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See detailEnjeux sanitaires, socio-économiques et environnementaux liés à la réutilisation des eaux usées dans le maraîchage urbain à Yaoundé au Cameroun : cas du bassin versant de l’Abiergué
Kouam Kenmogne, Guy Romain; Rosillon, Françis ULg; Mpakam, Hernanie Grelle et al

Conference (2010, March 28)

Le bassin versant de l’Abiergué, localisé dans le périmètre urbain de Yaoundé entre 11°05’ et 11°25’ de longitude Est et entre 3°51’ et 3°54’ de latitude Nord connaît une importante activité maraîchère ... [more ▼]

Le bassin versant de l’Abiergué, localisé dans le périmètre urbain de Yaoundé entre 11°05’ et 11°25’ de longitude Est et entre 3°51’ et 3°54’ de latitude Nord connaît une importante activité maraîchère dans les bas fonds de Nkolbikok à Nkolbisson. Une étude démarrée en 2005 dans cette unité géographique, a pour objectif principal de contribuer à la valorisation de cette activité tout en oeuvrant à la réduction des impacts négatifs induits. De nombreuses activités ont été développées suivant une approche transdisciplinaire. Les statuts socio-économiques des acteurs impliqués dans cette filière ont été décrits. Les contraintes et les atouts liés au développement du maraîchage ont été relevés. L’eau du cours d’eau Abiergué utilisée pour l’arrosage des plantes est polluée par des eaux usées et des déchets solides issus des ménages, du marché Mokolo, des centres de santé,… et présentent des teneurs non négligeables en Coliformes fécaux (5025 UFC/100ml à 3 x 106 UFC/100ml), Streptocoques fécaux (1960 UFC/100ml à 138 000 UFC/100ml) et Escherichia coli (2 à 20 germes/100ml). Des taux variables de kystes de protozoaires (Entamoeba hystolitica et Giardia sp) et des oeufs d’helminthes ont été décelés dans ces eaux. L’utilisation des eaux usées a pour corollaire l’émergence de maladies hydriques telles que l’amibiase intestinale qui affecte aussi bien les acteurs engagés dans cette filière que la population en général indépendamment du sexe, de l’âge ou du statut social. De nombreuses pratiques et de nombreux comportements à risque ont été identifiés et concourent à la propagation des maladies hydriques. Malgré les risques de maladies hydriques, cette activité contribue considérablement à l’amélioration des conditions et du cadre de vie des catégories d’acteurs engagés dans cette activité en particulier et des populations en général. Des actions économiquement viables, socialement acceptables et écologiquement durables sont préconisées afin de réduire les aspects négatifs et de consolider les aspects positifs de cette activité multifonctionnelle. [less ▲]

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See detailSanté - Une maladie qui affecte de plus en plus de patients. L'hypertension artérielle défie un belge sur huit
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Article for general public (2010)

En dix ans, la proportion d'hypertendus a augmenté de plus de 40%. Dans le brabant wallon, le nombre d'hypertendus a plus que doublé, entre 1997 et 2008.

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See detailQuels tests utiliser pour évaluer les troubles cognitifs en cancérologie?
Adam, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2010, March 26)

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See detailLe théorie du raisonnement politique
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Scientific conference (2010, March 25)

The study of political behaviors and attitudes among adults and young people has been approched by three ways : sociological approach, psychological approach and rational choice approach. After having ... [more ▼]

The study of political behaviors and attitudes among adults and young people has been approched by three ways : sociological approach, psychological approach and rational choice approach. After having explained the sociological one, we focused on the theory of political reasonning (developed by S.W. Rosenberg). We linked it with the development of political socialization. [less ▲]

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See detailLe système de télécommunication du nanosatellite OUFTI-1
Crosset, Nicolas ULg; Marchal, Nicolas; Pisane, Jonathan ULg et al

Scientific conference (2010, March 25)

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See detailUn exemple de grille d'évaluation de stages pour futurs professeurs
Schneider-Gilot, Marguerite ULg

Conference (2010, March 25)

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See detailA la rencontre de l'innovation technologique: la valorisation alimentaire
Blecker, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2010, March 24)

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See detailVenus OH nightglow distribution based on VIRTIS limb observations from Venus Express
Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Piccioni, Giuseppe et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2010), 37

The full set of VIRTIS‐M limb observations of the OH Venus nightglow has been analyzed to determine its characteristics. Based on 3328 limb profiles, we find that the mean peak intensity along the line of ... [more ▼]

The full set of VIRTIS‐M limb observations of the OH Venus nightglow has been analyzed to determine its characteristics. Based on 3328 limb profiles, we find that the mean peak intensity along the line of sight of the OH(deltaV = 1 sequence) is 0.35 MR and is located at 96.4 ± 5 km. The emission is highly variable and no dependence of the airglow layer altitude versus the antisolar angle is observed. The peak brightness appears to decrease away from the antisolar point even if the variability at a given location is very strong. Some correlation between the intensity of the OH and the O2(a1Delta) emissions is also observed, resumably because atomic oxygen is a common precursor to the formation of O2(a1Delta) and O3, whose reaction with H produces excited OH. Comparing our results with predictions from a photochemical model, a constant H flux does not match the simultaneous OH and O2 airglow observations. [less ▲]

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See detailA robust antibacterial coating for stainless steel
Faure, Emilie ULg; Charlot, Aurélia; Sciannaméa, Valérie et al

Conference (2010, March 23)

Because of corrosion, chemical resistance, relevant mechanical and esthetical properties, stainless steel is widely used in the daily life, not only in the building industry but also in the food industry ... [more ▼]

Because of corrosion, chemical resistance, relevant mechanical and esthetical properties, stainless steel is widely used in the daily life, not only in the building industry but also in the food industry, the appliances or in the medical field, including implants in orthopedic surgery. However, stainless steel is unable to prevent bacteria from adhering, proliferating and forming a resistant biofilm. Therefore, surface modification is needed for providing the metal surface with antibacterial properties. The scientific literature is very rich in describing various methods for imparting antibacterial properties to different inorganic supports. However, the activity of the coating is generally time limited by the diffusion of the biocide in the environment. Novel robust and stable antibacterial coatings on stainless steel are thus highly desirable for the durability of the functionality. In this communication, we report on an all-in-one approach to prepare robust antimicrobial films on stainless steel using the layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. Novel biocidal multilayered polyelectrolyte films in which the polycationic layer is silver loaded and bears 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), known as a promoter of adhesion to inorganic surfaces, were deposited onto stainless steel. DOPA was incorporated in the polycationic chains by radical copolymerisation of N-methacrylated DOPA with the commercially available quaternary ammonium salt of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA+). Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) was the polyanionic constituent of the films. In order to boost the antibacterial activity of the polycationic layer, AgNO3 was added to the aqueous solution of P(DOPA)-co-P(DMAEMA+), which resulted in the in-situ formation of silver based nanoparticles (Ag° and AgCl) that are sources of biocial Ag+. The layer-by-layer deposition of aqueous P(DOPA)-co-P(DMAEMA+)/AgCl/Ag0 suspension and aqueous solution of PSS provides stainless steel with high antibacterial activity against Gram-negative E. Coli bacteria. Moreover, after silver depletion, films retain some antimicrobial activity, thanks to the ammonium groups of the copolymer. We will also show how the antibacterial activity of the films can then be easily re-boosted. The multi-functionality of the P(DOPA)-co-P(DMAEMA+) is a key issue in this process (i) the DOPA co-units are anchored to stainless steel, (ii) these co-units reduce partly AgNO3 into Ag0 nanoparticles and stabilize them by chelation, (iii) the chloride counter-anions react with AgNO3 by ionic exchange, leading to the in situ formation of AgCl particles, and (iv) the ammonium groups are responsible for permanent antibacterial activity. Besides the advantage of the all-in-one process, another major advantage of the approach proposed here is the implementation of the whole process of film formation, including the synthesis of P(DOPA)-co-P(DMAEMA+), in aqueous media under very mild conditions. It makes the strategy very attractive for industrial scaling-up and sustainability applications. [less ▲]

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See detailSolutions TP6 - Courroies
Trif, David Ioan ULg

Learning material (2010)

Ce document explique la manière dont on calcul les différentes caractéristiques d'une courroie plate et la démarche qui doit être faite pour choisir la courroie qui corresponde mieux aux conditions de ... [more ▼]

Ce document explique la manière dont on calcul les différentes caractéristiques d'une courroie plate et la démarche qui doit être faite pour choisir la courroie qui corresponde mieux aux conditions de travail données. [less ▲]

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See detailVariation in external morphology of resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Bahia San Antonio, Patagonia, Argentina.
Vermeulen, Els ULg; Cammareri, Alejandro

Poster (2010, March 22)

Two geographic variations of bottlenose dolphins were described in Argentina (Bastida & Rodriguez, 2003); bottlenose dolphins characterized by their triangular dorsal fin shape (coast of the province of ... [more ▼]

Two geographic variations of bottlenose dolphins were described in Argentina (Bastida & Rodriguez, 2003); bottlenose dolphins characterized by their triangular dorsal fin shape (coast of the province of Buenos Aires), and bottlenose dolphins characterized by their falcate dorsal fin shape (coast of the province of Chubut). It was stated that `their clear difference would indicate that both geographic forms are isolated¿ (Bastida & Rodriguez, 2003 p.137). A photo-identification study carried out in Bahía San Antonio (BSA), North Patagonia Argentina, showed a similar variation in external morphology among year-round resident bottlenose dolphins. Out of the 15 bottlenose dolphins considered year-round resident in the bay (Vermeulen & Cammareri, 2009), three are clearly distinguishable by a more falcate dorsal fin, a darker coloration and a notably shorter beak. These individuals, with one associated calf, were first identified in September 2008 and could be re-identified in the study area up to 13 days over all the different seasons. On all occasions, they were re-identified in close association with each other and on 10 occasions in close association with triangular dorsal fin shaped bottlenose dolphins. Behavioural observations made during these associations indicated that these mixed dolphin groups were 18% of their time feeding, 18% socialising, 17% slowly travelling and resting, 16% travelling in medium and fast speed and 7% milling (n=380 min). Although both forms show variations in external morphology, the extent to which this phenotypic variation is genetically correlated remains unknown. A clear insight on the differentiation between these regional forms might have important conservation implications for this species in Argentina. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of the crystallisation pathway of inulin on its mono-hydrate to hemi-hydrate thermal transition
Ronkart, Sébastien; Deroanne, Claude; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

Poster (2010, March 22)

Inulin plays a major role in the food industry as dietary fibre, bulking agent and fat or sugar substitute. Thermal properties of two inulins obtained from different crystallisation pathways were ... [more ▼]

Inulin plays a major role in the food industry as dietary fibre, bulking agent and fat or sugar substitute. Thermal properties of two inulins obtained from different crystallisation pathways were investigated. The first one, was obtained by fractional precipitation of a saturated inulin solution (40/120). The second one, came from a solid amorphous inulin (95/120). These two inulins were spray dried with an inlet air temperature of 120°C. Then, these powders were placed into controlled atmosphere conditions at 0 % HR during one week and at 94% during the same time. Finally the two inulins were called 40/120/94% and 95/120/94% and their thermal properties were investigated by Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature resolved wide angle X-ray scattering (TRWAXS) and thermogravimetry (TGA).Although WAXS did not show any difference between the two inulin, thermal analysis revealed the existence of a hemi-hydratate inulin (40/120/94%). This fact has an implication on the processing of the powder at an industrial level. Indeed, 40/120/94% has shown an agglomeration whereas 95/120/94% was a continuous mass. In other words, polymorphism of inulin crystals induces technofunctionality changes of the powder (hygroscopy, solubility, etc.) which could have an impact during processing or formulation of the powder. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Search for Worlds Like Our Own
Fridlund, Malcolm; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas et al

in Astrobiology (2010), 10(1), 5-17

The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets -- particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life ... [more ▼]

The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets -- particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life -- constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus 300 BC: Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist. Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts - atoms - also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning--not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than 6our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the scientific method and 21st-century technology, we will be able to answer this fascinating controversial issue that has persisted for at least 2500 years. [less ▲]

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See detailGPS™ II and GPS™ III: comparison of obtained platelets concentrations
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Renouf, Julien et al

Poster (2010, March 20)

Introduction: Recently, several researches, essentially in vitro, demonstrated the positive effects of platelets on healing process of different tissues: bones, muscles and tendons. The aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Recently, several researches, essentially in vitro, demonstrated the positive effects of platelets on healing process of different tissues: bones, muscles and tendons. The aim of this study is to compare the obtained platelets concentration between the new GPS™ III and GPS™ II. Methods: Two blood samples of 52 mL were taken in 5 volunteers and transferred respectively in both GPS™ II and GPS™ III. These devices were centrifuged at 3200 RPM during 15 min. The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was thus collected and transferred in 6 mL test tubes. Cells count was done using an analyser ABX Micros 60. Results and conclusion: Platelets concentrations were more important from 6.2 up to 9.2 times with GPS™ II and from 7.3 up to 8.3 times with GPS™ III compared to blood samples. Efficiency of the collected platelets was around 92% for GPS™ II and 96% for GPS™ III. Both techniques made it possible to collect platelets but, unfortunately, also a lot of red and white blood cells. None of these parameters showed any significant difference (p>0.05). Conflicts of interests: The 10 devices GPS™ II and GPS™ III were provided gracefully by the firm Biomet Biologics TTC. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatelet-rich plasma (PRP) increases healing process of rats' Achilles tendons
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Pascon, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2010, March 20)

Introduction Some tendinopathies (epicondylitis, jumper’s knee or Achilles tendinopathy) are frequently considered as rebel to “classic” treatments such as rest, orthotics, NSAIs, electrotherapy ... [more ▼]

Introduction Some tendinopathies (epicondylitis, jumper’s knee or Achilles tendinopathy) are frequently considered as rebel to “classic” treatments such as rest, orthotics, NSAIs, electrotherapy, physiotherapy, corticosteroid infiltrations, extracorporeal shock waves… Recently, several studies, essentially in vitro, demonstrated the positive effects of platelets on the healing process of different tissues: bones, muscles and tendons. Objectives The aim of our experiment was to ascertain whether the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was of interest for accelerating the healing process of Achilles tendon after surgical induced lesion. Methods A 5mm defect was surgically induced in rat Achilles tendon after resection of plantaris tendon. Rats were divided into 2 groups: A: control (no injection) and B: PRP injection. Rats of group B received a PRP injection in situ after the surgery. Afterwards, rats of both groups were placed in their cage without immobilization. After 5, 15 and 30 days, rats were euthanized. The traumatized Achilles tendon of each rat was removed and dissected during this healing process. Immediately after sampling, tendons were submitted to a biomechanical tensile test up to rupture, using a “Cryo-jaw”. Results We demonstrated that the force necessary to induce tendon rupture during biomechanical tensile test study was more important for tendons which had been submitted to an injection of PRP. These results were noticed from day 5 onwards. Discussion – Conclusion This experimentation has shown that PRP injections could accelerate tendons healing process and increase the force needed to break tendons in their healing process. This “accelerating” process can be observed as early as day 5. Acknowledgement This experimentation was partially financed by “Standard de Liège 2007” and “Lejeune-Lechien 2008” grants. [less ▲]

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See detailSupply Chain et Gestion des ressources humaines
Nondonfaz, Robert ULg

Article for general public (2010)

Rappels de quelques exigences de la Supply Chain en matière de gestion des ressources humaines; spécificités de certains métiers : chauffeur, magasinier, acheteur, gestionnaire de stock, gestion des ... [more ▼]

Rappels de quelques exigences de la Supply Chain en matière de gestion des ressources humaines; spécificités de certains métiers : chauffeur, magasinier, acheteur, gestionnaire de stock, gestion des imprévus [less ▲]

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See detailRelease of cardiac biomarkers after an intense physical exercise: preliminary results
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Laurent, Terry; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

Poster (2010, March 20)

Background: Over the past 2 decades, there has been a large interest in cardiac markers elevations, which are often seen following endurance sport events. These elevations were transient, with levels ... [more ▼]

Background: Over the past 2 decades, there has been a large interest in cardiac markers elevations, which are often seen following endurance sport events. These elevations were transient, with levels decreasing to pre-event concentrations within 24-48 hours. This might be explained by the relatively short half-life of studied markers, or water imbalance during and after the event. Therefore, the present preliminary study aimed to examine the increase in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), highly sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) and I (TnI II), myoglobin, creatine kinase muscle – brain (CK-MB), myeloperoxydase (MPO) and Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) elevations after prolonged strenuous exercise . Materials and methods: Blood samples (EDTA plasma and heparinised plasma) were drawn at baseline, after 45, 90, 105, 165, 225, 285, 345, 690 and 1440 minutes in two healthy persons (29 year, trained 6 hours per week; 23 year, untrained). Each subjects runs at the maximal possibility during 2 hours. Results: For the untrained person, level of NT-proBNP exceeded the upper reference limits 12 hours after exercise but increased in all times. HsTnT and TnI II levels were upper the reference limit respectively 45 minutes and directly after exercise and increased up to 4 hours after exercise. We reported a decrease of these concentrations above the reference limits after 24 hours. Myoglobin increased after 45 minutes until 5 hours after exercises. It decreased after the 5th hour to be normalized 24 hours after exercise. CK-MB increased directly after the exercise and was upper the reference limits 165 minutes after the exercise. Level of MPO was very high just after exercise and decreased quickly in the following hours to be just upper the limit references 24 hours after exercise. HsCRP levels increased after 105 minutes and continued to increase after 24 hours. For the trained subject, we noted the same profile of increase of cardiac markers levels stayed but in the range of reference. Conclusion: These cases are extremely interesting. Indeed, this observation suggested a physiological counter regulatory process rather a simple increase of myocardial damage related to the intensity of exercise. In fact, for this moment, we do not know if the release of cardiac markers is physiological or pathological thus it must be studied. This preliminary study on endurance training suggested that intensively is determinants of the rate and the magnitude of subsequent cardiac marker release. These results suggested that an adaptation mechanism could exist. Benefits and possible long-term negative aspects of prolonged exercise should be evaluated with a more important population of athletes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe mouvement étudiant devant M. Lacan
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg

Scientific conference (2010, March 20)

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See detailLa Chine, le sujet et le travail manuel dans la lecture de Michelle Loi
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2010)

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See detailAntilisterial Activity on Poultry Meat of Amylolysin, a Bacteriocin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1
Halimi, Badre Eddine ULg; Dortu, Carine; Arguelles Arias, Anthony ULg et al

in Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins (2010)

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