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See detailServices de proximité et régulation publique
Henry, Arnaud ULg

in Non-marchand (2008), 6

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See detailCaracterización y cuantificación autmatizadas de menas metálicas mediante visión artificial : proyecto cameva
Castroviejo, Ricardo; Catalina, Juan-Carlos; Bernhardt, Heinz-Juergen et al

in Actos del XIII Congreso Latino Americano de Geologia (2008)

The CAMEVA project (Automated system for the identification and quantitative measurement of ore minerals) aims to develop an automated system able to perform the identification and quantification of the ... [more ▼]

The CAMEVA project (Automated system for the identification and quantitative measurement of ore minerals) aims to develop an automated system able to perform the identification and quantification of the different minerals present in a sample of metallic ores, in order to facilitate their industrial use. The system comprises a motorised reflected light microscope, a filter wheel (monochromator), a research BW camera, and a computer running a digital image analysis software associated to an expert system specially developed for this application. Multispectral reflectance values are measured for visible light and near IR and UV (350-1000 nm), and no polarisation is usually employed in order to reduce measurement variability due to mineral anisotropy. Mineral identification is carried out by comparison of measured reflectances with spectral reflectance databases (e.g. IMA-COM). Previous experiences showed that the most common ores can be differentiated through the analysis of a microscopic RGB colour image, by constraining the search with additional information such as the type of deposit and the corresponding mineral association. The project goes further, and intends to identify most of the ores from multi-spectral images, including non-visible bands, resorting to an expert system specifically built to deal with the different types of information available (spectral reflectance, sample origin, mineral associations, morphology, etc). 2 Validation of the method will be carried out by comparative análisis of standards and samples exchanged between the laboratories. Development pays special attention to the total automation of the process (including calibration) and to the self-learning capabilities of the system. Contacts with research institutions and with the industry will allow to apply the system to real problems. The system can be used to control the processing of ores as well as to prevent pollution for the protection of the environment (e.g. sulphides in coal or in industrial tailings). Further applications can be envisaged in the future: e.g. other minerals, coal or materials, particles, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailLa France et l'OTAN : vers la normalisation ?
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2008), 2005

En 1966, la France se retire du commandement intégré de l’OTAN. Son actuelle réintégration n’est pas une rupture ni le fruit d’une révolution spectaculaire récente, mais plutôt l’aboutissement d’un ... [more ▼]

En 1966, la France se retire du commandement intégré de l’OTAN. Son actuelle réintégration n’est pas une rupture ni le fruit d’une révolution spectaculaire récente, mais plutôt l’aboutissement d’un processus engagé par François Mitterrand et poursuivi par Jacques Chirac. En fait, la politique française a toujours joué sur plusieurs plans, entre indépendance nationale, soutien à la défense européenne et engagements au sein de l’Alliance. La dimension « autonomie européenne » a toujours fait l’objet du soutien important de la part de Paris, avec des résultats qui ne furent pas toujours à la hauteur des ambitions. Depuis la fin de la Guerre froide et le 11 septembre 2001, le paysage a changé. Les États-Unis ont compris que sans les Européens, il n’y a pas beaucoup d’alliés sur qui compter pour disposer d’une armée crédible et qui s’engage sur le terrain. De son côté, Paris a pris des initiatives pragmatiques sur des dossiers opérationnels, techniques et militaires durant la présidence du Conseil de l’Union européenne au second semestre 2008, sortant ainsi des grands concepts idéologiques européistes. Le dossier examine la dimension historique de la place de la France dans l’organisation euro-atlantique, l’évolution de la position hexagonale dans les années 1990, les débats engagés entre 2007 et 2009, les argumentaires (favorables et négatifs) des partis politiques, les hypothèses et les scénarios à propos de la « normalisation » française autour du sommet de l’Alliance atlantique à Strasbourg-Kehl en avril 2009. [less ▲]

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See detailHolocene records of regional dust deposition using peat bogs
Le Roux, G.; De Vleeschouwer, François; Cheburkin, A. et al

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2008), 72(12), 535-535

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See detailSerum dioxin and PCB levels among PCB waste processing plant workers
Eppe, Gauthier ULg; Dupas, D.; Chisacof, I. et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2008), 70

A clinical investigation and a biological monitoring were carried out to evaluate the occupational exposure of workers in contact with pyralen in a PCB-transformer and capacitor decontamination plant in ... [more ▼]

A clinical investigation and a biological monitoring were carried out to evaluate the occupational exposure of workers in contact with pyralen in a PCB-transformer and capacitor decontamination plant in France. The aim of this study was to assess the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxin (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like (DL) PCBs and marker PCBs for those workers. We examined 8 representative workers (34-44 years old). The subjects of this study worked from 5 years to 19 years at the plant. All workers reported daily multiple contacts with various metal and wood parts of dismantled transformers during working hours. On a yearly basis, the exposed subjects were examined by the occupational health physician for a check-up. Basic parameters such as liver function and lipid statement were performed. [less ▲]

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See detailLevels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in Belgian river eel specimen
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Geererts, C.; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2008), 70

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See detailThe wave function of $[70,1^-]$ baryons in the $1/N_c$ expansion
Matagne, Nicolas; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Phys. Rev. (2008), D77

Much work has been devoted to the study of nonstrange baryons belonging to the $[\textbf{70},1^-]$ multiplet in the framework of the $1/N_c$ expansion. Using group theoretical arguments here we examine ... [more ▼]

Much work has been devoted to the study of nonstrange baryons belonging to the $[\textbf{70},1^-]$ multiplet in the framework of the $1/N_c$ expansion. Using group theoretical arguments here we examine the relation between the exact wave function and the approximate one, customarily used in applications where the system is separated into a ground state core and an excited quark. We show that the exact and approximate wave functions globally give similar results for all of mass operators presented in this work. However we find that the inclusion of operators acting separately on the core and on the excited quark deteriorates the fit and leads to unsatisfactory values for the coefficients which encode the quark dynamics. Much better results are obtained when we include operators acting on the whole system, both for the exact and the approximate wave function. [less ▲]

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See detailNew look at the (70,1-) baryon multiplet in the 1/N(c) expansion
Matagne, Nicolas; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Nucl. Phys. (2008), A811

So far, the masses of excited states of mixed orbital symmetry and in particular those of nonstrange $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ baryons derived in the $1/N_c$ expansion were based on the separation of a system of ... [more ▼]

So far, the masses of excited states of mixed orbital symmetry and in particular those of nonstrange $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ baryons derived in the $1/N_c$ expansion were based on the separation of a system of $N_c$ quarks into a symmetric core and an excited quark. Here we avoid this separation and show that an advantage of this new approach is to substantially reduce the number of linearly independent operators entering the mass formula. A novelty is that the isospin-isospin term becomes as dominant in $\Delta$ as the spin-spin term in $N$ resonances. [less ▲]

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See detailVerslagen & Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde. Themanummer "Recente ontwikkelingen in het contrastief taalonderzoek Nederlands-Frans"
Hiligsmann, Philippe; Baelen, Mélanie; Leloup, Anne-Lore et al

Book published by KANTL (2008)

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See detailHergé dynamité. De Tintin à TNT en Amérique
Meesters, Gert ULg

in Art&Fact (2008), (27), 95-101

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See detailLe rumex à feuilles obtuses dans les systèmes herbagers : importance de la problématique, lutte chimique et méthodes alternatives
Stilmant, Didier ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Knoden, D. et al

in Fourrages (2008), 192

Parmi les questions relatives à l'entretien des prairies, la lutte contre le rumex est une préoccupation fréquente, du fait de la vigueur et de la capacité d’adaptation considérables de la plante et de la ... [more ▼]

Parmi les questions relatives à l'entretien des prairies, la lutte contre le rumex est une préoccupation fréquente, du fait de la vigueur et de la capacité d’adaptation considérables de la plante et de la difficulté de la lutte contre cette adventice invasive dans des couverts complexes... Une enquête réalisée en région wallonne auprès d'exploitants agricoles et portant sur leurs pratiques de gestion et d'entretien des prairies montre l’importance de la pression exercée par Rumex obtusifolius L. qui représente un problème pour 40% d'entre eux ; la complémentation et l'épandage de lisier et de fumier de bovins sont corrélés avec la difficulté exprimée par les éleveurs. Une revue complète des traitements chimiques est effectuée selon la nature du couvert et l'âge de la prairie. Diverses méthodes de lutte alternatives sont également présentées (faux semis, type de travail du sol, gestion du pâturage…) ainsi que leur efficacité sur les jeunes plantules et sur les repousses de plantes de rumex. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand le lézard s'en mêle... Ethnographie de l'indexation collective de sites internet
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

in Sciences de la Société (2008), 75

We can not understand the peculiarity of website directories, compared to search engine, if we do not exhibit the ongoing elaboration done by human directories builders. In order to achieve this goal, the ... [more ▼]

We can not understand the peculiarity of website directories, compared to search engine, if we do not exhibit the ongoing elaboration done by human directories builders. In order to achieve this goal, the author propose an ethnography of procedures involved in the evaluation of websites candidates to be included in the Open Directory Project. The authors exposes how websites are challenged before being recorded in the database of the tool. The used criterion's lay on conventions about and the references format, and the content, and the design, and the accessibility. The paper describes how the editor's judgement is equipped by, and distributed with tools, yet-done (other's and himself) work, and external resources. As an inquirer, the editor's investigations are based either on contemporary indices and on historical traces. [less ▲]

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See detailMondialisation et cosmopolitisme
Pieret, Denis ULg

in Dissensus (2008), 1

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See detailLa place de l'analyse du condensat de l'air exhalé dans les maladies pulmonaires obstructives.
Renkin, C.; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(4), 193-8

The number of publications on the analysis of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has increased considerably over the last five years. The EBC is a new, noninvasive and inexpensive technique which ... [more ▼]

The number of publications on the analysis of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has increased considerably over the last five years. The EBC is a new, noninvasive and inexpensive technique which requires a minimum of cooperation on behalf of the patient. The condensate obtained consists of more than 99.99% of water vapour, to which are added various substances which reflect the inflammatory status of the airways. It is now especially used to characterize the inflammatory state of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD. This article describes the technique and reviews the main data from the current literature. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting gene essentiality from expression patterns in Escherichia coli
Irrthum, Alexandre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

(2008)

Essential genes are genes whose loss of function causes lethal- ity. In the case of pathogen organisms, the identification of these genes is of considerable interest, as they provide targets for the ... [more ▼]

Essential genes are genes whose loss of function causes lethal- ity. In the case of pathogen organisms, the identification of these genes is of considerable interest, as they provide targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Computational analyses have revealed that the posi- tions of the encoded proteins in the protein-protein interaction network can help predict essentiality, but this type of data is not always avail- able. In this work, we investigate prediction of gene essentiality from expression data only, using a genome-wide compendium of expression patterns in the bacterium Escherichia coli, by using single decision trees and random forests. We first show that, based on the original expression measurements, it is possible to identify essential genes with good accu- racy. Next, we derive, for each gene, higher level features such as average, standard deviation and entropy of its expression pattern, as well as fea- tures related to the correlation of expression patterns between genes. We find that essentiality may actually be predicted based only on the two most relevant ones among these latter.We discuss the biological meaning of these observations. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore...une pathologie pleurale?
Duysinx, Bernard ULg; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Nguyen Dang, Delphine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(10), 615-23

Pleural involvements are common and various respiratory diseases including inflammatory, infectious, occupational, or neoplastic pathological entities...Pleural thickening and pleurisy are usual ... [more ▼]

Pleural involvements are common and various respiratory diseases including inflammatory, infectious, occupational, or neoplastic pathological entities...Pleural thickening and pleurisy are usual radiological presentation. Etiological diagnosis imposes a vast and sometimes difficult exploration and it, especially since the conventional imaging by radiology, ultrasound, scanning and nuclear magnetic resonance has no specific diagnostic criteria for pleural malignancy. The metabolic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) has been gradually positioned in the decision-making algorithm exploration of the pleural disease due to its excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of malignant pleurisy (88.8%-100%). The analysis of chemistry, bacteriology and cytology pleural fluid makes a significant contribution to the diagnostic approach. However, although inescapable, thoracocentesis has a diagnostic sensibility not exceeding 62%. Moreover, the sensibility of the pleural blind needle biopsies does not exceed 51%. So, thoracoscopy, more invasive, is often justified to precise pleural disease with a diagnostic sensitivity greater than 95%. Finally, despite the diagnostic arsenal available, over 10% of pleurisies remain unknown etiology. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation de densité par ensemble aléatoire de poly-arbres
Ammar, Sourour; Leray, Philippe; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

(2008)

La notion de mélange de modèles simples aléatoires est de plus en plus utilisée et avec succès dans la littérature de l’apprentissage supervisé ces dernières années. Parmi les avantages de ces méthodes ... [more ▼]

La notion de mélange de modèles simples aléatoires est de plus en plus utilisée et avec succès dans la littérature de l’apprentissage supervisé ces dernières années. Parmi les avantages de ces méthodes, citons l’amélioration du passage à l’échelle des algorithmes d’apprentissage grâce à leur aspect aléatoire et l’amélioration de l’exactitude de la prédiction des modèles induits grâce à une flexibilité plus élevée en ce qui concerne le compromis biais/variance. Dans le présent travail, nous proposons d’explorer cette idée dans le contexte de l’estimation de la densité. Nous proposons une nouvelle famille de méthodes d’apprentissage non-supervisé à base de mélange de grands ensembles aléatoires de poly-arbres. La caractéristique spécifique de ces méthodes est leur passage à l’échelle, aussi bien en terme de nombre de variables que de données à traiter. Cette étude, exploratoire, compare empiriquement ces méthodes sur un ensemble de problèmes de test discrets de taille et de complexité croissantes et ouvre de nombreuses perspectives auxquelles nous prévoyons de nous intéresser. [less ▲]

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See detailNew challenges for feature selection in data mining and knowledge discovery
Saeys, Yvan; Liu, Huan; Inza, Inaki et al

in Journal of Machine Learning Research (2008), 4

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See detailIn Vitro Detection And Characterization Of Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Activity Of Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lab) Isolated From Senegalese Local Food Products
Diop, Mb.; Dubois Dauphin, Robin ULg; Dortu, C. et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2008), 2(8),

The prevalence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Senegalese local food products was determined to be 109 CFU/g in millet flour and milk products, and 103 CFU/g in seafood products. These food products are ... [more ▼]

The prevalence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Senegalese local food products was determined to be 109 CFU/g in millet flour and milk products, and 103 CFU/g in seafood products. These food products are generally preserved by spontaneous fermentation (without addition of starters). Of 220 lactic acid bacteria strains randomly selected from such products, 12 isolates capable of producing bacteriocin-like substances (bac+) were detected. Based on the use of API 50 CH test kits and 16S rDNA sequencing, 11 isolates were characterized as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains and one as an Enterococcus faecium strain. Nisin- and enterocin B-encoding genes were respectively identified in the bac+ lactococcal strains and the E. faecium strain. Since the bac+ Lc. lactis strains were isolated from different products, it suggests a high potential of growth by these strains in variable ecological environments. Expression of the nisin gene was indicated for one of the lactococcal strains, designated Lc. lactis subsp. lactis CWBI-B1410, which showed the highest in vitro antibacterial activity. An antibacterial preparation prepared from the CWBI-B1410 strain showed many similarities with nisin with regards to its inhibitory effects, heat resistance, protease sensitivity profile, as well as retention time of the antibacterial substances on a C18 column. These results suggest that a nisin-like substance is produced by the CWBI-B1410 strain. This strain has been selected for application as an additional barrier to supplementation with sodium chloride as a means to improve the bacterial quality of fish commodities in Senegal. [less ▲]

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See detailLes lipases sont des hydrolases atypiques : principales caractéristiques et applications
Fickers, Patrick ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12(2), 119-130

Due to their kinetic and substrate specificities, triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases or lipases are atypical enzymes. In function of their microenvironment, lipases are able to act as hydrolases in aqueous ... [more ▼]

Due to their kinetic and substrate specificities, triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases or lipases are atypical enzymes. In function of their microenvironment, lipases are able to act as hydrolases in aqueous solution or as biocatalysts in organic synthesis. As hydrolases, they are responsible of the triglycerids catabolism into fatty acids and glycerol. In many organisms, this reaction plays a major role in the fat and lipid metabolism. In addition, lipases are also able to hydrolyse phospholipids and cholesterol esters. In organic solvent, lipases could catalyse reactions such as esterifications, acidolysis or alcoolysis with enantio-, regio- and chimioselectivity. Lipases form a mixed class of enzyme due to their animal, vegetal or microbial origins. All those properties led to the development of many applications in the food and chemical industries but also in the medical and therapeutic field. [less ▲]

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