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See detailDayside and nightside reconnection rates inferred from IMAGE FUV and Super Dual Auroral Radar Network data
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Milan, S. E.; Grocott, A. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2006), 111(A3),

The spectrographic imager at 121.8 nm ( SI12) of the far ultraviolet ( FUV) experiment onboard the IMAGE spacecraft produces global images of the Doppler- shifted Lyman alpha emission of the proton aurora ... [more ▼]

The spectrographic imager at 121.8 nm ( SI12) of the far ultraviolet ( FUV) experiment onboard the IMAGE spacecraft produces global images of the Doppler- shifted Lyman alpha emission of the proton aurora. This emission is solely due to proton precipitation and is not contaminated by dayglow, allowing us to monitor the auroral oval on the dayside as well as on the nightside. Remote sensing of the polar aurora can be advantageously supplemented by use of ground- based data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network ( SuperDARN) that monitors the ionospheric convective flow pattern in the polar region. In the present study, the SI12 images are used to determine the location of the open/ closed field line boundary and to monitor its movement. The SuperDARN data are then used to compute the ionospheric electric field at the location of the open/ closed boundary. The total electric field is then computed along the boundary accounting for its movement via Faraday's law so that the dayside and nightside reconnection voltages can be derived. This procedure is applied to several substorm intervals observed simultaneously with IMAGE FUV and SuperDARN. The dayside reconnection voltage feeds the magnetosphere with open flux, which is later closed by nightside reconnection. The calculated dayside reconnection rate is consistent with the solar wind properties measured by the Geotail, Wind, and ACE satellites. We identify the presence of nightside reconnection due to pseudobreakups taking place during the growth phase. In several cases, we establish that the nightside reconnection rate is maximum at the time of the substorm expansion phase onset or shortly after, reaching similar to 120 kV, and then slowly returns to undisturbed values of similar to 30 kV. The flux closure rate can also start intensifying prior to expansion phase onset, producing pseudobreakups. [less ▲]

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See detailThe in situ polymerization of monoethylenically unsaturated monomers with oligomeric or polymeric secondary amines
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Rüdiger, Claus; Meyer, Rolf-Volker

Patent (2006)

A process for the preparation of (co)oligomers or (co)polymers is disclosed. The process entails first the preparation of a mixture that contains a monoethylenically unsaturated monomer conforming to HR<1 ... [more ▼]

A process for the preparation of (co)oligomers or (co)polymers is disclosed. The process entails first the preparation of a mixture that contains a monoethylenically unsaturated monomer conforming to HR<1>C = CR<2>R<3> an oxidizing agent and at least one polymer or oligomer conforming to formula (I), <CHEM> and an optional free radical initiator and then heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of 0 DEG C to 220 DEG C. [less ▲]

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See detailUne approche unifiée pour la modélisation d'écoulements à surface libre, de leur effet érosif sur une structure et de leur interaction avec divers constituants
Dewals, Benjamin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2006)

La thèse constitue une juxtaposition de plusieurs contributions originales à l’élaboration et l’analyse de modèles numériques capables de décrire une vaste gamme d’écoulements à surface libre ainsi que ... [more ▼]

La thèse constitue une juxtaposition de plusieurs contributions originales à l’élaboration et l’analyse de modèles numériques capables de décrire une vaste gamme d’écoulements à surface libre ainsi que les phénomènes de transport associés. Deux axes principaux sous-tendent les recherches entreprises. Il s’agit, d’une part, d’une contribution à l’étude de modèles visant à reproduire adéquatement les interactions du fluide avec divers constituants transportés, tels que de l’air entraîné, un polluant ou des sédiments. Cette phase du travail inclut également la caractérisation et la prédiction du comportement de l’écoulement en présence d’une topographie mobile ou érodable, y compris dans le cas d’un barrage en remblai subissant une surverse. D’autre part, partant du constat qu’une modélisation fidèle des processus de transport, notamment hydrosédimentaires, passe inévitablement par un raffinement du calcul hydrodynamique proprement dit, une partie des travaux effectués dans le cadre de cette thèse est spécifiquement orientée vers un enrichissement de la connaissance des champs hydrodynamiques au sein du modèle. [less ▲]

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See detailDes représentations d’enseignants et le modèle d’école prôné par le Décret-missions de la Communauté française de Belgique.
Van der Linden, Sylvie ULg; Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

Conference (2006, March 22)

Cette recherche a récolté et analysé les réactions de 48 enseignants (de 2e et de 6e années primaires du territoire de la Communauté Française de Belgique) à des situations de classes qui ont été créées ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche a récolté et analysé les réactions de 48 enseignants (de 2e et de 6e années primaires du territoire de la Communauté Française de Belgique) à des situations de classes qui ont été créées avec l’aide de praticiens ainsi que sur la base du Décret-missions, en ayant en point de mire la visée égalitaire. Les réactions recueillies expriment les missions que se donne personnellement, dans l’exercice de son métier, chaque enseignant interviewé. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Justice for Rwanda? Gacaca versus Truth Commission?
Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2006, March 18)

In post-genocide Rwanda, in addition to gacaca courts, a truth commission is needed in order to promote justice and foster reconciliation. In the context of transitional justice, retributive justice ... [more ▼]

In post-genocide Rwanda, in addition to gacaca courts, a truth commission is needed in order to promote justice and foster reconciliation. In the context of transitional justice, retributive justice, which seeks justice and focuses on the perpetrators, appears to be inadequate to lead a society towards reconciliation. Therefore, some forms of restorative justice, which emphasize the healing of the whole society, seem necessary. In Rwanda, gacaca courts and a truth commission are complementary. The former can bring justice, the latter can seek the truth; both crucial ingredients of a peaceful future for Rwandans. The essay opens with the discussion of the nature of the genocide and the responses to post-genocide Rwanda’s crisis. The second and third parts present the existent gacaca system and a theoretical framework for a truth commission. The combination of both approaches in view of the double goal of justice and reconciliation conclude this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis by destabilization of MCL-1
Maurer, Ulrich; Charvet, Céline; Wagman, Allan et al

in Molecular Cell (2006), 21(6), 749-760

We investigated the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), which is inactivated by AKT, for its role in the regulation of apoptosis. Upon IL-3 withdrawal, protein levels of MCL-1 decreased but were ... [more ▼]

We investigated the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), which is inactivated by AKT, for its role in the regulation of apoptosis. Upon IL-3 withdrawal, protein levels of MCL-1 decreased but were sustained by pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3, which prevented cytochrome c release and apoptosis. MCL-1 was phosphorylated by GSK-3 at a conserved GSK-3 phosphorylation site (S159). S159 phosphorylation of MCL-1 was induced by IL-3 withdrawal or PI3K inhibition and prevented by AKT or inhibition of GSK-3, and it led to increased ubiquitinylation and degradation of MCLA. A phosphorylation-site mutant (MCL-1(S159A)), expressed in IL-3-dependent cells, showed enhanced stability upon IL-3 withdrawal and conferred increased protection from apoptosis compared to wild-type MCL-1. The results demonstrate that the control of MCLA stability by GSK-3 is an important mechanism for the regulation of apoptosis by growth factors, PI3K, and AKT. [less ▲]

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See detailAstrophysical studies of extrasolar planetary systems using infrared interferometric techniques
Absil, Olivier ULg

Doctoral thesis (2006)

The study of extrasolar planetary systems has thrived during the last two decades, stimulated by the discovery of circumstellar dust and extrasolar planets around main sequence stars. However, direct ... [more ▼]

The study of extrasolar planetary systems has thrived during the last two decades, stimulated by the discovery of circumstellar dust and extrasolar planets around main sequence stars. However, direct imaging of planetary systems has been possible in only very special cases so far due to the huge contrast and to the small angular separation between stars and their environments. Even for these favourable cases, the inner regions where terrestrial planets are expected to be forming and where life could develop have not been investigated yet due to the lack of appropriate tools. Infrared interferometry is a very promising technique in this context, as it provides the required angular resolution to separate the emissions from the star and its immediate neighbourhood. The present work aims at developing the high dynamic range capabilities of interferometric techniques for the characterisation of planetary systems. As a first step, we demonstrate that current interferometric facilities have the potential of detecting dust in the first few astronomical units of massive debris disks around nearby stars. Our observations of Vega with the FLUOR near-infrared beam combiner at the CHARA Array reveal the presence of warm dust responsible for a K-band flux 78 times fainter than the stellar photospheric emission. In order to extend the imaging of planetary systems to fainter disks and to giant extrasolar planets, we investigate in a second step the performance of future ground-based nulling interferometers, taking into account atmospheric eff ects in a realistic way. Our simulations show that a nulling instrument installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer would detect circumstellar features as faint as a few 10^-4 of the stellar flux. Finally, the third part of this work focuses on the implementation of nulling interferometry on future space-borne missions, the goal being to characterise extrasolar planets with sizes down to that of the Earth. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation-curing binders and a process for their preparation
Weikard, Jan; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Greszta-Franz, Dorota et al

Patent (2006)

A binder is prepared by reacting isocyanate-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically ... [more ▼]

A binder is prepared by reacting isocyanate-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds; saturated, hydroxyl-containing compound(s); and a catalyst containing ammonium salts or phosphonium salts of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids. Preparation of a binder containing allophanate groups, groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), and optionally isocyanate (NCO)-reactive groups, which comprises reacting at 130[deg]C NCO-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups); saturated, hydroxyl-containing compound(s), at least one of these compounds having an OH functionality of 2; and a catalyst containing one or more ammonium salts or phosphonium salts of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids, the reaction hydroxyl-containing compounds taking place at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups. An independent claim is also included for a coating composition comprising: (1) binders; (2) optionally polyisocyanate(s) which contain free or blocked isocyanate groups and optionally contain groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation; (3) optionally compounds other than the polyisocyanate(s) which contain groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation and optionally contain NCO-reactive groups; (4) optionally isocyanate-reactive compound(s) which are free from groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation; and (5) initiators. [less ▲]

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See detailNext-generation phase-mask coronagraphy for extrasolar planetary system imaging
Mawet, D.; Riaud, Pierre ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg

Conference (2006, March 16)

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See detailHerstellung von neuen strahlenhärtbarenden Bindemitteln
Weikard, Jan; Greszta-Franz, Dorota; Fischer, Wolfgang et al

Patent (2006)

A binder is prepared by reacting isocyanate-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically ... [more ▼]

A binder is prepared by reacting isocyanate-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds; saturated, hydroxyl-containing compound(s); and a catalyst containing ammonium salts or phosphonium salts of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids. Preparation of a binder containing allophanate groups, groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), and optionally isocyanate (NCO)-reactive groups, which comprises reacting at 130[deg]C NCO-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups); saturated, hydroxyl-containing compound(s), at least one of these compounds having an OH functionality of 2; and a catalyst containing one or more ammonium salts or phosphonium salts of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids, the reaction hydroxyl-containing compounds taking place at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups. An independent claim is also included for a coating composition comprising: (1) binders; (2) optionally polyisocyanate(s) which contain free or blocked isocyanate groups and optionally contain groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation; (3) optionally compounds other than the polyisocyanate(s) which contain groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation and optionally contain NCO-reactive groups; (4) optionally isocyanate-reactive compound(s) which are free from groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation; and (5) initiators. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation-curing binders and a process for their preparation
Weikard, Jan; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg

Patent (2006)

A binder is prepared by reacting isocyanate-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically ... [more ▼]

A binder is prepared by reacting isocyanate-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds; saturated, hydroxyl-containing compound(s); and a catalyst containing ammonium salts or phosphonium salts of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids. Preparation of a binder containing allophanate groups, groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), and optionally isocyanate (NCO)-reactive groups, which comprises reacting at 130[deg]C NCO-functional compound(s) containing uretdione groups; compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and contain groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups); saturated, hydroxyl-containing compound(s), at least one of these compounds having an OH functionality of 2; and a catalyst containing one or more ammonium salts or phosphonium salts of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids, the reaction hydroxyl-containing compounds taking place at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups. An independent claim is also included for a coating composition comprising: (1) binders; (2) optionally polyisocyanate(s) which contain free or blocked isocyanate groups and optionally contain groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation; (3) optionally compounds other than the polyisocyanate(s) which contain groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation and optionally contain NCO-reactive groups; (4) optionally isocyanate-reactive compound(s) which are free from groups which react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation; and (5) initiators. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-viscosity allophanates having actinically hardenable groups
Weikard, Jan; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Grestza-Franz, Dorota et al

Patent (2006)

A radiation-curing binder containing allophanate groups is prepared by reacting at =130[deg]C compound(s) containing uretdione groups with OH-functional compounds containing groups reacting with ... [more ▼]

A radiation-curing binder containing allophanate groups is prepared by reacting at =130[deg]C compound(s) containing uretdione groups with OH-functional compounds containing groups reacting with polymerization with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation, optionally other NCO-reactive compounds, in the presence of a catalyst comprising at least one zinc compound to form allophanate groups by opening the uretdione ring. Independent claims are also included for: (A) a coating composition comprising the radiation-curing binder(s) containing allophanate groups, optionally polyisocyanate(s) containing free or blocked isocyanate groups, which are free from groups which react, with polymerization, with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation, optionally other compounds containing groups which react, with polymerization, with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation, and optionally contain free or blocked NCO groups, optionally one or more isocyanate-reactive compounds, initiator(s), and optionally solvents; and (B) a substrate coated with a coating obtained from the radiation-curing binder containing allophanate groups. [less ▲]

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See detailPd-Ag/SiO2 xerogel catalyst forming by impregnation on alumina foams
Alié, Christelle ULg; Ferauche, Fabrice; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2006), 117(1), 13-22

A Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogel catalyst prepared in one step by sol-gel process has been entrapped in cylindrical porous alumina foams of three different pore sizes in order to shape the catalyst under the ... [more ▼]

A Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogel catalyst prepared in one step by sol-gel process has been entrapped in cylindrical porous alumina foams of three different pore sizes in order to shape the catalyst under the appropriate form with suitable mechanical resistance to be used in an industrial fixed bed reactor. After drying, calcination and reduction, the Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogel catalyst pellets are immobilized inside the open porosity of the alumina foam. The localization of the xerogel catalyst in the alumina foams has been studied by X-ray tomography. The three-dimensional porous structure was reconstructed from the consecutive cross-sections obtained by this technique. This method shows that the Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogel catalyst is uniformly dispersed inside the porosity of the alumina foams. Activity and selectivity of Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogel catalyst reference or catalyst entrapped in alumina foams have been studied for selective hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane into ethylene. The specific reaction rate obtained with catalyst entrapped in alumina foams is smaller than the one obtained from corresponding catalyst powders. The catalytic activity decrease observed for Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogel catalyst entrapped in porous alumina foams most probably arises from diffusional limitations inside the porous texture of the alumina foams. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM and ADAMTS) enzymes in human non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC)
Rocks, Natacha ULg; Paulissen, Geneviève ULg; Quesada Calvo, Florence ULg et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2006), 94(5), 724-730

A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) are transmembrane proteases displaying multiple functions. ADAM with ThromboSpondin-like motifs (ADAMTS) are secreted proteases characterised by thrombospondin (TS ... [more ▼]

A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) are transmembrane proteases displaying multiple functions. ADAM with ThromboSpondin-like motifs (ADAMTS) are secreted proteases characterised by thrombospondin (TS) motifs in their C-terminal domain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression pattern of ADAMs and ADAMTS in non small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and to investigate the possible correlation between their expression and cancer progression. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on NSCLC samples and corresponding nondiseased tissue fragments. Among the ADAMs evaluated (ADAM-8, -9, -10, -12, -15, -17, ADAMTS-1, TS-2 and TS-12), a modulation of ADAM-12 and ADAMTS-1 mRNA expression was observed. Amounts of ADAM-12 mRNA transcripts were increased in tumour tissues as compared to the corresponding controls. In sharp contrast, ADAMTS-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumour tissues when compared to corresponding nondiseased lung. These results were corroborated at the protein level by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A positive correlation was observed between the mRNA levels of ADAM-12 and those of two vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A isoforms (VEGF-A(165) and VEGF-A(121)). Taken together, these results providing evidence for an overexpression of ADAM-12 and a lower expression of ADAMTS-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer suggest that these proteases play different functions in cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation-curing binders and a process for their preparation
Weikard, Jan; Greszta-Franz, Dorota; Fischer, Wolfgang et al

Patent (2006)

The invention relates to a process for preparing binders which contain 1) allophanate groups, 2) groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic ... [more ▼]

The invention relates to a process for preparing binders which contain 1) allophanate groups, 2) groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups) and 3) optionally NCO-reactive groups, by reacting at temperatures <=130 DEG C. A) one or more NCO-functional compounds containing uretdione groups with B) one or more compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), and then C) with one or more saturated, hydroxyl-containing compounds other than B), at least one of these compounds having an OH functionality of >=2, in the presence of D) a catalyst containing one or more zinc compounds, the reaction with compounds C) taking place at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups. The present invention also relates to the binders obtained by the process of the invention. [less ▲]

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See detailLow viscosity allophanates containing actinically curable groups
Weikard, Jan; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Grestza-Franz, Dorota et al

Patent (2006)

The present invention relates to a process for preparing radiation-curing binders containing allophanate groups by reacting at temperatures of <=130 DEG C. A) one or more compounds containing uretdione ... [more ▼]

The present invention relates to a process for preparing radiation-curing binders containing allophanate groups by reacting at temperatures of <=130 DEG C. A) one or more compounds containing uretdione groups with B) one or more OH-functional compounds which contain groups which react, with polymerization, with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), C) optionally NCO-reactive compounds other than B), in the presence of D) a catalyst containing at least one zinc compound, to form allophanate groups by opening the uretdione ring. The present invention also relates to the binders obtained by the process of the invention and to coating compositions containing these binders. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation-curing binders and a process for their preparation
Greszta-Franz, Dorota; Fischer, Wolfgang; Weikard, Jan et al

Patent (2006)

The invention relates to a process for preparing binders which contain 1) allophanate groups, 2) groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic ... [more ▼]

The invention relates to a process for preparing binders which contain 1) allophanate groups, 2) groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing group s) and 3) optionally NCO-reactive groups, by reacting at temperatures .ltoreq. 130.degree.C A) one or more NCO-functional compounds containing uretdione groups wit h B) one or more compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), and then C) with one or more saturated, hydroxyl-containing compounds other than B ), at least one of these compounds having an OH functionality of .gtoreq. 2, in the presence of D) a catalyst containing one or more zinc compounds, the reaction with compounds C) taking place at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups. The present invention also relates to the binders obtained by the process of the invention. [less ▲]

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See detailLow viscosity allophanates containing actinically curable groups
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Mundstock, Holger; Greszta-Franz, Dorota et al

Patent (2006)

The present invention relates to a process for preparing radiation-curing binders containing allophanate groups by reacting at temperatures of .ltoreq.130.degree.C A) one or more compounds containing ... [more ▼]

The present invention relates to a process for preparing radiation-curing binders containing allophanate groups by reacting at temperatures of .ltoreq.130.degree.C A) one or more compounds containing uretdione groups with B) one or more OH-functional compounds which contain groups which react , with polymerization, with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), C) optionally NCO-reactive compounds other than B), in the presence of D) a catalyst containing at least one zinc compound, to form allophanate groups by opening the uretdione ring. The present invention also relates to the binders obtained by the process of the invention and to coating compositions containing these binders. [less ▲]

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