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See detailSalmonella dans la viande et dans les oeufs : un danger pour le consommateur qui demande la mise en place d’un programme de lutte efficace
Van Immerseel, F.; De Buck, J.; Boyen, F. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(1), 34-48

L’émergence de Salmonella Enteritidis dans l’industrie avicole a eu lieu dans tous les pays occidentaux entre 1965 et 1980. Depuis lors, ce sérotype est devenu le plus commun chez la volaille. Comme il se ... [more ▼]

L’émergence de Salmonella Enteritidis dans l’industrie avicole a eu lieu dans tous les pays occidentaux entre 1965 et 1980. Depuis lors, ce sérotype est devenu le plus commun chez la volaille. Comme il se transmet verticalement dans les oeufs, il constitue la cause principale de la pandémie de salmonellose non-typhoïde qui est observée chez l’homme. En outre, la bactérie se transmet aussi horizontalement dans les exploitations de volaille. Une fois qu’un bâtiment a hébergé des poules contaminées, il est très difficile d’éliminer cette contamination par les mesures hygiéniques classiques. Le mécanisme de transmission dans les oeufs n’est toujours pas complètement élucidé, ce qui constitue un obstacle majeur pour le développement de nouvelles mesures de prévention et de traitement. Les produits et mesures actuellement disponibles pour lutter contre Salmonella chez la volaille ont été largement développés sur base de méthodes empiriques. Néanmoins, la situation actuelle impose de prendre des mesures. Au niveau européen, de nouvelles dispositions législatives prévoient une série de mesures visant à réduire les taux de contamination de Salmonella tout au long de la chaîne de production, de transformation et de distribution des oeufs et de la viande de volaille. Il est évident que les contaminations des oeufs et de la viande sont fortement influencées respectivement par les conditions hygiéniques de l’abattage et par la réfrigération des oeufs. Au niveau belge, l’Agence fédérale pour la Sécurité de la chaîne alimentaire (AFSCA) va mettre en place un nouveau programme de lutte dans le secteur avicole. Cet article passe en revue les aspects les plus importants de l’épidémiologie, de la pathogenèse et décrit les mesures de prévention et de lutte qui sont disponibles à l’heure actuelle. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in hematopoietic and fatty bone marrow: evidence that neuropilin-1 is produced by fat cells.
Belaid, Zakia ULg; Hubint, Frederique; Humblet, Chantal ULg et al

in Haematologica (2005), 90(3), 400-1

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2) and neuropillin-1 (NRP-1) are expressed at variable levels in bone marrow. NRP-1expression is higher in fatty bone marrow than ... [more ▼]

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2) and neuropillin-1 (NRP-1) are expressed at variable levels in bone marrow. NRP-1expression is higher in fatty bone marrow than in hematopoietic marrow. Adipocytes are responsible for NRP-1 expression suggesting that they may play a role in hematopoiesis by producing NRP-1 or that NRP-1 may regulate adipocyte activity. [less ▲]

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See detailIntégration d'une approche historique dans les cours de sciences
Bernard, Hervé; Fagnant, Annick ULg

in Informations Pédagogiques (2005), 57

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See detailL'impact du commerce équitable sur les producteurs. Le cas de coopératives de café et de cacao en Bolivie.
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2005)

Ce travail est le résultat d’une année de recherches sur le thème de l’impact du commerce équitable sur les (organisations de) producteurs et les facteurs d’influence sur cet impact. Une étude de terrain ... [more ▼]

Ce travail est le résultat d’une année de recherches sur le thème de l’impact du commerce équitable sur les (organisations de) producteurs et les facteurs d’influence sur cet impact. Une étude de terrain auprès de quatre coopératives de producteurs de café et de cacao en Bolivie a servi de base à cette recherche. Ce pays connaît une effervescence de l’économie sociale et solidaire, à travers les « organisations économiques paysannes », que les réseaux de représentation au niveau national tentent de promouvoir et de pérenniser, entre autres à travers la filière du commerce équitable. Le commerce équitable et son impact sur les producteurs constituent des thèmes relativement nouveaux dans la littérature scientifique. Cette recherche propose une classification de différents domaines d’impacts au niveau de l’organisation puis au niveau du producteur. Ces impacts sont illustrés par les quatre cas, dont deux ne bénéficient pas d’un « partenariat équitable », ce qui permet d’établir certaines comparaisons, dans les limites propres à toute étude de terrain de ce type. L’hypothèse centrale est que le commerce équitable constitue une source de soutien pour les organisations partenaires, mais que la redistribution de ce soutien aux producteurs dépend des mécanismes et des objectifs propres à chacune de ces organisations. L’appui économique et social est donc « reçu » et redirigé différemment d’une organisation à l’autre, de même qu’il est proposé différemment par chaque acteur du Nord. En conséquence, l’étude cherche à mettre en exergue les facteurs, autant du côté des importateurs que des producteurs, qui influencent l’efficacité de la filière équitable par rapport à ses objectifs de développement. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of Microscopy for identification of complex MC, M2C, M6C, M7C3 and M23C6 carbides in high speed-steels
Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg

in GIT - Imaging and Microscopy (2005), 2

High-speed steels (HSSJ rofis are useci in front finishing stands of hot strip mils. Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperature are defining features of HSS. Many types of carbides are present ... [more ▼]

High-speed steels (HSSJ rofis are useci in front finishing stands of hot strip mils. Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperature are defining features of HSS. Many types of carbides are present in these alloys, each having different effect upon the final properties of HSS. As a resuit, nature, morphology and amount of these carbides are factors of important concern. Identification and characterisation of HSS carbides are realised with optical microscopy comhined with electron microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailA further new species of Strigula from Europe
Sérusiaux, Emmanuel ULg; Berger, F.; Coppins, B. J. et al

in Lichenologist (2005), 37(Part 6), 481-483

Strigula muscicola Berger, Coppins, Cl. Roux & Serus. is described as new to science; it is a muscicolous species with aggregated ascomata and 3-septate ascospores, growing in subalpine habitats in ... [more ▼]

Strigula muscicola Berger, Coppins, Cl. Roux & Serus. is described as new to science; it is a muscicolous species with aggregated ascomata and 3-septate ascospores, growing in subalpine habitats in Austria, Norway and Scotland. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrélation de la densité minérale osseuse de l’os spongieux du fémur et du T2* chez l’enfant
Schwartz, Cédric ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2005)

La maladie de Legg-Calvé-Perthes est une maladie infantile qui a pour origine une ischémie du noyau épiphysaire fémoral supérieur. Cette pathologie évolue naturellement vers la guérison mais souvent avec ... [more ▼]

La maladie de Legg-Calvé-Perthes est une maladie infantile qui a pour origine une ischémie du noyau épiphysaire fémoral supérieur. Cette pathologie évolue naturellement vers la guérison mais souvent avec des déformations irréversibles de la tête fémorale. Le travail du médecin est de limiter au maximum ces complications. L’équipe d’imagerie vasculaire et biomécanique de l’UMR CNRS 6600 à l’Université de Technologie de Compiègne souhaite créer un modèle biomécanique de la hanche de l’enfant afin de proposer au médecin un outil de pronostic de l’évolution de la maladie et ainsi l’aider dans son choix de traitement. La création d’un modèle biomécanique implique la connaissance de la géométrie de la tête fémorale et des propriétés mécaniques des tissus qui la composent, c’est- à - dire de l’os cortical, de l’os spongieux et du cartilage. L’objet de cette étude est d’obtenir la densité minérale osseuse (DMO) de l’os spongieux à partir de la mesure du temps de relaxation transverse apparent T2*. L’interface de deux matériaux de susceptibilité magnétique différente (l’os et la moelle) crée des inhomogénéités dans le champ magnétique ayant pour conséquence un déphasage plus rapide des protons et donc un temps de relaxation plus petit. L’idée de ce travail est de proposer une méthode permettant de corréler la DMO au T2* au niveau de la hanche de l’enfant. Nous avons développé un modèle permettant de simuler en 2D et en 3D l’influence de différentes structures sur le T2*. Ces simulations nous ont conduit à appréhender les différents paramètres influant sur la valeur du T2* (l’orientation des travées, la différences de susceptibilité magnétique, ...). Ce travail nous a permis de mettre en avant l’importance qu’il y avait à prendre en compte la présence de deux types de moelle (jaune et rouge) dans la tête fémorale de l’enfant et l’orientation des travées. La corrélation en elle-même pourra être réalisée à l’aide d’un fantôme composé de cylindres de diamètre proche de l’épaisseur des travées osseuses. [less ▲]

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See detailGomphillus caribaeus belongs in the new genus Bryogomphus (Lecanorales : Pilocarpaceae)
Lucking, R.; Buck, W. R.; Sérusiaux, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Bryologist (2005), 108(4, Winter), 481-486

A revision of the lichen genus Gomphillus Nyl. in the Americas reveals that G. caribaeus W. R. Buck does not belong in that genus, but is a member of the Pilocarpaceae in the Lecanorales. Because of its ... [more ▼]

A revision of the lichen genus Gomphillus Nyl. in the Americas reveals that G. caribaeus W. R. Buck does not belong in that genus, but is a member of the Pilocarpaceae in the Lecanorales. Because of its distinctive features, the species cannot be accommodated in any of the known genera of that family, and the new genus Bryogomphus Lucking, W. R. Buck, Serus. [less ▲]

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See detailGomphillus morchelloides (Ostropales : Gomphillaceae), a new lichen species from Chile and Papua New Guinea
Lucking, R.; Sérusiaux, Emmanuel ULg

in Bryologist (2005), 108(4, Winter), 487-490

Revision of two collections of Gomphillus from Papua New Guinea and Chile, previously identified as Gomphillus ophiosporus and G. calycioides, respectively, revealed that these represent an undescribed ... [more ▼]

Revision of two collections of Gomphillus from Papua New Guinea and Chile, previously identified as Gomphillus ophiosporus and G. calycioides, respectively, revealed that these represent an undescribed species, G. morchelloides Lucking [less ▲]

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See detailLambinonia, a new genus for Melanconium strigulae, a lichenicolous hyphomycete on foliicolous species of Strigula
Sérusiaux, Emmanuel ULg; Diederich, P.

in Lichenologist (2005), 37(Part 6), 499-506

The new genus Lambinonia Serus.

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See detailNeural mechanisms involved in the detection of our first name : A combined ERPs and PET study
Perrin, Fabien; Maquet, Pierre ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg et al

in Neuropsychologia (2005), 43(1), 12-19

In everyday social interactions, hearing our own first name captures our attention and gives rise to a sense of self-awareness, since it is one of the most socially self related stimulus. In the present ... [more ▼]

In everyday social interactions, hearing our own first name captures our attention and gives rise to a sense of self-awareness, since it is one of the most socially self related stimulus. In the present study, we combined ERPs and PET scan methods to explore the cerebral mechanisms underlying the detection of our own name. While categorical analyses of PET data failed to reveal significant results, we found that the amplitude of the P3 component, elicited when hearing one's own name, correlates with regional cerebral blood changes in right superior temporal sulcus, precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the latter was more correlated to the P3 obtained for the subject's name compared to that obtained for other first names. These results suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex plays the most prominent role in self-processing. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes adipocytokines: lien entre obesite, diabete de type 2 et atherosclerose?
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Tappy, L.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(5-6, May-Jun), 369-73

Adipose tissue, in addition to the storage of lipids function for lipids, plays active roles in normal metabolic homeostasis and in the development of several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes ... [more ▼]

Adipose tissue, in addition to the storage of lipids function for lipids, plays active roles in normal metabolic homeostasis and in the development of several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipaemia and atherosclerosis. These roles are mediated by adipocytokines, factors secreted by adipose tissue. These include tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-alpha, leptin, resistin, adiponectin or visfatin. Adipocytokines act in an autocrine, paracrine and endocrine manner. Adiponectin is a peculiar adipocytokine because in contrast to the markedly increased levels of leptin, resistin or TNF-alpha in obesity, its level is negatively correlated with body mass index, and is decreased in presence of insulin resistance and in type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin may play a crucial role in the development of diabetes mellitus and high adiponectin levels should protect against impairment of glucose metabolism. Moreover, adipocytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases and may represent a link between obesity, diabetes, inflammation and atherosclerosis. Weight loss, exercise and some antidiabetic drugs also influence plasma adipocytokines levels. For instance, thiazolidinediones treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes resulted in an increased in plasma adiponectin levels and a decrease in circulating TNF-alpha concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetics of engraftment following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Little, Marie-Terese; Storb, Rainer

in Blood Reviews (2005), 19(3), 153-64

Nonmyeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been used to condition elderly or ill patients with hematological malignancies for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT ... [more ▼]

Nonmyeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been used to condition elderly or ill patients with hematological malignancies for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Initial mixed donor/host chimerism (i.e. the coexistence of hematopoietic cells of host and donor origin) has been observed in most patients after such transplants. Here, we describe both factors affecting engraftment kinetics in patients given a nonmyeloablative or a reduced-intensity conditioning, and associations between peripheral blood cell subset chimerism levels and HCT outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat role is there for antithymocyte globulin in allogeneic nonmyeloablative canine hematopoietic cell transplantation?
Diaconescu, Razvan; Little, Marie-Terese; Leisenring, Wendy et al

in Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation (2005), 11(5), 335-44

We investigated whether pretransplantation immunosuppression with canine-specific rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG), combined with a suboptimal dose of 1 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI), would permit ... [more ▼]

We investigated whether pretransplantation immunosuppression with canine-specific rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG), combined with a suboptimal dose of 1 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI), would permit engraftment of canine dog leukocyte antigen-identical marrow. Cumulative ATG doses of 2 to 5 mg/kg produced a T-cell depletion of 1 log in the peripheral blood and 50% in the lymph nodes. Serum levels of ATG peaked on days 4 to 6 after initiation of therapy and became undetectable by day 13 as a result of canine antibody responses to ATG. ATG prolonged allogeneic skin graft survival to 14 days (n = 5), compared with 8 days in control dogs (P = .0003). Five dogs were given marrow transplants after ATG (3.5-5 mg/kg) and 1 Gy of TBI. Posttransplantation immunosuppression consisted of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine. All dogs showed initial engraftment, with maximum donor chimerism levels of 25%. However, only 1 dog achieved sustained engraftment, and 4 rejected their grafts. The duration of engraftment ranged from 8 to > or = 36 weeks (median, 11 weeks), and this is comparable to that in 6 historical controls not given ATG (range, 3-12 weeks; median, 10 weeks; P = .20). The total nucleated cell doses in the marrow grafts had the highest correlation coefficient with the duration of engraftment: 0.82 (P = .09). We concluded that administering ATG before an otherwise suboptimal conditioning dose of 1 Gy of TBI failed to secure uniform stable hematopoietic engraftment. [less ▲]

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See detailHematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-specific comorbidity index: a new tool for risk assessment before allogeneic HCT.
Sorror, Mohamed L; Maris, Michael B; Storb, Rainer et al

in Blood (2005), 106(8), 2912-9

We previously reported that the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was useful for predicting outcomes in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the sample size of ... [more ▼]

We previously reported that the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was useful for predicting outcomes in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the sample size of patients with scores of 1 or more, captured by the CCI, did not exceed 35%. Further, some comorbidities were rarely found among patients who underwent HCT. Therefore, the current study was designed to (1) better define previously identified comorbidities using pretransplant laboratory data, (2) investigate additional HCT-related comorbidities, and (3) establish comorbidity scores that were suited for HCT. Data were collected from 1055 patients, and then randomly divided into training and validation sets. Weights were assigned to individual comorbidities according to their prognostic significance in Cox proportional hazard models. The new index was then validated. The new index proved to be more sensitive than the CCI since it captured 62% of patients with scores more than 0 compared with 12%, respectively. Further, the new index showed better survival prediction than the CCI (likelihood ratio of 23.7 versus 7.1 and c statistics of 0.661 versus 0.561, respectively, P < .001). In conclusion, the new simple index provided valid and reliable scoring of pretransplant comorbidities that predicted nonrelapse mortality and survival. This index will be useful for clinical trials and patient counseling before HCT. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Pollen and Nectar of Arbutus unedo as a Food Source for Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera : Apidae)
Rasmont, Pierre; Regali, Ariane; Ings, Thomas C. et al

in Journal of Economic Entomology (2005), 98(3), 656-663

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See detailDevelopment Of An Enzymatic Assay For The Determination Of Cellulose Bioavailability In Municipal Solid Waste
Rodriguez, Christian; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg et al

in Biodegradation (2005), 16(5), 415-422

As there is a constant need to assess the biodegradation potential of refuse disposed of in landfills, we have developed a method to evaluate the biodegradability of cellulosic compounds (cellulose and ... [more ▼]

As there is a constant need to assess the biodegradation potential of refuse disposed of in landfills, we have developed a method to evaluate the biodegradability of cellulosic compounds (cellulose and hemicellulose) in municipal solid waste. This test is based on the quantification of monosaccharids released after the hydrolysis of solid waste samples with an optimised enzyme preparation containing commercially available cellulases and hemicellulases. We show that the amounts of monosaccharids could be related to the biodegradability of the cellulosic material contained in the samples. This enzymatic cellulose degradation test was assayed on 26 samples originating from two Belgian landfills and collected at different depths. As results correlated well with those obtained with a classical biochemical methane potential assay, this new and rapid test is sufficiently reliable to evaluate cellulose bioavailability in waste samples. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of tank mixed adjuvants on the drift potential of phenmedipham formulations.
Stainier, Charles; Destain, Marie-France ULg; Schiffers, Bruno ULg et al

in Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences (2005), 70(4), 979-987

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See detailHeating Effects On Some Quality Characteristics Of Date Seed Oil
Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Deroanne, Claude et al

in Food Chemistry (2005), 91(3), 469-476

Effects of heating on some quality characteristics of date seed oil from two cultivars (Deglet Nour and Allig) has been investigated using an accelerated test in a Rancimat system. Fatty acid, viscosity ... [more ▼]

Effects of heating on some quality characteristics of date seed oil from two cultivars (Deglet Nour and Allig) has been investigated using an accelerated test in a Rancimat system. Fatty acid, viscosity, absorptivity at 232 and 270 nm, colour and total melting enthalpy of Deglet Nour seed oil were less changed compared to that of Allig seed oil, because the former contained a higher amount of total phenolic compounds (526 lg/g against 215 lg/g) and a lower content of unsaturated fatty acids. Viscosity and absorptivity at 232 nm and at 270 nm increased rapidly after reaching the oxidation induction time. Differential scanning calorimetry melting profiles of date seed oils were also changed after heating in the Rancimat. Melting enthalpies seemed to be constant during the initial stages of Rancimat treatment and then reduced after the induction time was reached. The obtained data shows that date seed oils were resistant to thermal treatment during a long period ( 30–40 h). This may indicate that they could bear thermal treatments that could be applied in refining procedures or in culinary treatments such as frying and cooking conditions. We could also expect that they may have a good shelf life. [less ▲]

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See detailMapk Pathway Contributes To Density- And Hypoxia-Induced Expression Of The Tumor-Associated Carbonic Anhydrase Ix
Kopacek, J.; Barathova, M.; Dequiedt, Franck ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Gene Structure and Expression (2005), 1729(1),

Transcription of the CA9 gene coding for a tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) isoform is regulated by hypoxia via the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and by high cell density via the ... [more ▼]

Transcription of the CA9 gene coding for a tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) isoform is regulated by hypoxia via the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and by high cell density via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. We examined the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the control of CA9 gene expression. Inhibition of MAPK signaling by U0126 in HeLa cells led to reduced activity of the PR1-HRE-luc CA9 promoter construct and decreased CA IX protein levels in dense culture as well as in hypoxia. Similar reduction was obtained by expression of a dominant-negative ERK1 mutant and was also observed in U0126-treated HIF-1alpha-deficient Ka13 cells. Simultaneous treatment with the MAPK and PI3K inhibitors U0126 and LY 294002 had stronger effect than individual inhibition of these pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that besides the PI3K pathway, the MAPK cascade is involved in the regulation of CA9 gene expression under both hypoxia and high cell density. [less ▲]

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