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See detailStochastic analysis of the effect of heterogeneity and fractures on radionuclide transport in a low-permeability clay layer
Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Environmental Geology (2005), 48(7), 920-930

Deep low-permeability clay layers are considered as safe environments for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom Clay is a candidate host rock for deep geological disposal. In this ... [more ▼]

Deep low-permeability clay layers are considered as safe environments for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom Clay is a candidate host rock for deep geological disposal. In this study, we analyze the effects of fractures and spatially variable hydraulic conductivity on radionuclide migration through the clay. Fracture geometry and properties are simulated with Monte Carlo simulation. The heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity is simulated by direct sequential co-simulation using measurements of hydraulic conductivity and four types of secondary variables. The hydraulic conductivity and fracture simulations are used as input for a transport model. Radionuclide fluxes computed with this heterogeneous model are compared with fluxes obtained with a homogeneous model. The output fluxes of the heterogeneous model differ at most 8% from the homogeneous model. The main safety function of the Boom Clay is thus not affected by the fractures and the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganisation d'une criée en Belgique : exemple de la Criée de Malines.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg

Article for general public (2005)

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See detailRepeated cadmium nebulizations induce pulmonary MMP-2 and MMP-9 production and emphysema in rats.
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Vincke, Gregoire; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Toxicology (2005), 211(1-2), 36-48

This study describes induction of pulmonary inflammation, production of matrix metalloprotease of type 2 (MMP-2) and type 9 (MMP-9), and emphysema in cadmium (Cd)-exposed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were ... [more ▼]

This study describes induction of pulmonary inflammation, production of matrix metalloprotease of type 2 (MMP-2) and type 9 (MMP-9), and emphysema in cadmium (Cd)-exposed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into two groups: one placebo-exposed group undergoing saline (NaCl 0.9%) inhalation (n=30) and one Cd-exposed group undergoing cadmium (CdCl(2) 0.1%) inhalation (n=30). The animals of the placebo- and Cd-exposed groups were divided in five subgroups (n=6). Subgroups underwent either a single exposure of 1h or repeated exposures three times weekly for 1h during 3 weeks (3W), 5 weeks (5W), 5 weeks followed by 2 weeks without exposure (5W+2) or 5 weeks followed by 4 weeks without exposure (5W+4). Each animal underwent determination of enhanced pause (Penh) as index of airflow limitation prior to the first exposure as well as before sacrifice. The animals were sacrificed the day after their last exposure. The left lung was fixed for histomorphometric analysis (determination of median interwall distance (MIWD)), whilst bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the right lung. BALF was analyzed cytologically, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were determined by gelatine zymography. Twelve rats previously instilled with pancreatic elastase were used as positive emphysema controls and underwent the same investigations. Cd-exposure induced a significant increase of BALF macrophages, neutrophils and MMP-9 up to 5W+4, whereas MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity returned to baseline levels within 5W. MIWD was significantly increased in all repeatedly Cd-exposed groups and elastase-treated rats. Penh was increased in Cd-exposed rats after a single exposure and after 3W. MMP gelatinolytic activity was significantly correlated with macrophages, neutrophils and Penh. In repeatedly exposed rats, MIWD was positively and significantly correlated with MMP gelatinolytic activity, suggesting that increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 production favours the development of emphysema. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Texture Evolution and hardening Behavior during Deep drawing with an improved mixed type FEM Element
Duchene, Laurent ULg; de Montleau, Pierre; El Houdaigui, Fouad et al

in Smith, L. M.; Pourboghrat, F.; Yoon, J. W. (Eds.) et al On the Cutting Edge of Technology, NUMISHEET 2005, 6th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes (2005)

In the present study, deep drawing simulations were investigated using a recently developed mixed type finite element (FE): the BWD3D. The main formulation of the element is described, with particular ... [more ▼]

In the present study, deep drawing simulations were investigated using a recently developed mixed type finite element (FE): the BWD3D. The main formulation of the element is described, with particular focus on the shear locking treatment. Two hardening models used in the presented simulations are described: the isotropic Swift’s model and the physically based microstructural Teodosiu and Hu model. Finally, deep drawing results, in terms of earing profile, are compared to experiment. Special attention is paid to the effects of texture evolution and hardening models; the method used to implement Teodosiu and Hu hardening model is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite element simulations of the swift effect
Duchene, Laurent ULg; El Houdaigui, Fouad; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Bariani, P. F. (Ed.) Proceedings of the ICTP 2005 International Conference on Technology of Plasticity (2005)

Numerical simulations of the experimental free-end torsion tests [1] of copper cylindrical bars were analysed in the present paper. The self-made Finite Element (FE) code Lagamine with polycrystal ... [more ▼]

Numerical simulations of the experimental free-end torsion tests [1] of copper cylindrical bars were analysed in the present paper. The self-made Finite Element (FE) code Lagamine with polycrystal plasticity models computed numerical prediction of the Swift effect, i.e. the lengthening of the cylinder during the torsion. The used constitutive law was coupled with two plastic crystal models, taking or not into account strain rate effect. Results such as axial strain and predicted textures were analysed. The ones obtained for shear strains lower than 1.0 were in good agreement with experiments; while, for shear strains larger than 1.0, the FE results were currently unfair. A research about remeshing is in progress to improve the accuracy of the results for large shear strains. [less ▲]

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See detailModel identification and FE simulations: effect of different yield loci and hardening laws in sheet forming
Flores, Paulo; Duchene, Laurent ULg; Lelotte, Thomas et al

in Smith, L. M.; Pourboghrat, F.; Yoon, J. W. (Eds.) et al On the Cutting Edge of Technology NUMISHEET 2005, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes (2005)

The bi-axial experimental equipment [1] developed by Flores enables to perform Baushinger shear tests and successive or simultaneous simple shear tests and plane-strain tests. Such experiments and ... [more ▼]

The bi-axial experimental equipment [1] developed by Flores enables to perform Baushinger shear tests and successive or simultaneous simple shear tests and plane-strain tests. Such experiments and classical tensile tests investigate the material behavior in order to identify the yield locus and the hardening models. With tests performed on two steel grades, the methods applied to identify classical yield surfaces such as Hill or Hosford ones as well as isotropic Swift type hardening or kinematic Armstrong–Frederick hardening models are explained. Comparison with the Taylor-Bishop-Hill yield locus is also provided. The effect of both yield locus and hardening model choice will be presented for two applications: Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) and a cup deep drawing. [less ▲]

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See detailAnisotropic yield locus of ultrafine-grained aluminium produced by Equal Channel angular extrusion
El Houdaigui, Fouad; Duchene, Laurent ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg et al

in Onate, E.; Owen, D. R. J. (Eds.) Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Computational Plasticity (COMPLAS VIII) (2005)

Macroscopic tensile, compression and torsion tests have been performed as well as texture measurements. Based on these data a phenomenological yield locus has been defined to describe the behaviour of an ... [more ▼]

Macroscopic tensile, compression and torsion tests have been performed as well as texture measurements. Based on these data a phenomenological yield locus has been defined to describe the behaviour of an ultrafine-grained aluminum obtained by ECAE. [less ▲]

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See detailBootstrap equations in effective theories
Vereshagin, Alexander; Vereshagin, Vladimir; Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, Kirill ULg

in Journal of Mathematical Sciences (2005), 125(2), 144-158

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See detailAxes rotation during simple shear test: Measurement and predictions
Lelotte, Thomas; Gerday, Anne-Françoise ULg; Flores, Paulo et al

in Oñate, E.; Owen, D. R. J. (Eds.) Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Computational Plasticity (COMPLAS VIII) (2005)

For a simple shear test, the finite element (FE) local frame, that stays orthogonal, does not follow the anisotropic material frame. To study this effect, FE simulations have been compared with ... [more ▼]

For a simple shear test, the finite element (FE) local frame, that stays orthogonal, does not follow the anisotropic material frame. To study this effect, FE simulations have been compared with experimental results (optical and texture measurements) and it was shown that it is necessary to take into account the effect of texture updating for local axes rotation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Le Twiddler's syndrome.
SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; Radermacher, V.; Chevolet, C. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(7-8), 647-8

The Twiddler's syndrome is characterized by the migration of pacemaker's leads due to rotation of the pulse generator. In our case, ventricular leads coiled in the upper side of the right atrium with ... [more ▼]

The Twiddler's syndrome is characterized by the migration of pacemaker's leads due to rotation of the pulse generator. In our case, ventricular leads coiled in the upper side of the right atrium with stimulation of pectoralis major muscle during left decubitus lateralis position. [less ▲]

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See detail5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors, major depression, and suicidal behavior.
Pitchot, William ULg; Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Biological Psychiatry (2005), 58(11), 854-8

BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest a clear relationship between serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) hypoactivity and suicidal behavior across several psychiatric diagnoses. Few data are ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest a clear relationship between serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) hypoactivity and suicidal behavior across several psychiatric diagnoses. Few data are available, however, regarding the possible specific role of 5-HT1A receptors in the biology of suicidality. Therefore, the aim of our study was to use a neuroendocrine strategy to test the hypothesis of a role for 5-HT1A receptors in the biology of suicidal behavior. METHODS: Hormonal (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, prolactin [PRL]) and temperature responses after administration of flesinoxan, a highly potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist, were assessed in 40 inpatients with major depression, divided into two subgroups (20 suicide attempters and 20 nonattempters), compared with 20 normal control subjects matched for gender and age. RESULTS: Compared with nonattempters, suicide attempters exhibited significantly lower PRL (p = .01), cortisol (p = .014), and temperature (p = .0002) responses. Prolactin (p = .007), cortisol (p = .04), and temperature (p = .00003) responses were also decreased in suicide attempters compared with normal control subjects. In contrast, we did not observe any significant differences in hormonal or temperature responses to flesinoxan between depressed patients without a history of suicide attempt and normal control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present study tends to confirm the role of 5-HT and more specifically 5-HT1A receptors in the biology of suicidal behavior in major depression. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of a data minig based technique for the evaluation of transmission expansion plans
Druet, Christophe; Vassena, Stefano; Rousseaux, Patricia ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 15th Power System Computation Conference (PSCC) (2005)

This paper describes a methodology for the study of long-term network planning under uncertainties. In this approach the major external uncertainties during the planning horizon are modelled as macro ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a methodology for the study of long-term network planning under uncertainties. In this approach the major external uncertainties during the planning horizon are modelled as macro-scenarios at different future time instants. The random nature of actual operating conditions is taken into account by using a probabilistic model of micro-scenarios based on past statistics. MonteCarlo simulations are used to generate and simulate a specified number of scenarios. Data mining techniques are then applied to the simulations results collected in a database, so as to extract information and to rank scenarios and network reinforcements according to different performance criteria. The paper describes the application of this approach on a real transmission planning problem faced by the Belgian transmission system operator. [less ▲]

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See detailUne explication théorique à l’existence des coopératives agréées et des sociétés à finalité sociale en Belgique
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Non Marchand : Management, Droit et Finance (2005), (16), 13-27

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See detailHéliodermie, héliophiles et héliophobes.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Uhoda, I.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60 Suppl 1

The cumulative effect of lifelong sun exposures induces skin alterations which are coined helioderma. The manifestations of helioderma vary according to the body site. This is particularly the case for ... [more ▼]

The cumulative effect of lifelong sun exposures induces skin alterations which are coined helioderma. The manifestations of helioderma vary according to the body site. This is particularly the case for the prominent differences in the expression of solar elastosis. This condition is commonly more severe on the face and nape of the neck than on the forearms and back of the hands. The age, phototype and behaviour regarding sun exposure are cofactors responsible for the severity of solar elastosis. [less ▲]

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See detailFatal herpes simplex virus infection in Darier disease under corticotherapy.
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Beauthier, F.; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in European Journal of Dermatology (2005), 15(4), 293-7

A 67-year-old man is presented with longstanding and severe Darier disease treated by topical antiseptics and potent corticosteroids, in combination with oral glucocorticoids and etretinate. After cardiac ... [more ▼]

A 67-year-old man is presented with longstanding and severe Darier disease treated by topical antiseptics and potent corticosteroids, in combination with oral glucocorticoids and etretinate. After cardiac bypass surgery in 1997, the patient experienced herpes simplex virus (HSV type-1) infection of the skin that was treated by intravenous aciclovir. In 2003, he presented a widespread atypical exacerbation of his Darier disease, involving the face, trunk, buttocks, intertriginous areas and arms. Initial clinical signs and bacteriological findings suggested a bacterial involvement by multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis. Despite antibiotherapy, the clinical presentation progressively worsened. A skin biopsy was performed and immunohistochemical examination identified a type-2 HSV infection. Although intravenous aciclovir was administered, the widespread cutaneous HSV infection was followed by systemic dissemination. A severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developed, leading to a fatal issue. At autopsy, a severe interstitial type-2 HSV pneumonitis with extensive necrotic areas was found, in association with gastro-intestinal involvement. This case represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of Darier disease presenting a fatal type-2 HSV infection. It underlines the importance of rapidly recognizing HSV infection in Darier disease and stresses the risk of lethal outcome. The different risk factors for HSV infection in this patient are reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) deficient mice to TNF-induced lethal hepatitis
Van Lint, Ph; Wielockx, B.; Puimege, L. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2005), 175(11), 7642-9

Acute fulminant liver failure is a serious worldwide health problem. Despite maximal supportive intensive care treatment, the disease offers a poor prognosis, with mortality rates of >80%. We have ... [more ▼]

Acute fulminant liver failure is a serious worldwide health problem. Despite maximal supportive intensive care treatment, the disease offers a poor prognosis, with mortality rates of >80%. We have previously shown that a broad-spectrum inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) confers complete protection in a mouse model of TNF-induced lethal hepatitis, thereby suggesting the possibility of protecting cancer patients against the deleterious side effects of TNF therapy. In our search for the individual matrix metalloproteinases involved, we found that the recently generated MMP-8-deficient mice are significantly protected against TNF-induced acute hepatitis. In contrast to their wild-type counterparts, MMP-8-null mice display very little hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis, resulting in a much better survival outcome. We found that these animals clearly display impaired leukocyte influx into the liver and no release of the neutrophil-specific, LPS-induced CXC chemokine. Our findings provide evidence that MMP-8 plays an essential role in acute liver failure and might be a promising new target for the treatment for this illness. [less ▲]

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See detailMimicry of a cellular low energy status blocks tumor cell anabolism and suppresses the malignant phenotype.
Swinnen, J. V.; Beckers, A.; Brusselmans, K. et al

in Cancer Research (2005), 65(6), 2441-8

Aggressive cancer cells typically show a high rate of energy-consuming anabolic processes driving the synthesis of lipids, proteins, and DNA. Here, we took advantage of the ability of the cell-permeable ... [more ▼]

Aggressive cancer cells typically show a high rate of energy-consuming anabolic processes driving the synthesis of lipids, proteins, and DNA. Here, we took advantage of the ability of the cell-permeable nucleoside 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside to increase the intracellular levels of AICA ribotide, an AMP analogue, mimicking a low energy status of the cell. Treatment of cancer cells with AICA riboside impeded lipogenesis, decreased protein translation, and blocked DNA synthesis. Cells treated with AICA riboside stopped proliferating and lost their invasive properties and their ability to form colonies. When administered in vivo, AICA riboside attenuated the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumors in nude mice. These findings point toward a central tie between energy, anabolism, and cancer and suggest that the cellular energy sensing machinery in cancer cells is an exploitable target for cancer prevention and/or therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite.... Un carcinome basocellulaire par l'imiquimod topique (Aldara).
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(4), 207-209

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in humans. Several clinical types are distinguished. They are bound to distinct evolutive prognosis. The surgical excision is the treatment of choice which ... [more ▼]

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in humans. Several clinical types are distinguished. They are bound to distinct evolutive prognosis. The surgical excision is the treatment of choice which is rarely followed by recurrence. However, when the lesion is superficial and non aggressive and when the body site is adequate, topical applications of imiquimod can provoke the neoplastic regression. This type of immunotherapy brings 70 to 90% complete remission. A medical follow-up of the treated site is mandatory for a couple of years. [less ▲]

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