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See detailFoams of polyurethane/MWNT nanocomposites for efficient EMI reduction
Chen, Y. Y.; Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2009, September 16)

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See detailIntroduction au droit commercial
Thirion, Nicolas ULg; Delvaux, Thierry; Benoit-Moury, Anne

Learning material (2009)

Le cours d'introduction au droit commercial, destiné à des non-juristes, a pour objet de décrire, dans ses grandes lignes, le régime juridique applicable à l'organisation et au fonctionnement de l ... [more ▼]

Le cours d'introduction au droit commercial, destiné à des non-juristes, a pour objet de décrire, dans ses grandes lignes, le régime juridique applicable à l'organisation et au fonctionnement de l'économie. Les liens avec des disciplines autres que le droit, notamment l'économie et l'histoire, seront privilégiés, afin d'adapter la matière aux besoins et centres d'intérêts d'étudiants en sciences humaines. Après une introduction générale, le cours s'articule autour de la trilogie fondamentale d'un système d'économie libérale tel qu'il existe aujourd'hui en Belgique et, plus largement, dans l'Union européenne: l'entreprise ; le marché et le risque. Le cours envisagera en effet les diverses modalités suivant lesquelles ces concepts sont traduits et utilisés dans le droit des affaires. D'abord, l'entreprise a reçu une première traduction juridique à travers la notion de commerçant, laquelle déclenche déjà l'application d'un grand nombre de règles (compétence des tribunaux de commerce ; modes de preuve particuliers ; droit de la faillite) ; cette traduction juridique s'est ultérieurement étendue à toutes les entités exerçant une activité économique. Parmi celles-ci, les sociétés commerciales retiendront tout particulièrement l'attention. Ensuite, l'organisation et le fonctionnement du marché font l'objet d'une deuxième partie : principe de la liberté du commerce et de l'industrie, droit de la concurrence, pratiques du commerce, ainsi qu'une introduction à l'organisation des marchés financiers et au fonctionnement des établissements financiers. Enfin, dans une troisième partie, le droit du concordat judiciaire et de la faillite sera analysé, en tant qu'instrument juridique de la sanction des défaillances des agents économiques et symbole du risque encouru par ceux qui font acte d'entreprendre. [less ▲]

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See detailThéories du droit
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

Learning material (2009)

L'enseignement de théorie du droit a pour objet de réaliser une approche du phénomène juridique s'appuyant sur un ensemble de concepts et de constructions puisés dans l'oeuvre foisonnante d'un des plus ... [more ▼]

L'enseignement de théorie du droit a pour objet de réaliser une approche du phénomène juridique s'appuyant sur un ensemble de concepts et de constructions puisés dans l'oeuvre foisonnante d'un des plus importants philosophes du vingtième siècle : Michel FOUCAULT. Il ne s'agit pas, bien entendu, de limiter le propos aux travaux de ce dernier, mais de s'en inspirer afin de fixer le cadre général d'une réflexion originale sur le droit. Dans une première partie, il conviendra de synthétiser l'appareillage intellectuel foucaldien pour en faire ensuite usage, dans la seconde partie - quantitativement la plus importante -, à propos de l'objet spécifique du cours : le phénomène juridique. Celle-ci vise en effet à appliquer les hypothèses présentées dans la première partie, en dissociant le droit comme pouvoir, d'une part, et le droit comme savoir, d'autre part. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit de l'entreprise
Thirion, Nicolas ULg; Pasteger, David ULg; Delvaux, Thierry et al

Learning material (2009)

Support écrit du cours de "droit de l'entreprise" à destination des étudiants de la troisième année du grade de bachelier en droit

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See detailMulti-aperture imaging of extrasolar planetary systems (invited review)
Absil, Olivier ULg

Scientific conference (2009, September 14)

Space‐based nulling interferometry has been identified since 1978 as a promising technique to detect and characterize extrasolar Earth‐like planets. In this talk, I will review the evolution of the ... [more ▼]

Space‐based nulling interferometry has been identified since 1978 as a promising technique to detect and characterize extrasolar Earth‐like planets. In this talk, I will review the evolution of the multi‐aperture concepts dedicated to Earth‐like planet imaging during the last 30 years, and discuss the future prospects in this field. In particular, I will describe the proposed architecture for the Darwin/TPF‐I mission, which has resulted from a common optimization effort by ESA and NASA and from various industrial studies during the past decade. The main scientific and technical hard points will be critically discussed. This talk will also review the precursor instruments (present and future) that could enable future flagship interferometric missions similar to Darwin/TPF‐I. [less ▲]

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See detailLa fiscalité locale : décennie d'évolutions
Bortolotti, Aurélien ULg

Scientific conference (2009, September 11)

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See detailFroment 2009: de bons rendements mais une piètre qualité boulangère
Sinnaeve, Georges; Gofflot, Sébastien; Chandelier, Anne et al

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailPadvinder voor het leven
Meesters, Gert ULg

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailKleine bibliotheek voor een Kuifoloog
Meesters, Gert ULg; Van Cauwelaert, Rik

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailIntegrated Research and Protected Spaces: a New Role for STS?
Thoreau, François ULg

Poster (2009, September 10)

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See detailVariétés: orge de brasserie
Monfort, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailImplantation des cultures
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Roisin, Christian; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailVariétés: froment d'hiver
Seutin, Benoit ULg; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Couvreur, Luc et al

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailVariétés: escourgeon et orge d'hiver fourragers
Herman, Jean-Luc; Monfort, Bruno; Couvreur, Luc et al

in Livre Blanc: Céréales - Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2009, September 10)

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Situation au 31 août 2009
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Scohy, Laureline; Denis, Antoine ULg et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2009), 7(3), 1-4

Les conditions atmosphériques de juillet et août ont permis aux cultures d’hiver de boucler leurs cycles dans d’excellentes conditions. Pour les cultures de printemps par contre, le mois d’août chaud et ... [more ▼]

Les conditions atmosphériques de juillet et août ont permis aux cultures d’hiver de boucler leurs cycles dans d’excellentes conditions. Pour les cultures de printemps par contre, le mois d’août chaud et sec aura pu accélérer la sénescence et créer ça et là des stress hydriques en particulier pour le maïs et la pomme de terre qui sont plus sensibles à la sécheresse que la betterave. Les rendements prédits pour la pomme de terre sont en-dessous de la moyenne, ils sont proches de la moyenne pour le maïs tandis qu’ils sont largement supérieurs pour la betterave. Des différences parfois importantes sont simulées entre les différentes régions agricoles. [less ▲]

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See detailIN VITRO NUCLEAR AND CYTOPLASMIC MATURATION OF THE EQUINE OOCYTE: INFLUENCE OF CYSTEAMINE
Deleuze, Stefan ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Research on in vitro embryo production (IVP) in the equine is impeded by the limited availability of mature oocytes as the mare is mono ovulating and superovulation is still difficult (Dippert and Squires ... [more ▼]

Research on in vitro embryo production (IVP) in the equine is impeded by the limited availability of mature oocytes as the mare is mono ovulating and superovulation is still difficult (Dippert and Squires, 1994; Bezard et al., 1995; Alvarenga et al., 2001b). Despite recent improvement in IVM of equine oocytes, success rates of IVM in that species remain low in all culture media tested compared to other species (Goudet et al., 2000b). However, most studies have focused on the percentage of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage (nuclear maturation) but few concentrated on the final oocyte competence as measured by its ability to develop into a blastocyst and further establish a pregnancy. Blastocyst production rate is influenced not only by culture environment but also by oocyte maturation conditions. Under in vitro culture conditions, oxidative modifications of cell components via increased ROS represent a major culture induced stress (Johnson and Nasr-Esfahani, 1994). Anti-oxidant systems can attenuate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress by scavenging ROS (Del Corso et al., 1994). Glutathione, a tripeptide thiol, is the major non-protein sulfydryl compound in mammalian cells that plays an important role in protecting the cell from oxidative damage (Meister and Tate, 1976; Meister and Anderson, 1983). It has been suggested that GSH content in oocytes may serve as a reservoir protecting the zygote and the early embryos from oxidative damage before genomic activation and de novo GSH synthesis occur (Furnus et al., 1998; de Matos and Furnus, 2000). The addition of GSH synthesis precursors, such as cysteamine, a thiol compound, to IVM media has been shown to improve IVP in various species (Takahashi et al., 1993; de Matos et al., 1995; Grupen et al., 1995; de Matos et al., 2002a; de Matos et al., 2002b; de Matos et al., 2003; Gasparrini et al., 2003; Oyamada and Fukui, 2004; Balasubramanian and Rho, 2007; Anand et al., 2008; Singhal et al., 2008; Zhou et al., 2008). Very little information on the use of thiol compounds in the equine is available. Conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) has not been successful in the mare, and a repeatable IVF technique has not yet been developed (Alm et al., 2001). To overcome the limitation of conventional IVF procedures, other methods to produce embryos from oocytes, either in vivo or in vitro, have been investigated. Among these, intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has permitted efficient equine in vitro blastocyst production (Galli et al., 2002; Lazzari et al., 2002; Choi et al., 2006a; Choi et al., 2006c). However, ICSI requires specific equipment and skills. Transfer of an immature oocyte into the preovulatory follicle of an inseminated recipient mare (Intra-Follicular Oocyte Transfer, IFOT) has produced embryos but the success rate was low (Hinrichs and Digiorgio, 1991). Similarly, oocyte transfer (OT) into the oviduct of an inseminated recipient mare was investigated (McKinnon et al., 1988; Carnevale, 1996; Hinrichs et al., 1997; Carnevale et al., 2001; Carnevale et al., 2003; Carnevale, 2004), and commercial programs using OT for mares with reproductive abnormalities are now available (Carnevale et al., 2001). Unfortunately, IFOT is poorly documented in the literature and reports of OT have been published by various laboratories and under various conditions, making comparisons between results and choosing among these as substitutive techniques to ICSI or embryo transfer difficult. The first aim of the present work was to investigate if there is an influence of supplementation with 100 µM of cysteamine on conventional IVF success rate. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) retrieved by transvaginal ultrasound guided aspiration were matured in vitro with or without cysteamine supplementation and were then submitted to conventional IVF using either calcium ionophore or heparin as capacitation treatment for spermatozoa. A total of 131 oocytes were evaluated for evidence of sperm penetration. Both techniques (ionophore or heparin) yielded 6% of IVF and results were similar both for the cysteamine and the control group. This success rate of IVF is low compared to some published data (Palmer et al., 1991; Dell'Aquila et al., 1996; McPartlin et al., 2009) but similar to what others reported in the literature (Choi et al., 1994; Dell'Aquila et al., 1997a). Although, it seems likely that cysteamine did not significantly improve IVF rates under our conditions, our general success rates for IVF procedures may be too low for us to conclude definitely about the effect of cysteamine. As ICSI was not available to us, the second aim of this work was to determine what in vivo technique could best bypass the lack of an efficient conventional IVF procedure. We compared embryo production following transfer of in vivo recovered oocytes (1) into a recipient’s oviduct or (2) into her preovulatory follicle either immediately after ovum pick up or (3) after in vitro maturation. Recipients were inseminated with fresh semen of a stallion with a known normal fertility. Ten days after transfer, rates of embryos collected in excess to the number of ovulations were calculated and compared for each group. Embryo collection rates were 32.5% (13/40), 5.5% (3/55) and 12.8% (6/47) for OT, post-IVM and immediate IFOT respectively. OT significantly yielded more embryos than immediate and post-IVM IFOT did. These results show that, when ICSI is not an option, intra-oviductal oocyte transfer is to be preferred to IFOT, as an in vivo alternative, to bypass the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilization and to assess oocyte developmental competence. After it was established that in comparison to IFOT, OT is the most reliable in vivo alternative to in vitro fertilization where ICSI technology is not available, this technique was used to assess the effect of cysteamine supplementation on nuclear maturation and oocyte competence. The third aim of this work was to investigate the influence of supplementation with 100 µM of cysteamine on in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation by specific DNA staining and the ability of oocytes to undergo in vivo fertilization after OT. Oocytes were collected by transvaginal ultrasound guided aspiration and matured in vitro with (cysteamine group) or without (control group) cysteamine. The nuclear stage after DNA Hoechst staining and the embryo yield following OT were used as a criterion for assessing nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, respectively. Overall maturation rate was 52%, which is rates reported in the literature ranging from 40 to 70% in the equine (Goudet et al., 1997a; Bogh et al., 2002; Hinrichs et al., 2005; Galli et al., 2007). Nuclear maturation was not statistically different (p>0.05) between oocytes cultured with or without cysteamine (55% and 47% respectively). From 57 oocytes transferred to the oviduct in each group, the number of embryos collected was 10 (17%) in the control group and 5 in the cysteamine group (9%). Those two percentages were not statistically different (p>0.05). Contrary to the data described in other domestic species, there was no effect of cysteamine on in vitro nuclear maturation, or in vivo embryonic development under our conditions. Under our conditions, the addition of 100 µM of cysteamine to a classic culture medium does not improve equine oocyte maturation or embryonic development after OT. The same dose failed to increase GSH content in the equine (Luciano et al., 2006). However, the effect of cysteamine supplementation is highly species and concentration dependant. The inadequacy of the chosen concentration may explain that equine embryo production has not been increased by the cysteamine under our conditions as opposed to what has been observed in many other species. Alternatively, we can hypothesize that some substances present in the IVM medium can interfere with GSH synthesis. This has been suggested for FSH and estradiol (Bing et al., 2001) and, although our maturation medium is not supplemented with gonadotropins or estradiol, factors contained in fetal calf serum or EGF might also have an effect on GSH synthesis. Considering its beneficial effects in many other species, supplementation with cysteamine to different IVM media should be further investigated in the equine. Ideally combining different concentrations and ICSI or OT in order to determine an optimal concentration and its effects on oocyte developmental competence. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailFormasup - La professionnalisation de nos enseignants en question(s)
Poumay, Marianne ULg; Georges, François ULg

Conference (2009, September 09)

L'article souhaite stimuler les échanges entre professionnels de la formation continuée des enseignants du supérieur. Il décrit brièvement le contexte du Master Complémentaire "Formasup" de l'Université ... [more ▼]

L'article souhaite stimuler les échanges entre professionnels de la formation continuée des enseignants du supérieur. Il décrit brièvement le contexte du Master Complémentaire "Formasup" de l'Université de Liège et les courants qui influencent sa mise en oeuvre. Il se centre ensuite sur la régulation constante de ce programme, tout d'abord en soulignant quelques questions qui restent problématiques pour l'équipe encadrante, puis en énumérant des aires de questionnement ainsi que des solutions, toujours provisoires, apportées au fil du temps. Il ouvre enfin sur les perspectives quelques nouveaux défis qui ne manqueront pas de bousculer ce programme dans les années qui viennent. [less ▲]

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See detailLa carte mentale : une approche spécifique du comportement politique contemporain ?
Breux, Sandra; Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2009, September 09)

If qualitative and quantitative approaches have frequently been opposed, the combination of both has also been praised. Nevertheless, few attempts, especially in the field of political science, have ... [more ▼]

If qualitative and quantitative approaches have frequently been opposed, the combination of both has also been praised. Nevertheless, few attempts, especially in the field of political science, have endeavoured to combine these two methodological approaches. Yet, a research tool seems to have the potential to break new ground in political science from both a qualitative and a quantitative perspective: the mental map. Often used in psychology (Piaget, 1987), and sometimes in geography (André et al., 1989; Fournand, 2003), political scientists have rarely used it (Laponce, 2001), however. On the basis of two empirical researches, one on Quebec City, the other one on federalism in Canada and Belgium, the aim of this paper is to discuss the pros and cons of the use of mental maps in the field of political science. Indeed, our purpose is to show that the mental map offers a contextual approach to understand individual as well as collective political behaviour, if the researcher follows strict methodological rules both in the implementation and in the analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailReproducibility of dynamometric and non-dynamometric trunk extensor muscle tests in patients with chronic low back pain
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Grosdent, Stéphanie ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2009, September 09)

Background and Aims: Literature describes several dynamometric and non-dynamometric tests to assess trunk extensor muscle performances. In patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), reproducibility of ... [more ▼]

Background and Aims: Literature describes several dynamometric and non-dynamometric tests to assess trunk extensor muscle performances. In patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), reproducibility of such assessments remains understudied. The purpose of this study was to compare reproducibility of two dynamometric tests and of the widely used Sorensen test. Methods: 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range: 30-60 years) with CLBP (mean Roland-Morris disability scores reaching 6 ± 3.4) were randomized into two groups attending two assessment sessions. Group 1 (12 men and 12 women) underwent two tests (i.e. a maximal strength test (figure 1) and a static endurance test requiring to maintain as long as possible a torque of 50 percent of maximal strength previously determined (figure 2)) performed on a specific trunk extensor dynamometer (David Back). Group 2 (10 men and 10 women) was submitted to the non-dynamometric Sorensen test (lifting the upper trunk and maintaining the horizontal position) (figure 3). For both groups, tests were performed twice (spaced by 15 minutes) during the first session (intra-session reproducibility) and once during the second session (inter-session reproducibility) happening 2 to 7 days later. Results: Mean torques reached 2.67 ± 0.63 Nm/Kg (women) and 3.66 ± 0.75 Nm/Kg (men) for the strength test. Mean maintaining times were 83 ± 34 s for the endurance test and 99 ± 28 s for the Sorensen test. The Table presents coefficient of variations (CV) and limits of agreement (LOA) related to the intra-session and inter-session reproducibility. Conclusions: Reproducibility appeared satisfactory for the strength test, moderate for the Sorensen test and low for the dynamometric endurance test in patients with moderate CLBP. [less ▲]

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