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See detailCardiovascular risk-benefit profile of sibutramine.
Scheen, André ULg

in American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs : Drugs, Devices, & Other Interventions (2010), 10(5), 321-34

Sibutramine is a combined norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor used as an antiobesity agent to reduce appetite and promote weight loss in combination with diet and exercise. At a daily dose of ... [more ▼]

Sibutramine is a combined norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor used as an antiobesity agent to reduce appetite and promote weight loss in combination with diet and exercise. At a daily dose of 10-20 mg, it was initially considered to have a good safety profile, as it does not induce primary pulmonary hypertension or adverse effects on cardiac valves, in contrast to previous reports relating to some other antiobesity agents. However, it exerts disparate effects on cardiovascular risk factors. On the one hand, sibutramine may have antiatherogenic activities, as it improves insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and inflammatory markers, with most of these effects resulting from weight loss rather than from an intrinsic effect of the drug. On the other hand, because of its specific mode of action, sibutramine exerts a peripheral sympathomimetic effect, which induces a moderate increase in heart rate and attenuates the reduction in BP attributable to weight loss or even slightly increases BP. It may also prolong the QT interval, an effect that could induce arrhythmias. Because of these complex effects, it is difficult to conclude what the final impact of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes might be. Sibutramine has been shown to exert favorable effects on some surrogate cardiovascular endpoints such as reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy and improvement of endothelial dysfunction. A good cardiovascular safety profile was demonstrated in numerous 1- to 2-year controlled trials, in both diabetic and nondiabetic well selected patients, as well as in several observational studies. However, since 2002, several cardiovascular adverse events (hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction) have been reported in sibutramine-treated patients. This led to a contraindication of the use of this antiobesity agent in patients with established coronary heart disease, previous stroke, heart failure, or cardiac arrhythmias. SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular and Diabetes Outcome Study) was designed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy/safety ratio of sibutramine in a high-risk population. The efficacy/safety results of the first 6-week lead-in open period of treatment with sibutramine 10 mg/day were reassuring in 10 742 overweight/obese high-risk subjects (97% had cardiovascular disease, 88% had hypertension, and 84% had type 2 diabetes mellitus). However, the final results of SCOUT showed that long-term (5 years') treatment with sibutramine (10-15 mg/day) exposed subjects with pre-existing cardiovascular disease to a significantly increased risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke, but not cardiovascular death or all-cause mortality. Because the benefit of sibutramine as a weight-loss aid seems not to outweigh the cardiovascular risks, the European Medicines Agency recommended the suspension of marketing authorizations for sibutramine across the EU. The US FDA stated that the drug should carry a 'black box' warning due to an increased risk of stroke and heart attack in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, concern still persists about the safety profile of sibutramine regarding cardiovascular outcomes, and the drug should not be prescribed for overweight/obese patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile. [less ▲]

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See detailAptitude physique versus adiposité : aspects physiopathologiques et impacts cardio-métaboliques chez le sujet adulte non diabétique
Esser, Nathalie ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques (2010), 4

L’excès de masse grasse (adiposité), surtout abdominale, induit des effets cardio-métaboliques néfastes, alors que l’exercice musculaire et une bonne aptitude physique exercent globalement une influence ... [more ▼]

L’excès de masse grasse (adiposité), surtout abdominale, induit des effets cardio-métaboliques néfastes, alors que l’exercice musculaire et une bonne aptitude physique exercent globalement une influence favorable. Les effets délétères d’un excès de masse grasse (fatness) pourraient donc être contrecarrés par la pratique régulière d’exercices aboutissant à une bonne forme physique (fitness). Cet article analyse d’abord les différents mécanismes physiopathologiques par lesquels l’exercice physique produit des effets bénéfiques chez la personne avec excès pondéral et fait le distinguo entre la pratique d’une activité physique (exercice musculaire) stricto sensu et aptitude physique (fitness). Ensuite, il décrit les études les plus importantes ayant analysé les relations entre le niveau d’aptitude physique et le degré d’adiposité chez le sujet adulte en surpoids ou obèse non diabétique et leurs influences respectives sur le risque de survenue de troubles métaboliques (syndrome métabolique) et sur la mortalité, en particulier cardiovasculaire. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la filière industrielle des énergirs renouvelables
Scheuren, Claude; Andre, Philippe ULg; Germani, David et al

Report (2010)

Rapport final du projet Firewal2, réalisé en collaboration avec l'asbl Energy Factor 4

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See detailActivite anticancereuse de la metformine: nouvelles perspectives pour une vieille molecule.
Beck, Emmanuel ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2010), 6(260), 1601-7

Le diabète de type 2 est associé à un risque accru de cancer, d’autant plus évident qu’on maîtrise mieux la mortalité cardio-vasculaire. Tous les traitements antidiabétiques n’ont pas le même impact sur ... [more ▼]

Le diabète de type 2 est associé à un risque accru de cancer, d’autant plus évident qu’on maîtrise mieux la mortalité cardio-vasculaire. Tous les traitements antidiabétiques n’ont pas le même impact sur le cancer : le risque est accru avec les sulfonylurées et diminué avec la metformine (et les glitazones). De nombreuses études épidémiologiques observationnelles et cas-témoins récentes révèlent qu’un traitement par metformine est associé à une nette réduction de l’incidence de néoplasies et de la mortalité par cancer. Il existe une relation doseréponse et une relation entre la durée préalable du traitement par metformine et l’effet protecteur observé. Les mécanismes invoqués sont l’activation de l’enzyme AMPK et l’inhibition de la voie mTOR. Des études avec la metformine sont en cours en oncologie, notamment dans le cancer du sein. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in carbohydrate composition of barley varieties influence Salmonella transmission among pen mate weaned piglets
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Pieper, Robert; Marshall, Jason et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2010), 88(E2), 284

Indigestible carbohydrate (CHO) composition can vary markedly between barley varieties. They induce changes in intestinal ecophysiology and enhance growth of health-promoting bacteria. An experiment was ... [more ▼]

Indigestible carbohydrate (CHO) composition can vary markedly between barley varieties. They induce changes in intestinal ecophysiology and enhance growth of health-promoting bacteria. An experiment was undertaken to assess whether these changes could influence Salmonella typhimurium (ST) infection in pigs and transmission between penmates. A challenge study was undertaken using 84 recently weaned piglets divided in 12 pens, and fed one of the 4 experimental diets (3 pens/diet), according to the barley variety. Three hullless and one hulled varieties were chosen according to their differing CHO composition (amylose/amylopectin, β-glucan, and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides). After 14 d of adaptation, 2 pigs per pen (Trojan pigs, TrojP) were orally infected (8.0 log cfu/animal) with a low virulent, nalidixic acid and novobiocin resistant ST strain. The other animals were considered as Contact pigs (ConP) to assess ST transmission. Over 5 d following inoculation, pigs were monitored for detection of ST in the feces using plate counts. On d 6, 2 TrojP and 2 ConP per group were killed and intestinal samples as well as organ samples (liver, spleen, and lymph nodes) were analyzed for ST. The results showed that in TrojP, the cereal variety had no influence on ST fecal shedding over time and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) colonization. All pigs were positively tested for ST. Translocation of ST to lymph nodes was observed frequently but not to other organs. In ConP, compared with hulled barley, hulless barleys reduced the number of animals shedding ST (P < 0.05 for d 2) and the number of ST (cfu/g) in cecum on d 6 (P < 0.01). Although hulless barleys did not protect against colonization when directly challenged at a high oral dose, these barleys may be useful to reduce natural ST transmission among penmates. [less ▲]

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See detailHand position on the bunch and source-sink ratio influence the banana fruit susceptibility to crown rot disease
Lassois, Ludivine ULg; Bastiaanse, H.; Chillet, M. et al

in Annals of Applied Biology (2010), 156

The postharvest development of crown rot of bananas depends notably on the fruit susceptibility to this disease at harvest. It has been shown that fruit susceptibility to crown rot is variable and it was ... [more ▼]

The postharvest development of crown rot of bananas depends notably on the fruit susceptibility to this disease at harvest. It has been shown that fruit susceptibility to crown rot is variable and it was suggested that this depends on environmental preharvest factors. However, little is known about the preharvest factors influencing this susceptibility. The aim of this work was to evaluate the extent to which fruit filling characteristics during growth and the fruit development stage influence the banana susceptibility to crown rot. This involved evaluating the influence of (a) the fruit position at different levels of the banana bunch (hands) and (b) changing the source–sink ratio (So–Si ratio), on the fruit susceptibility to crown rot. The fruit susceptibility was determined by measuring the internal necrotic surface (INS) after artificial inoculation of Colletotrichum musae. A linear correlation (r = −0.95) was found between the hand position on the bunch and the INS. The So–Si ratio was found to influence the pomological characteristics of the fruits and their susceptibility to crown rot. Fruits of bunches from which six hands were removed (two hands remaining on the bunch) proved to be significantly less susceptible to crown rot (INS = 138.3 mm2) than those from bunches with eight hands (INS = 237.9 mm2). The banana susceptibility to crown rot is thus likely to be influenced by the fruit development stage and filling characteristics. The present results highlight the importance of standardising hand sampling on a bunch when testing fruit susceptibility to crown rot. They also show that hand removal in the field has advantages in the context of integrated pest management, making it possible to reduce fruit susceptibility to crown rot while increasing fruit size. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing wind comfort in urban planning
Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Environment & Planning B : Planning & Design (2010), 37(5), 857-873

There are increasing concerns regarding the quality of urban public spaces. Wind is one important environmental factor that influences pedestrians’ comfort and safety. In modern cities, there are more and ... [more ▼]

There are increasing concerns regarding the quality of urban public spaces. Wind is one important environmental factor that influences pedestrians’ comfort and safety. In modern cities, there are more and more high constructions and complex forms which can involve significant problems of wind discomfort around these buildings. Today, architects and town planners need guidelines and simple design tools to take account of wind in their projects. This paper addresses the progress made towards computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for assessing wind comfort in urban planning. We validated Fluent software for wind studies in urban environments by comparing our simulations results with wind tunnel tests. This validation shows that wind mean velocities around buildings can be simulated numerically with a very high degree of accuracy. Based on the results of a great number of CFD simulations, we developed a methodology and simple graphical tools to quantify critical wind speeds around buildings. This article should thus help in practice architects and town planners to design our built environment. Moreover, this paper shows how numerical modeling is now a high-performance tool to work out useful guidelines and simple design tools for urban planners. [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting the critical periods that underpin interannual fluctuations in the carbon balance of European forests
Le Maire, G.; Delpierre, N.; Jung, M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences (2010), 115(4),

The interannual variability of CO<inf>2</inf> exchange by forest ecosystems in Europe was analyzed at site and regional scales by identifying critical periods that contributed to interannual flux ... [more ▼]

The interannual variability of CO<inf>2</inf> exchange by forest ecosystems in Europe was analyzed at site and regional scales by identifying critical periods that contributed to interannual flux anomalies. Critical periods were defined as periods in which monthly and annual flux anomalies were correlated. The analysis was first conducted at seven European forest flux tower sites with contrasting species and climatic conditions. Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE), a generic process-based model, represented fairly well most features of the critical period patterns and their climate drivers at the site scale. Simulations at the scale of European forests were performed with ORCHIDEE integrated at a 0.25° spatial resolution. The spatial and temporal distributions of critical periods for canopy photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as well as their underlying climate drivers were analyzed. The interannual variability in gross primary productivity (GPP) was explained by critical periods during spring and summer months. In contrast, the interannual variability in total ecosystem respiration (TER) was explained by critical periods occurring throughout the year. A latitudinal contrast between southern and northern Europe was observed in the distributions of critical periods for GPP and TER. The critical periods were positively controlled by temperature in northern Europe and by soil water availability in southern Europe. More importantly, the latitudinal transition between temperature-driven and water-driven critical periods for GPP varied from early spring to late summer. Such a distinct seasonal regime of critical periods was less clearly defined for TER and NEE. Overall, the critical periods associated with NEE variations and their meteorological drivers followed those associated with GPP. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. [less ▲]

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See detailField measurements of soil respiration: Principles and constraints, potentials and limitations of different methods
Pumpanen, J.; Longdoz, Bernard ULg; Kutsch, W. L.

in Kutsch, Werner; Bahn, Michael; Heinemeyer, Andreas (Eds.) Soil Carbon Dynamics: An Integrated Methodology (2010)

INTRODUCTION Soil respiration is a major component in the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and has been measured in the field for more than eight decades. In this chapter, we will describe the ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION Soil respiration is a major component in the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and has been measured in the field for more than eight decades. In this chapter, we will describe the measurement of soil CO2 efflux at the soil surface that can be considered as equivalent to soil CO2 production when integrated over long time periods (week, month or season). At shorter time scales the transport of CO2 may uncouple the soil CO2 efflux from its production inside the soil. Different methods have been developed to measure this efflux. These methods can affect the object being measured by disturbing the biochemical processes involved in CO2 production, the physical properties influencing CO2 movement towards the soil surface, or by changing the environmental conditions in the soil. Therefore, soil respiration measurements in the field are one of the most difficult among the ecosystem flux measurements. So far, no single method has been established as the standard but comparisons, which give important indications on their accuracy, have been performed. The choice of the measurement methodology is not limited to that of a measurement system. The experimenter has to elaborate a protocol depending on the temporal and spatial scales studied. In this chapter, we will describe the most commonly used methodologies for measuring soil CO2 efflux and present their history, principles and constraints (Section 2.2). © Cambridge University Press 2009. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Justification to phenomenology
Frère, Bruno ULg

Conference (2010)

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of French pragmatist sociology as a post-Bourdieusian critical sociology. Against interpretations of justifications as cultural tool kits, we carve out ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of French pragmatist sociology as a post-Bourdieusian critical sociology. Against interpretations of justifications as cultural tool kits, we carve out the framework’s phenomenological underpinnings in order to XXX. We suggest that the pragmatist notion of ‘grammar’ is useful to articulate the normative macro-elements that motivate local actions and justifications, while phenomenology helps us to understand those as expressions of fundamental ways of relating to the world [less ▲]

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See detailAetiology and physiopathology of preeclampsia and related forms.
Lorquet, Sophie ULg; Pequeux, Christel ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2010), 65(4), 237-41

Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and oedema, resolves on placental delivery. Its pathogenesis is thought to be associated to a hypoxic placenta ... [more ▼]

Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and oedema, resolves on placental delivery. Its pathogenesis is thought to be associated to a hypoxic placenta. Placental hypoxia is responsible for the maternal vascular dysfunction via the increased placental release of anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble flt1 and endoglin. These soluble receptors bind VEGF, PLGF and TGFbeta1 and 3 in the maternal circulation, causing endothelial dysfunction in many maternal tissues. Despite these recent and important new molecular findings, it is important to consider that normal pregnancy is also characterized by systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and alterations in levels of angiogenic factors and vascular reactivity. Both the placenta and maternal vasculatures are major sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which can produce powerful pro-oxidants that covalently modify proteins and alter vascular function in preeclampsia. Finally, the recent demonstration of activating auto-antibodies to the Angiotensin 1 receptor that experimentally play a major pathogenic role in preeclampsia further indicates the pleiotropism of aetiologies of this condition. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical behavior of a ferritic stainless steel under simple and complex loading paths
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in International Conference on Structure and Architecture : ICSA2010, Guimaraes 21-23 July 2010 (2010)

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See detailMolecular requirements for ethanol differential allosteric modulation of glycine receptors based on selective Gbetagamma modulation.
Yevenes, Gonzalo E; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Avila, Ariel et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010), 285(39), 30203-13

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol ... [more ▼]

It is now believed that the allosteric modulation produced by ethanol in glycine receptors (GlyRs) depends on alcohol binding to discrete sites within the protein structure. Thus, the differential ethanol sensitivity of diverse GlyR isoforms and mutants was explained by the presence of specific residues in putative alcohol pockets. Here, we demonstrate that ethanol sensitivity in two ligand-gated ion receptor members, the GlyR adult alpha(1) and embryonic alpha(2) subunits, can be modified through selective mutations that rescued or impaired Gbetagamma modulation. Even though both isoforms were able to physically interact with Gbetagamma, only the alpha(1) GlyR was functionally modulated by Gbetagamma and pharmacological ethanol concentrations. Remarkably, the simultaneous switching of two transmembrane and a single extracellular residue in alpha(2) GlyRs was enough to generate GlyRs modulated by Gbetagamma and low ethanol concentrations. Interestingly, although we found that these TM residues were different to those in the alcohol binding site, the extracellular residue was recently implicated in conformational changes important to generate a pre-open-activated state that precedes ion channel gating. Thus, these results support the idea that the differential ethanol sensitivity of these two GlyR isoforms rests on conformational changes in transmembrane and extracellular residues within the ion channel structure rather than in differences in alcohol binding pockets. Our results describe the molecular basis for the differential ethanol sensitivity of two ligand-gated ion receptor members based on selective Gbetagamma modulation and provide a new mechanistic framework for allosteric modulations of abuse drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailImmanence et transcendance dans la lecture heideggérienne d'Anaximandre
Pieron, Julien ULg

in Klèsis (2010), 15

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See detailAnalyse expérimentale de l'influence des largeurs d'alvéoles sur la débitance des déversoirs en touches de piano
Machiels, Olivier ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Houille Blanche (2010), (2), 22-28

Within the framework of updating the release and storage capacities of existing reservoirs, the use of piano keys weirs (PKW) can be an interesting alternative either to increase the discharge of a free ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of updating the release and storage capacities of existing reservoirs, the use of piano keys weirs (PKW) can be an interesting alternative either to increase the discharge of a free weir without changing the weir layout or the reservoir level, or increase the reservoir level before discharge while keeping the weir layout and the level of safety. In order to help to the understanding of the behavior of this new type of weirs and to characterize their hydraulic potential, the results of an experimental study with for objectives to study the influence of the relative width of the inlets and outlets on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the structure are presented. A process oriented analytical formulation for the evaluation of the discharge coefficient of the PKW tested on scale models is proposed. It is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results and leads to an objective evaluation of the optimal ratio of the alveoli widths. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid modelling of dike-break induced flows
Roger, Sebastian; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Dittrich, Andreas; Koll, Katinka; Aberle, Jochen (Eds.) et al River Flow 2010 (2010)

In a hybrid approach experimental model data are combined with results from 3D and 2D numerical modelling. The latter was conducted by two different models solving the depth-averaged shallow water ... [more ▼]

In a hybrid approach experimental model data are combined with results from 3D and 2D numerical modelling. The latter was conducted by two different models solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations. 3D computations are based on the REYNOLDS-averaged NAVIER-STOKES equations (RANS) using a volume of fluid approach to capture the free water surface. Measurements were performed on a scale model which was especially designed to reproduce the specific conditions of dike breaks. In various simulations it turned out that 2D shallow water models are able to reproduce steadystate flow patterns of dike-break induced flows and that there is a low sensitivity of the solution concerning turbulence modelling, bed and wall roughness. Nevertheless, final flow splits and breach discharges are systematically underestimated. This discrepancy seems to result from inherent modelling assumptions such as zero-vertical velocity and hydrostatic pressure distribution. Therefore, the complementary use of 3D RANS and 2D depth-averaged modelling frameworks for detailed predictions of dike-break induced flows is discussed in the present paper, based on BOUSSINESQ and pressure coefficients, which represent effects of non-uniform velocity profiles and non-hydrostatic pressure distribution over water depth, respectively. Values of these coefficients are inferred from 3D numerical results for the final steady state. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual report 2010 of the IGCP-580 Project.
Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Whalen, Michael; Hladil, Jindrich et al

Report (2010)

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See detailWhen do faces capture attention? Evidence from eye movements
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2010), 39 Suppl.

A recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows the search for a butterfly target while a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face ... [more ▼]

A recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows the search for a butterfly target while a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face, suggesting that faces capture attention automatically (Langton et al, 2008 Cognition 107 330-342). To further test this hypothesis, we recorded eye movements during a cued target search task. When the search target alternated between a face and a butterfly (Experiment 1), faces were found faster and with less saccades than butterflies. The presence of the opposite distractor (eg a face during a search for a butterfly) slowed down the search but to a greater extent when the distractor was a face. Moreover, faces captured the eyes more frequently than butterflies. Inverted face targets were also found more efficiently than inverted butterfly targets and captured the eyes more than butterflies when presented as distractors (Experiment 2). However, when upright or inverted faces consistently appeared as irrelevant distractors during a butterfly or a flower target search (Experiment 3), they did not cause significant disruption. These results challenge the view that faces capture attention automatically and suggest that faces only attract attention when their processing is relevant during a search task. [less ▲]

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