et se sont accompagnés de dégâts très importants et sans précédent connu. La nature et la dynamique d’apparition des symptômes observés suggéraient d’emblée qu’il s’agissait d’un phénomène inhabituel et apparemment distinct des dépérissements « classiques » du hêtre, bien que la possibilité d’interactions entre ces deux problèmes ne puisse être écartée a priori. L’ampleur de la zone géographique au sein de laquelle les symptômes se sont déclarés de manière relativement brusque et simultanée constitue également une caractéristique remarquable du phénomène observé. [less ▲]

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See detailWind Excitation and Severity of Standards Used for the Vibration Testing of Luminaires
Marin, Frederic ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Marville, Christian et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2003)

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See detailFormasup : un troisième cycle en pédagogie universitaire qui met en oeuvre 7 clés méthodologiques au service du déploiement de pratiques de qualités en EAD
Poumay, Marianne ULg

in Comité d'Edition des Actes de l'Université de Sherbrooke (Ed.) Actes du 20e Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Pédagogie Universitaire (AIPU) - L'Université au service de l'apprentissage : à quelles conditions ? (2003, May)

Bien qu’elles aient à affronter plusieurs défis (regroupement en pôles, nécessité de collaborer de façon interinstitutionnelle et d’adapter contenus et méthodes aux besoins changeants de la société), les ... [more ▼]

Bien qu’elles aient à affronter plusieurs défis (regroupement en pôles, nécessité de collaborer de façon interinstitutionnelle et d’adapter contenus et méthodes aux besoins changeants de la société), les universités offrent peu de formation continuée à leurs enseignants. À l’Université de Liège, cette formation continuée était jusqu’à l’année dernière surtout centrée sur des maîtrises d’outils techniques ou encore de la gestion. Une seconde motivation, tout aussi importante que la première, était le déploiement d’une masse critique de cours en ligne de qualité dans nos instituts d’enseignement supérieur. Pour ces principales raisons, le LabSET a souhaité insuffler à la formation pédagogique des professeurs un renouveau en contenus et méthodes, sous forme d’un curriculum respectant sept principes actifs (sélection des candidats au travers d’appels à projets ; enseignement isomorphe; approche par projets ; accompagnement étroit ; place centrale au concept d’activité des participants ; variété des méthodes et des ressources ; adaptation de l’évaluation aux groupes d’adultes). Ces 7 clés sont illustrées par des exemples pratiques issus du curriculum et des activités vécues, la difficulté résidant dans l’application et le respect de ces principes au quotidien. [less ▲]

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See detailA spherical metric for the field-oriented analysis of complex urban open spaces
Teller, Jacques ULg

in Environment & Planning B : Planning & Design (2003), 30(3), 339-356

The author deals with the analysis of urban open spaces, once conceived as part and parcel of our urban heritage. He introduces a mathematical modelling technique that is capable of mapping the variation ... [more ▼]

The author deals with the analysis of urban open spaces, once conceived as part and parcel of our urban heritage. He introduces a mathematical modelling technique that is capable of mapping the variation of the sky visible from points distributed throughout space. The resulting maps overcome the limits of orthographic (plan, section, and elevation) and perspective methods of analysis by considering the dynamic qualities of the Gibsonian 'visual world' that takes account not only of bifocal vision but also of the relatively free movement of the head and shoulders, that is, vision as part of the human ecology. The maps show how-a person might experience those volumes of a void that define a space, not from a fixed point but from moving about inside the entire urban open space. [less ▲]

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See detailBreast cancer and serum organochlorine residues
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Herman, Philippe ULg et al

in Occupational and Environmental Medicine (2003), 60(5), 348-351

Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels ... [more ▼]

Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change ( after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Methods: Blood levels of HCB and total DDT (we calculated total DDT concentrations by adding all DDT and DDE isomers) were compared in 159 women with breast cancer and 250 presumably healthy controls. Risk of breast cancer associated with organochlorine concentration was evaluated. Results: Mean levels of total DDT and HCB were significantly higher for breast cancer patients than for controls. No differences in serum levels of total DDT or HCB were found between oestrogen receptor positive and oestrogen receptor negative patients with breast cancer. Conclusions: These results add to the growing evidence that certain persistent pollutants may occur in higher concentrations in blood samples from breast cancer patients than controls. [less ▲]

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See detailLe col circulaire comme articulation flexible
Merken, Patrick; Debongnie, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2003, May)

Nous présentons un modèle permettant de déterminer les dimensions du col, R et ho, en fonction du matériau, de l'angle de rotation désiré et du nombre de cycles envisagé. Dans le cas du col circulaire ... [more ▼]

Nous présentons un modèle permettant de déterminer les dimensions du col, R et ho, en fonction du matériau, de l'angle de rotation désiré et du nombre de cycles envisagé. Dans le cas du col circulaire, les équations de base de la résistance des matériaux appliquées aux poutres à section variable admettent une solution analytique grâce à un changement de variable judicieux inspiré de la théorie de la lubrification. Pour un rapport entre l'épaisseur de col et son rayon tendant vers zéro, nous pouvons également dériver des formes asymptotiques des équations obtenues. Dans le cas de rapports ho/R moyens, ces résultats doivent être affectés de coefficients correcteurs qui dépendent eux-mêmes du rapport ho/R et que l'on détermine à partir des résultats numériques obtenus par la théorie complète. Ainsi, toutes les propriétés du col peuvent déduites grâce aux équations aux limites et à ces coefficients simples. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Solutions to the Problem of Range Dependence in Bistatic STAP Radars
Lapierre, Fabian; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg

in IEEE Radar Conference 2003, Proceedings (2003, May)

We address the problem of detecting slow-moving <br />targets using a space-time adaptive processing (STAP) radar. <br />The construction of optimum weights at each range implies <br />the estimation of ... [more ▼]

We address the problem of detecting slow-moving <br />targets using a space-time adaptive processing (STAP) radar. <br />The construction of optimum weights at each range implies <br />the estimation of the clutter covariance matrix. This is typically <br />done by straight averaging of neighboring data snapshots. <br />However, in bistatic configurations, these snapshots are rangedependent. <br />As a result, straight averaging results in poor performance. <br />After reviewing existing methods for handling the <br />range-dependence, we present new methods exploiting the precise <br />shape of the bistatic direction-Doppler curves. [less ▲]

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See detailInteret et limites du depistage de masse du cancer du sein par mammographie seule (mammotest)
Lifrange, Eric ULg; Bleret, Valerie ULg; Desreux, Joëlle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(5), 331-7

The literature on screening mammography provides ample opportunity for doubt (the sceptics) and dogma (the screening zealots), and can be interpreted to prove both benefit and harm. The benefit of ... [more ▼]

The literature on screening mammography provides ample opportunity for doubt (the sceptics) and dogma (the screening zealots), and can be interpreted to prove both benefit and harm. The benefit of mammography screening, if any, is modest and the balance between beneficial (potentially, a 20% relative reduction in breast cancer mortality with no significant benefit on all-cause mortality) and harmful (physical and psychological morbidity related to the 15-40% missed cancers and the 80-90% false-positive diagnoses) effects is still delicate. The mammogram alone is a modest weapon. Concurrent clinical breast examination is mandatory. Women that are concerned about breast cancer should be fully informed of the potential benefits and risks of screening mammography. These women should benefit from mammography with concurrent clinical breast examination, and possible whole-breast ultrasound in heterogeneously dense and extremely dense breast patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of elastoplastic model in large deformation problems
Jeunechamps, Pierre-Paul ULg; Walmag, Jérôme ULg; Delhez, Eric ULg et al

in Cinquini, Carlo (Ed.) Proceedings of the 5th World Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization WCSMO5 (2003, May)

This paper reports on preliminary results of parameter identification problems in finite element non-linear analyses such as metal forming simulations. Two approaches are compared. The first one is the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on preliminary results of parameter identification problems in finite element non-linear analyses such as metal forming simulations. Two approaches are compared. The first one is the classic Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The second one is a trust-region algorithm based on a quadratic model. The two algorithms are compared on two cases, one of them being an actual experiment. [less ▲]

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