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See detailArbitration in EU Commission Cleared Merger Transactions
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Internationaal Privaatrecht = Revue de Droit International Privé (2004), 3(5), 55-63

It has long been thought that, of all EU competition processes, merger regulation was immune from arbitration. This has changed dramatically over the last few years. Starting in 2000, the European ... [more ▼]

It has long been thought that, of all EU competition processes, merger regulation was immune from arbitration. This has changed dramatically over the last few years. Starting in 2000, the European Commission accepted, albeit reluctantly, to consider behavioural commitments made by merging entities. In the past, the Commission had considered that such commitments were not adequate to ensure competitive market structures. Compliance with structural remedies can be monitored fairly easily by the Commission. Structural commitments entail mostly divestments needed to maintain an acceptable level of competition. Behavioural commitments, however, require more extensive monitoring, since they concern the future behaviour of the merged entity. Monitoring these commitments is time consuming and the Merger Task Force (MTF) does not have the necessary resources to do so. One of the solutions favoured by the MTF to monitor compliance with these new commitments, is to impose an arbitration agreement to the merged entity. The article examines the difficulties posed by the arbitration process in this context [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic approach of structural fire calculation with FEM software
Vassart, Olivier; Cajot, Louis-Guy; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Proc. 5th International Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods (2004)

This paper explains how the dynamic approach has been implemented in the computer software SAFIR in order to cope with temporary and local failures that occured in a step be step static analysis of ... [more ▼]

This paper explains how the dynamic approach has been implemented in the computer software SAFIR in order to cope with temporary and local failures that occured in a step be step static analysis of structures subjected to fire.By means of this recently implemented dynamic algorithm, it’s now possible to simulate the complete failure mechanism, to predict the influence of a local failure on the global behaviour of the structure and to follow eventually the progressive collapse. Therefore the resistance time is now really determined whereas in the past many numerical failure corresponding to local failure were interpreted as resistance time of the whole structure. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble-faced monster in the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found in the Mediterranean sea
Dabin, W.; Cesarini, C.; Clemenceau, I. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2004), 154(10), 306-308

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See detailDysfonctionnements cognitifs dans la schizophrénie: des résultats de la recherche aux prises en charges cliniques
Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Philippot, P; Steegen, G et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2004), 9(2), 9-19

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See detailSelf-assembled organic and fullerene monolayers characterisation by two-colour SFG spectroscopy: a pathway to meet doubly resonant SFG process
Humbert, C.; Caudano, Y.; Dreesen, Laurent ULg et al

in Applied Surface Science (2004), 237

Two-colour sum-frequency generation (two-colour SFG) spectroscopy was used to probe both vibrational and electronic properties of 1-dodecanethiol/Ag(1 1 1), Au(1 1 1), and Pt(1 1 1), of 5-[p-(6 ... [more ▼]

Two-colour sum-frequency generation (two-colour SFG) spectroscopy was used to probe both vibrational and electronic properties of 1-dodecanethiol/Ag(1 1 1), Au(1 1 1), and Pt(1 1 1), of 5-[p-(6-mercaptohexoxy)-phenyl]-10,15,20-triphenylporphin/Pt(1 1 1), and of C60/Ag(1 1 1). The role of the various physical parameters determining the sum-frequency generation (SFG) intensity equation is highlighted. The enhancement of the non-linear second order susceptibility in the aforementioned interfaces is explained in terms of metal interband transition, molecular electronic transition and of electron–phonon coupling, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d'un instrument d'évaluation des impacts de matériaux sensibles aux moisissures sur la qualité de l'air intérieur.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Kuske, Martyna

Report (2004)

In the frame of a FIRST-Europe project, the research team worked with a partner from university of Barcelona (Spain) and a company fabricating products to reduce moisture problems in dwellings. An ... [more ▼]

In the frame of a FIRST-Europe project, the research team worked with a partner from university of Barcelona (Spain) and a company fabricating products to reduce moisture problems in dwellings. An original instrument was designed. It was based on the "electronic nose" principle. With suitable data processing tools and an adequate calibration, the instrument was able to distinguish, from the analysis of the gas phase, the emission of the clean material from the one of the same material contaminated by moulds and from the one of the product against humidity. Discriminating between different mould species was more difficult. [less ▲]

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See detailSivry - Rance: notice explicative de la carte géologique de la Wallonie
Marion, Jean-Marc ULg; Barchy, Laurent ULg

Book published by Ministère de la Région wallonne, DGRNE (2004)

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25.000, based on a new field work and using scientific data produced since the previous edition of Mourlon and Bayet published in 1901 at the ... [more ▼]

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25.000, based on a new field work and using scientific data produced since the previous edition of Mourlon and Bayet published in 1901 at the scale of 1/40.000 by the "Commission Géologique de Belgique". [less ▲]

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See detailAcides gras : nomenclature et sources alimentaires
Cuvelier, Christine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 133-140

Fatty acids are member of the lipid family. They are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with or without double bond. They are classified according different nomenclatures : the international systematic name ... [more ▼]

Fatty acids are member of the lipid family. They are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with or without double bond. They are classified according different nomenclatures : the international systematic name, the omega nomenclature and the trivial names. Fatty acids are major compounds of oils and fats. Among the saturated fatty acids, C12, C16 and C18 fatty acids are the most widely distributed, whereas in the unsaturated fatty acids group, C18 with 1, 2 or 3 double bonds are the most important within the vegetable and animal terrestrian products. Fatty acids with 4 or more than 4 double bonds and 20 to 24 atoms of carbon are largely represented in the marine products. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent data on a current zoonosis: alveolar echinococcosis due to Echinococcus multilocularis
Hanosset, Régis; Mignon, Bernard ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 153-167

E. multilocularis is a small tapeworm which uses different species of foxes and rodents as final and intermediate hosts respectively. In humans, infection with the metacestode stage can result in a ... [more ▼]

E. multilocularis is a small tapeworm which uses different species of foxes and rodents as final and intermediate hosts respectively. In humans, infection with the metacestode stage can result in a potentially lethal liver condition named alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Recent studies in central Europe have show that E. multilocularis has a wider geographic range than previously anticipated. By the end of the 1980s, endemic areas of E. multilocularis were know to exist in only four countries, but now the parasite is present in at least 14 European countries. This paper provide recent data on the biology of E. multilocularis, the epidemiology of AE and the different tools which are available to treat or prevent this disease which seems in apparent extension. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the western population of the European mink, (Mustela lutreola), a distinct Management Unit for conservation?
Michaux, Johan ULg; Libois, Roland ULg; Davison, A. et al

in Biological Conservation (2004), 115(3), 357-367

The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is one of the most threatened carnivores in Europe, with fragmented populations in Belarus. Russia and Romania, as well in south-western France and northern Spain ... [more ▼]

The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is one of the most threatened carnivores in Europe, with fragmented populations in Belarus. Russia and Romania, as well in south-western France and northern Spain. Many populations have become extinct recently, or are declining. We investigated mitochondrial DNA variation, using the complete D-loop region, and concentrating oil the west European population. The aim was two-fold: to use the genetic information to advise on the conservation of European mink, and to begin to understand their history through the Pleistocene. Captive breeding and re-introduction programmes are underway, so it is particularly vital to know whether the West European population should be treated separately. We find that European mink probably colonised from a single refugium after the last glaciation. West European populations may be fixed for a single haplotype. also suggesting a common origin. Despite this evidence for gene flow, following the precautionary principle we suggest that mink from the three geographically separate populations (Romania, Eastern and Western Europe) should be managed separately, for the moment. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogeographic history of the yellow-necked fieldmouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in Europe and in the Near and Middle East.
Michaux, Johan ULg; Libois, Roland ULg; Paradis, E. et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution (2004), 32(3), 788-98

The exact location of glacial refugia and the patterns of postglacial range expansion of European mammals are not yet completely elucidated. Therefore, further detailed studies covering a large part of ... [more ▼]

The exact location of glacial refugia and the patterns of postglacial range expansion of European mammals are not yet completely elucidated. Therefore, further detailed studies covering a large part of the Western Palearctic region are still needed. In this order, we sequenced 972 bp of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (mtDNA cyt b) from 124 yellow-necked fieldmice (Apodemus flavicollis) collected from 53 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the following questions: Did the Mediterranean peninsulas act as the main refuge for yellow-necked fieldmouse or did the species also survive in more easterly refugia (the Caucasus or the southern Ural) and in Central Europe? What is the role of Turkey and Near East regions as Quaternary glacial refuges for this species and as a source for postglacial recolonisers of the Western Palearctic region? The results provide a clear picture of the impact of the quaternary glaciations on the genetic and geographic structure of the fieldmouse. This species survived the ice ages in two main refuges, the first one in the Italo-Balkan region; the second one in Turkey and the Near East regions. It is from the Balkan refuge that it recolonised all European regions at the end of the last glaciation. The Turkish and Near East populations are distinct from the European ones and they did not recolonise the Palearctic region probably because: (i) they were blocked by the Black Sea and the Caucasus, (ii) the long term presence of fieldmice populations in the Balkans prevented their expansion. These are genetically differentiated from the European and Russian ones and could be described as a particular subspecies. This result emphasises the importance of Turkey and the Near and Middle East regions as a refuge for Palearctic mammals. [less ▲]

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See detailA parasite reveals cryptic phylogeographic history of its host.
Nieberding, C.; Morand, S.; Libois, Roland ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2004), 271(1557), 2559-68

This study compares the continental phylogeographic patterns of two wild European species linked by a host-parasite relationship: the field mouse Apodemus sylvaticus and one of its specific parasites, the ... [more ▼]

This study compares the continental phylogeographic patterns of two wild European species linked by a host-parasite relationship: the field mouse Apodemus sylvaticus and one of its specific parasites, the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. A total of 740 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene were sequenced in 122 specimens of H. polygyrus and compared with 94 cyt b gene sequences (974 bp) previously acquired for A. sylvaticus. The results reveal partial spatial and temporal congruences in the differentiation of both species' lineages: the parasite and its host present three similar genetic and geographical lineages, i.e. Western European, Italian and Sicilian, and both species recolonized northwestern Europe from the Iberian refuge at the end of the Pleistocene. However, H. polygyrus presents three particular differentiation events. The relative rate of molecular evolution of the cyt b gene was estimated to be 1.5-fold higher in the parasite than in its host. Therefore, the use of H. polygyrus as a biological magnifying glass is discussed as this parasite may highlight previously undetected historical events of its host. The results show how incorporating phylogeographic information of an obligate associate can help to better understand the phylogeographic pattern of its host. [less ▲]

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See detailAngioplastie percutanee coronaire chez le patient diabetique. Partie 3: Nouvelles perspectives apportees par les stents enrobes.
Warzee, Fabian ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(12), 711-6

Coronary revascularization procedures are associated with less favourable outcomes in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetic individuals. Especially, percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is ... [more ▼]

Coronary revascularization procedures are associated with less favourable outcomes in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetic individuals. Especially, percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is associated with a high level of restenosis and recurrent cardiac morbidity and mortality. In diabetic patients, PTCA should ideally be combined with stents. Bare-metal stents reduce by almost half the risk of restenosis, but this favourable effect decreases with the vessel calibre, a common finding in diabetic patients. Drug-eluting stents containing pharmacological agents that can reduce the risk of restenosis (sirolimus, paclitaxel) provide better angiographic results, including in small coronary arteries, and this effect has been shown to be accompanied by significant reduction of both morbidity and mortality. Such preliminary results obtained in the general population (including around 20% of diabetic subjects) deserve further confirmation in a large clinical trial specifically devoted to diabetic patients. Drug-eluting stents may represent a major advance in the management of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. INTERHEART": la preuve par 9. Neuf facteurs de risque predisent neuf infarctus du myocarde sur dix."
Scheen, André ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(11), 676-9

INTERHEART is a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries representing every inhabited continent. 15152 cases and 14820 controls were enrolled. Collectively, 9 factors ... [more ▼]

INTERHEART is a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries representing every inhabited continent. 15152 cases and 14820 controls were enrolled. Collectively, 9 factors accounted for 90% of myocardial infarctions in men and 94% in women. These factors were 6 risk factors (dyslipidaemia characterized by high apoB/apoA1 ratio, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abdominal obesity and stressful psychosocial factors) and 3 protective factors (daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, regular alcohol consumption, and regular physical activity). These findings suggest that interventions targeting these 9 factors have the potential to prevent most premature cases of myocardial infarction and that these strategies should be implemented worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailAngioplastie percutanee coronaire chez le patient diabetique. Partie 2: Espoirs apportes par les protheses endovasculaires.
Warzee, Fabian ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(11), 653-8

Coronary artery revascularization procedures provide less favourable results in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic individuals. Especially, percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is associated with ... [more ▼]

Coronary artery revascularization procedures provide less favourable results in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic individuals. Especially, percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is associated with a higher rate of restenosis and recurrence of cardiac morbidity and death. In diabetic patients, PTCA should, if possible, be combined with a stent. Bare-stents allow to reduce approximately by half the risk of restenosis, but unfortunately their efficacy decreases as the vessel diameter decreases, a common finding among diabetic patients with angiopathy. ARTS ("Arterial Revascularization Therapy Study") recently showed that diabetic patients have a worse prognosis even when bare-stents are combined with PTCA as compared to non-diabetic subjects and as compared to diabetic patients treated with coronary artery bypass graft. These results open new perspectives in favour of the use of drug-eluting stents containing pharmacological agents capable of preventing restenosis. Such new stents might improve the management of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAngioplastie percutanee coronaire chez le patient diabetique Partie 1 : echecs relatifs lies a la restenose apres angioplastie simple.
Warzee, Fabian ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(10), 584-90

Diabetes mellitus, essentially type 2 diabetes, is markedly associated with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). Revascularization techniques, first coronary ... [more ▼]

Diabetes mellitus, essentially type 2 diabetes, is markedly associated with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). Revascularization techniques, first coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and second percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), have drastically changed the management of patients with CAD. Unfortunately, overall results of such revascularization procedures are less impressive in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic subjects, because of a worse vascular bed due to a more diffuse disease including small vessels. The diabetic population is indeed characterized by higher rates of both post-CABG thrombosis and post-PTCA restenosis, as compared to the corresponding rates observed in a nondiabetic population. Such vascular complications result in a higher incidence of coronary events leading to greater morbidity and mortality in both the short (weeks-months) and long (years) term. The bad quality of blood glucose control appears to play a crucial role in the risk of restenosis and further complications. The use of endovascular stents, especially new drug-eluting stents reducing the risk of restenosis, may represent a new opportunity for the management of a high-risk population such as diabetic patients. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrait du rofecoxib (Vioxx): a propos de la securite cardiovasculaire des anti-inflammatoires non steroidiens cox-2 selectifs.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(10), 565-9

Rofecoxib (Vioxx), the first COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), was recently withdrawn by Merck Sharp & Dohme. Indeed, both observational studies and randomised clinical trials ... [more ▼]

Rofecoxib (Vioxx), the first COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), was recently withdrawn by Merck Sharp & Dohme. Indeed, both observational studies and randomised clinical trials showed that rofecoxib is associated with a significantly increased risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients receiving either high daily dosage (>25 mg/day) or for a long period of time (> 18 months). The precise mechanism responsible for this phenomenon still remains unknown. Currently available data suggest that this adverse effect is not observed with other COX-2 NSAIDs, especially celecoxib for which the information is most abundant. Nevertheless, caution is required because of lack of prospective long-term data, and strict respect of indications and modalities of clinical use of COX-2 NSAIDs is mandatory. Finally, in patients with high cardiovascular risk who should receive a COX-2 selective NSAID, the association with a low dose of acetylsalicylic acid is recommended in order to benefit of a protective antiplatelet effect. [less ▲]

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See detailHemochromatose et diabete.
Thielen, Vinciane ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(1), 29-31

Nowadays, haemochromatosis is often diagnosed when the patient is monosymptomatic. Diabetes is frequently the first expression of the disease. So, it is important to know the clinical and biologic ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, haemochromatosis is often diagnosed when the patient is monosymptomatic. Diabetes is frequently the first expression of the disease. So, it is important to know the clinical and biologic characteristics to evoke diagnosis as early as possible. Uncommon presentations request systematic screening. [less ▲]

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