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See detailManagement of the metabolic syndrome.
Scheen, André ULg

in Minerva Endocrinologica (2004), 29(2), 31-45

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with insulin resistance and consists of a constellation of factors that raise the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Therefore ... [more ▼]

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with insulin resistance and consists of a constellation of factors that raise the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the primary goals of treating MetS are prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Three levels of intervention may be considered for individuals with MetS : 1) management of underlying risk conditions by controlling weight excess, enhancing regular physical exercise and promoting healthy diet; 2) management of individual risk factors such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and prothrombotic state; and 3) targeting insulin resistance by using specific insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones. The most important therapeutic intervention effective in subjects with MetS should focus on modest weight reduction and regular leisure-time physical activities. Although lifestyle modification is the first-line therapy, drug therapy may be necessary in many patients to achieve recommended goals regarding lipid profile, blood pressure and blood glucose control. Rather than to use a magic bullet that might fully reverse the underlying cause of the syndrome, one appealing alternative would be to use a so-called "polypill" targeting each of the components of MetS. However, such a polypill should ideally contain numerous molecules that all have shown a potential interest for the management of MetS such as metformin, acarbose, a thiazolidinedione, a statin, a fibrate, an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system, aspirin. The growing prevalence and high-risk nature of MetS highlights the need to identify individuals with this condition and to treat them with an aggressive multitargeted approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPathophysiology of insulin secretion.
Scheen, André ULg

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2004), 65(1), 29-36

Defects in pancreatic islet beta-cell function play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a more or less rapid destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and the ... [more ▼]

Defects in pancreatic islet beta-cell function play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a more or less rapid destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and the autoimmune process begins years before the beta-cell destruction becomes complete, thereby providing a window of opportunity for intervention. During the preclinical period and early after diagnosis, much of the insulin deficiency may be the result of functional inhibition of insulin secretion that may be at least partially and transiently reversible. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive loss of beta-cell function throughout the course of the disease. The pattern of loss is an initial (probably of genetic origin) defect in acute or first-phase insulin secretion, followed by a decreasing maximal capacity of insulin secretion. Last, a defective steady-state and basal insulin secretion develops, leading to almost complete beta-cell failure requiring insulin treatment. Because of the reciprocal relation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, valid representation of beta-cell function requires interpretation of insulin responses in the context of the prevailing degree of insulin sensitivity. This appropriate approach highlights defects in insulin secretion at the various stages of the natural history of type 2 diabetes and already present in individuals at risk to develop the disease. To date none of the available therapies can stop the progressive beta-cell defect and the progression of the metabolic disorder. The better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease should lead to the development of new strategies to preserve beta-cell function in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. [less ▲]

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See detailIntact cross-talk between insulin secretion and insulin action after postgastroplasty recovery of ideal body weight in severely obese patients.
Letiexhe, Michel ULg; Desaive, Claude ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg et al

in International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders (2004), 28(6), 821-3

Most reports investigating the hormonal and metabolic effects of bariatric surgery studied obese subjects after partial weight loss only. Nevertheless, all studies showed significant improvements of ... [more ▼]

Most reports investigating the hormonal and metabolic effects of bariatric surgery studied obese subjects after partial weight loss only. Nevertheless, all studies showed significant improvements of insulin secretion, action, clearance and inhibition of its own secretion, although the parallel kinetics of all these changes remained questionable. Using the intravenous glucose tolerance test, we demonstrated a full normalization of insulin secretion, action on glucose metabolism and clearance in eight obese women who recovered and maintained ideal body weight following gastroplasty. Reciprocal changes were observed between postglucose acute insulin secretion and insulin-mediated glucose disposal so that the so-called disposition index (product of these two variables) remained unchanged after vs before gastroplasty in those individuals with normal glucose tolerance. These favourable results should encourage obtaining a drastic and sustained weight loss in patients with severe obesity at risk of developing type II diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion des spécificités linguistiques et culturelles dans les évaluations internationales de la lecture
Baye, Ariane ULg

in Politiques d'Education et de Formation : Analyses et Comparaisons Internationales (2004), 11

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See detailThe effects of aging on location-based and distance-based processes in memory for time
Bastin, Christine ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Michel, Anne-Pascale et al

in Acta Psychologica (2004), 116

Retrieving when an event occurred may depend on an estimation of the age of the event (distance-based processes) or on strategic reconstruction processes based on contextual information associated with ... [more ▼]

Retrieving when an event occurred may depend on an estimation of the age of the event (distance-based processes) or on strategic reconstruction processes based on contextual information associated with the event (location-based processes). Young and older participants performed a list discrimination task that has been designed to dissociate the contribution of both types of processes. An adapted Remember/Know/Guess procedure [Can. J. Exp. Psychol. 50 (1996) 114] was developed to evaluate the processes used by the participants to recognize the stimuli and retrieve their list of occurrence. The results showed that aging disrupts location- based processes more than distance-based processes. In addition, a limitation of speed of processing and working-memory capacities was the main predictor of age-related differences on location-based processes, whereas working-memory capacities mediated partly age differences on distance-based processes. [less ▲]

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See detailA projective approach to handle 3D spatial data
Billen, Roland ULg

in Proceedings of GIS Research UK 2004 (2004)

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See detailEtude des caractéristiques projectives des objets spatiaux et de leurs relations
Billen, Roland ULg; Clementini, Eliseo

in Revue Internationale de Géomatique (2004), 14(2), 145-165

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See detailIntroducing a reasoning system based on ternary projective relationships
Billen, Roland ULg; Clementini, Eliseo

in Fisher, Peter (Ed.) Developments in Spatial Data Handling (2004)

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See detailA model for ternary projective relations between regions
Billen, Roland ULg; Clementini, Eliseo

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2004)

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See detailElaboration d’une typologie hydro-géomorphologique de cours d’eau dans l’Euregio Meuse-Rhin
Hallot, Eric ULg; Schmitt, L.; Mols, J. et al

in Mosella - XXIX, 3-4 (2004)

This paper shows the first results of a method of river hydro-geomorphological typology applied on the Euregio Maas-Rhine. This is based on non factorial multivariate analysis (clusters) of only ... [more ▼]

This paper shows the first results of a method of river hydro-geomorphological typology applied on the Euregio Maas-Rhine. This is based on non factorial multivariate analysis (clusters) of only quantitative data automatically extracted from DEM or obtained by field measurements with a simplified protocol. The regional differentiation of variables allows the automatic characterization of rivers especially with the specific stream power. [less ▲]

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See detailProposition d’une méthode de typologie hydro-géomorphologique des cours d’eau et tes sur un sous-bassin du Rhône (Bassin de l’Yzeron).
Schmitt, Laurent; Valette, L.; Valin, K. et al

in MOSELLA, XXIX (3-4) (2004)

Proposal of a method of hydro-geomorphological typology of rivers and test of a sub-basin of the Rhône River (Yzeron basin). The paper proposes a hydro-geomorphological typology method of watercourses ... [more ▼]

Proposal of a method of hydro-geomorphological typology of rivers and test of a sub-basin of the Rhône River (Yzeron basin). The paper proposes a hydro-geomorphological typology method of watercourses that might potentially be used in western Europe. The method was tested in the Yzeron basin (France). Field data were collected and analysed by multivariate statistics. Statistical results were consistent with the results of the typology model. Some recommendations are also made for the future development of automatic methods of characterization-sectorization of rivers. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and characterisation of seven alien monosomic addition lines of Gossypium australe F. Muell. on G. hirsutum L.
Ahoton, L.; Lacape, J. M.; D'Hont, A. et al

in World Cotton Research Conference - 3. Cotton production for the new Millenium (2004)

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See detailIntrogression in tetraploid cotton of the resistance to reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis Lind. & Oliveira from the Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. longicalyx Hutch & Lee x G. thurberi Tod trispecific hybrid
Konan, N'Guessan ULg; Ruano, O.; Prud'Homme, S. et al

in World Cotton Research Conference - 3. Cotton production for the new Millenium (2004)

In order to develop upland cotton plants resistant to Rotylenchulus reniformis Lind. & Oliveira reniform nematode, a three-species hybrids including Gossypium hirsutum L. (2n = 4 x = 52, (AD)1 genome) was ... [more ▼]

In order to develop upland cotton plants resistant to Rotylenchulus reniformis Lind. & Oliveira reniform nematode, a three-species hybrids including Gossypium hirsutum L. (2n = 4 x = 52, (AD)1 genome) was created using G. longicalyx Hutch & Lee as donor parent (2n = 2x = 26, F1 genome) and G. thurberi Tod. (2n = 2x = 26, D1 genome) as bridge species. The morphology and the resistance to reniform nematode of the parents and of thirty plants belonging to the selfed progeny of G. hirsutum x G. longicalyx x G. thurberi (HLT) trispecific hybrid were assessed. G. longicalyx, G. hirsutum x G. longicalyx hexaploid and all the thirty plants issued from the selfing of HLT hybrid were very resistant to reniform nematode unlike G. hirsutum which was very sensitive to it. Cytogenetic studies showed that HLT hybrid and its direct progeny have 52 chromosomes as the main cotton cultivated species. HLT hybrid shows a good pollen fertility and a very high level of chromosome pairing at metaphase I. It is self fertile but presents important incompatibility barriers when crossed as female parent with G. hirsutum. The prospects to develop upland cotton commercial cultivars resistant to reniform nématodes from the available interspecific genetic stocks are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular monitoring of the introgression in Gossypium hirsutum L. of G. sturtanium Willis genes controlling the "glanded-plant and glandless-seed" trait
Benbouza, H.; Lacape, M.; Jacquemin, J. M. et al

in World Cotton Research Conference - 3. Cotton production for the new Millenium (2004)

One hundred mapped micro-satellites markers located on the chromosomes of subgenome Ah were used to monitor the introgression of DNA fragments coming from the Australian species G. sturtianum Willis in ... [more ▼]

One hundred mapped micro-satellites markers located on the chromosomes of subgenome Ah were used to monitor the introgression of DNA fragments coming from the Australian species G. sturtianum Willis in BC1, BC2, BC2S1, BC2S2, BC2S3, BC3, BC3S1 and BC3S2 obtained from the G. hirsutum L. x G. raimondii Ulb. x G. sturtianum (HRS) trispecific hybrid. In these plants, the inhibition of the gossypol synthesis only in the seed seems to be linked to the substitution of fragments of linkage groups C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 and C9 of G. hirsutum by homeologous segments of G. sturtianum chromosomes. The prospect to use these genetic stocks to develop commercial varieties is discussed according to the putative genetic determinism of the “low-gossypol seed and high-gossypol plant”-trait. [less ▲]

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See detailFood niche segregation between the Malachite Kingfisher, Alcedo cristata, and the Pied Kingfisher, Ceryle rudis, at Lake Nokoué, Bénin
Libois, Roland ULg; Laudelout, Arnaud

in Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology (2004), 75

Several species of kingfisher occur on Lake Nokoué, southern Bénin, including Malachite (Alcedo cristata) and Pied Kingfishers (Ceryle rudis). Here, we compare their diet and estimate the degree of ... [more ▼]

Several species of kingfisher occur on Lake Nokoué, southern Bénin, including Malachite (Alcedo cristata) and Pied Kingfishers (Ceryle rudis). Here, we compare their diet and estimate the degree of overlap in food niche by analysing contents of regurgitated pellets collected near nesting sites of Pied Kingfishers or inside the nest chambers of Malachite Kingfishers. Characteristic fish skull bones were identified using a reference collection of local fish skeletons. Malachite Kingfishers feed most frequently on fish that occur around floating vegetation, mainly Kribia sp. (56%), Hemichromis fasciatus (28%) and Sarotherodon melanotheron (8%). Important differences were found between different pairs, and between adults and nestlings, the latter being fed almost exclusively on Kribia sp. Larger fish are fed to nestlings than are eaten by the adults. Pied Kingfishers prey upon 14 different fish species, some of them being caught in the pelagic region of the lake, particularly clupeids taken by hovering. By comparison with Malachite Kingfishers, Pied Kingfishers feed on a wider diversity of prey, and take larger fish, so that the dietary overlap between the species is relatively low (O = 0.181). [less ▲]

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See detailStaff development and e-tutors training
Banks, Sheena; Denis, Brigitte ULg; Fors, Uno et al

in Banks, Sheena; Goodyear, Peter; Hodgson, Vivien (Eds.) et al Networked learning 2004 : a research based conference on networked learning in higher education and lifelong learning : proceedings of the fourth international conference, Lancaster (2004)

This paper considers the rationale for the training and staff development of e-tutors. We then examine how this is implemented in practice through the presentation of case studies from three European ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the rationale for the training and staff development of e-tutors. We then examine how this is implemented in practice through the presentation of case studies from three European universities. Finally we analyse the differences and similarities of these case studies to exemplify some principles for training models and guidelines for training of e-tutors. We conclude that although it is possible to identify these principles of good practice, there is great flexibility and diversity of methods and approaches in the training and staff development of e-tutors. [less ▲]

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See detailGossypol. A substance likely involved in the cotton / Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum interaction
Turco, E; Brubaker, C; Scown, J et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2004)

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See detailSemantische en pragmatische aspecten van connectieven onder de loep
Perrez, Julien ULg

in N/F. Tijdschrift van de Association des néerlandistes de Belgique francophone (2004), 4

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