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See detailLa déchéance d'un droit d'usufruit, d'usage, d'habitation ou d'emphytéose : causes et effets
Vanbrabant, Bernard ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2004), 1

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See detailThe effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis
Meunier, Pierre J.; Roux, Christian; Seeman, Ego et al

in New England Journal of Medicine (2004), 350(5), 459-468

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic structural damage and bone fragility result from reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption. In a phase 2 clinical trial, strontium ranelate, an orally active drug that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic structural damage and bone fragility result from reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption. In a phase 2 clinical trial, strontium ranelate, an orally active drug that dissociates bone remodeling by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption, has been shown to reduce the risk of vertebral fractures and to increase bone mineral density. METHODS: To evaluate the efficacy of strontium ranelate in preventing vertebral fractures in a phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1649 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (low bone mineral density) and at least one vertebral fracture to receive 2 g of oral strontium ranelate per day or placebo for three years. We gave calcium and vitamin D supplements to both groups before and during the study. Vertebral radiographs were obtained annually, and measurements of bone mineral density were performed every six months. RESULTS: New vertebral fractures occurred in fewer patients in the strontium ranelate group than in the placebo group, with a risk reduction of 49 percent in the first year of treatment and 41 percent during the three-year study period (relative risk, 0.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.73). Strontium ranelate increased bone mineral density at month 36 by 14.4 percent at the lumbar spine and 8.3 percent at the femoral neck (P<0.001 for both comparisons). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with strontium ranelate leads to early and sustained reductions in the risk of vertebral fractures. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement de la lecture chez les enfants trisomiques 21
Comblain, Annick ULg

Conference (2004, January 24)

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See detailLe bilinguisme précoce : implications sur l'acquisition de la langue maternelle orale et écrite
Comblain, Annick ULg

Conference (2004, January 24)

Apprendre à lire dans une langue n’interfère pas avec l’apprentissage de la lecture dans une autre langue mais prépare plutôt le terrain pour apprendre à lire dans une autre langue. Comme dans le langage ... [more ▼]

Apprendre à lire dans une langue n’interfère pas avec l’apprentissage de la lecture dans une autre langue mais prépare plutôt le terrain pour apprendre à lire dans une autre langue. Comme dans le langage oral, il peut y avoir quelques « mixing » de prononciation au niveau des mots qui disparaissent progressivement au fur et à mesure que les langues se compartimentalisent. Avec le temps, l’enfant apprendra également que des mots qui s’écrivent de la même manière dans les deux langues peuvent se prononcer de manière différente. Une recherche menée sur des enfants francophones Belges suivant un programme d’immersion scolaire en anglais et ayant appris à lire en anglais confirment ces observations. 150 enfants âgés de 7 à 12 ans fréquentant ce programme ont été testés sur leurs compétences en lecture du français (décodage et compréhension). Leurs performances (type et nombre d’erreurs, vitesse de lecture) ont été comparées à celles d’enfants francophones fréquentant un enseignement unilingue. Leurs habiletés métaphonologiques (manipulation de la rime et du phonème) ont également été testées. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention of violence in the sports area: social and educative measures
Comeron, Manuel ULg

Conference (2004, January 23)

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See detailTransparent exopolymer particles and dissolved organic carbon production by Emiliania huxleyi exposed to different CO2 concentrations: a mesocosm experiment
Engel, Anja; Delille, Bruno ULg; Jacquet, Stéphan et al

in Aquatic Microbial Ecology (2004), 34(1), 93-104

The role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for organic carbon partitioning under different CO2 conditions was examined during a mesocosm experiment with the ... [more ▼]

The role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for organic carbon partitioning under different CO2 conditions was examined during a mesocosm experiment with the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. We designed 9 outdoor enclosures (similar to11 m(3)) to simulate CO2 concentrations of estimated 'Year 2100' (similar to710 ppm CO2), 'present' (similar to410 ppm CO2) and 'glacial' (similar to190 ppm CO2) environments, and fertilized these with nitrate and phosphate to favor bloom development. Our results showed fundamentally different TEP and DOC dynamics during the bloom. In all mesocosms, TEP concentration increased after nutrient exhaustion and accumulated steadily until the end of the study. TEP concentration was closely related to the abundance of E. huxleyi and accounted for an increase in POC concentration of 35 +/- 2 % after the onset of nutrient limitation. The production of TEP normalized to the cell Abundance of E. huxleyi was highest in the Year 2100 treatment. In contrast, DOC concentration exhibited considerable short-term fluctuations throughout the study. In all mesocosms, DOC was neither related to the abundance of E. huxleyi nor to TEP concentration. A statistically significant effect of the CO2 treatment on DOC concentration was not determined. However, during the course of the bloom, DOC concentration increased in 2 of the 3 Year 2100 mesocosms and in 1 of the present mesocosms, but in none of the glacial mesocosms. It is suggested that the observed differences between TEP and DOC were determined by their different bioavailability and that a rapid response of the microbial food web may have obscured CO2 effects on DOC production by autotrophic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailL'influence de l'inné et de l'acquis sur le comportement alimentaire
Blecker, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2004, January 13)

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See detailEffects of geographic origin on growth and food intake in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) juveniles under intensive culture conditions
Mandiki, S. N. M.; Blanchard, G.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquaculture (2004), 229(1-4), 117-128

Survival, growth, and food intake of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles from different stocks originating from various geographic regions of Europe were compared under the same conditions of ... [more ▼]

Survival, growth, and food intake of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles from different stocks originating from various geographic regions of Europe were compared under the same conditions of laboratory-scale intensive culture. In Experiment 1, four stocks originating from Italy (1), southwest (SF) and northwest (NF) France, and Belgium (B) were examined at larval and early juvenile (initial body weight, IBW = 0.53 g) stages. In Experiment 2, B stock was compared to a Finnish (F) one in two trials, including small (IBW = 1.26 g) and large (IBW = 32 g) juveniles. In Experiment 3, small (IBW = 1.29 g) and large (IBW = 7.33 g) juveniles from Polish (P), F, and B stocks were examined. In Experiment 1, body weight means at hatching and survival at the end of the larval stage were significantly lower in the I and SF stocks than in the B and NF stocks. In the early juvenile stage, survival and growth rates were significantly lower in the I and SF stocks than in the B and NF ones. In Experiment 2, {early juvenile stage} survival in the F stock was significantly lower than in the B stock, partly due to a higher incidence of cannibalism. During this stage, growth rates and food intake or feed efficiency in the F and B stocks were comparable, but at the end of the juvenile stage, the F stock outperformed the B one. In Experiment 3, survival in all the three stocks was comparable both in small and large juveniles. In contrast to the higher performance of F juveniles in Experiment 2, growth rates were comparable between the B and F stocks, and fish from the P stock had the highest growth rates. The results indicate a high level of variation within and between hatchery stocks in survival rates, growth rates, and food intake. These variations depended on the geographic origin of the fish, with the lowest survival and growth potentials being in the stocks originating from the southern regions. These findings highlight the interest in evaluating growth and food consumption of different Eurasian perch stocks. Such evaluation is a necessary tool for genetic selection in improving performance in perch aquaculture. (C) 2004 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'édition à l'heure des trous noirs
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Acrimed (2004)

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See detailThe maximum deviation just-in-time scheduling problem
Brauner, Nadia; Crama, Yves ULg

in Discrete Applied Mathematics (2004), 134(1-3), 25-50

This note revisits the maximum deviation just-in-time (MDJIT) scheduling problem previously investigated by Steiner and Yeomans. Its main result is a set of algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions ... [more ▼]

This note revisits the maximum deviation just-in-time (MDJIT) scheduling problem previously investigated by Steiner and Yeomans. Its main result is a set of algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a MDJIT schedule with a given objective function value. These conditions are used to provide a finer analysis of the complexity of the MDJIT problem. The note also investigates various special cases of the MDJIT problem and suggests several questions for further investigation. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA new process for the synthesis of alkoxyamines active in controlled radical polymerization
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Gross, Thomas; Meyer, Rolf-Volker

Patent (2004)

The present invention relates to a new process for the preparation of alkoxyamine initiators and to a process of radical polymerization using the alkoxyamine initiators as intermediates.

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See detailOne-pot process for the preparation of functionalized alkoxyamines
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Gross, Thomas; Meyer, Rolf-Volker

Patent (2004)

The present invention relates to a new one-pot process for the preparation of functionalized alkoxyamine initiators of the formula (I) <CHEM> from amines of the formula (II) <CHEM> and to a process of ... [more ▼]

The present invention relates to a new one-pot process for the preparation of functionalized alkoxyamine initiators of the formula (I) <CHEM> from amines of the formula (II) <CHEM> and to a process of controlled radical polymerization using the functionalized alkoxyamine as initiators. In the above formulae, R<1>-R<5> have the meanings given in the description. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular basis of the amylose-like polymer formation catalyzed by Neisseria polysaccharea amylosucrase
Albenne, C.; Skov, L. K.; Mirza, O. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(1), 726-734

Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea is a remarkable transglucosidase from family 13 of the glycosidehydrolases that synthesizes an insoluble amylose-like polymer from sucrose in the absence of any ... [more ▼]

Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea is a remarkable transglucosidase from family 13 of the glycosidehydrolases that synthesizes an insoluble amylose-like polymer from sucrose in the absence of any primer. Amylosucrase shares strong structural similarities with alpha-amylases. Exactly how this enzyme catalyzes the formation of alpha-1,4-glucan and which structural features are involved in this unique functionality existing in family 13 are important questions still not fully answered. Here, we provide evidence that amylosucrase initializes polymer formation by releasing, through sucrose hydrolysis, a glucose molecule that is subsequently used as the first acceptor molecule. Maltooligosaccharides of increasing size were produced and successively elongated at their nonreducing ends until they reached a critical size and concentration, causing precipitation. The ability of amylosucrase to bind and to elongate maltooligosaccharides is notably due to the presence of key residues at the OB1 acceptor binding site that contribute strongly to the guidance ( Arg(415), subsite +4) and the correct positioning (Asp(394) and Arg(446), subsite +1) of acceptor molecules. On the other hand, Arg(226) (subsites +2/+3) limits the binding of maltooligosaccharides, resulting in the accumulation of small products (G to G3) in the medium. A remarkable mutant (R226A), activated by the products it forms, was generated. It yields twice as much insoluble glucan as the wild-type enzyme and leads to the production of lower quantities of by-products. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and evaluation of N1/C4-substituted beta-lactams as PPE and HLE inhibitors
Gérard, Stéphane; Galleni, Moreno ULg; Dive, Georges ULg et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2004), 12(1), 129-138

4-(Alkylamino)carbonyl-1-(alkoxy)carbonyl-2-azetidinones (9-11) have been prepared in five steps from 4-(benzyloxy)carbonyl-1-(t-butyidimethyl)silyl-2-azetidinone (1). The P-lactam reactivity of 9 has ... [more ▼]

4-(Alkylamino)carbonyl-1-(alkoxy)carbonyl-2-azetidinones (9-11) have been prepared in five steps from 4-(benzyloxy)carbonyl-1-(t-butyidimethyl)silyl-2-azetidinone (1). The P-lactam reactivity of 9 has been established by H-1 NMR experiment. Compound 11 was a good reversible inhibitor of PPE and HLE. Based on theoretical design, series of 2-azetidinones (12-17) and 4(alkoxy)carbonyl-2-azetidinones (18-21) bearing various carbonyl (ester, thiolester, amide) and thiocarbonyl (thioamide) functionalities at position N1 were similarly prepared. In the absence of C4-substituent, the compounds were inactive against elastases. On the other hand, 4-(benzyloxy)carbonyl-1-(ethylthioxy)carbonyl-2-azetidinone (19) and 4-(benzyloxy)carbonyl-1-(benzylamino)-thiocarbonyl-2-azetidinone (21) were both good reversible inhibitors, but acting most probably via different mechanisms (enzymic processing of the exocyclic ester function or beta-lactam ring opening). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailProcess for the synthesis for alkoxy amines and their use in controlled radical polymerization
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Gross, Thomas; Meyer, Rolf-Volker

Patent (2004)

A one-pot process for the preparation of alkoxyamines conforming to formulae (I) or (II), preferably (I) is disclosed. The process entails (1) reacting of an oxidizing agent (A) with a sterically hindered ... [more ▼]

A one-pot process for the preparation of alkoxyamines conforming to formulae (I) or (II), preferably (I) is disclosed. The process entails (1) reacting of an oxidizing agent (A) with a sterically hindered secondary amine of the general formula (III), in a water-containing medium to form a reaction product and an aqueous phase, (2) removing of the aqueous phase, and (3) (adding to the reaction product a free-radical initiator (B) under conditions that promote the decomposition of the initiator to generate free radicals. Also disclosed is a process for polymerizing monomers, the process using the alkoxyamine prepared by the inventive process. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical instability strips for delta Scuti and gamma Doradus stars
Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Grigahcène, A.; Garrido, R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 414

New theoretical instability strips for delta Sct and gamma Dor stars are presented. These results have been obtained taking into account the perturbation of the convective flux following the treatment of ... [more ▼]

New theoretical instability strips for delta Sct and gamma Dor stars are presented. These results have been obtained taking into account the perturbation of the convective flux following the treatment of Gabriel (\cite{Gabriel1996}). For the first time, the red edge of the delta Sct instability strip for non-radial modes is obtained. The influence of this time-dependent convection (TDC) on the driving of the gamma Dor gravity modes is investigated. The results obtained for different values of the mixing-length parameter alpha are compared for the gamma Dor models. A good agreement with observations is found for models with alpha between 1.8 and 2.0. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-adiabatic pulsations in delta Scuti stars
Moya, A.; Garrido, R.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Stellar Structure and Habitable Planet Finding (2004, January 01)

For delta Scuti stars, phase differences and amplitude ratios between the relative effective temperature variation and the relative radial displacement can be derived from multicolor photometric ... [more ▼]

For delta Scuti stars, phase differences and amplitude ratios between the relative effective temperature variation and the relative radial displacement can be derived from multicolor photometric observations. The same quantities can be also calculated from theoretical non-adiabatic pulsation models. We present here these theoretical results, which indicate that non-adiabatic quantities depend on the mixing length parameter alpha used to treat the convection in the standard Mixing Length Theory (MLT). This dependence can be used to test and to constrain, through multicolor observations, the way MLT describes convection in the outermost layers of the star. We will use the equilibrium models provided by the CESAM evolutionary code. The pulsational observables are calculated by using a non-adiabatic pulsation code developed by R. Garridon and A. Moya. In the evolutionary and pulsation codes, a complete reconstruction of the non-grey atmosphere (Kurucz models) is included. The interaction between pulsation and atmosphere, as described by Dupret et al. (2002), is also included in the code. [less ▲]

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See detailMutational analysis of the catalytic centre of the Citrobacter freundii AmpD N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase
Genereux, Catherine ULg; Dehareng, Dominique ULg; Devreese, Bart et al

in Biochemical Journal (2004), 377(Pt 1), 111-120

Citrobacter freundii AmpD is an intracellular 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase involved in both peptidoglycan recycling and beta-lactamase induction. AmpD exhibits a strict specificity for 1 ... [more ▼]

Citrobacter freundii AmpD is an intracellular 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase involved in both peptidoglycan recycling and beta-lactamase induction. AmpD exhibits a strict specificity for 1,6-anhydromuropeptides and requires zinc for enzymic activity. The AmpD three-dimensional structure exhibits a fold similar to that of another Zn2+ N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, the T7 lysozyme, and these two enzymes define a new family of Zn-amidases which can be related to the eukaryotic PGRP (peptidoglycan-recognition protein) domains. In an attempt to assign the different zinc ligands and to probe the catalytic mechanism of AmpD amidase, molecular modelling based on the NMR structure and site-directed mutagenesis were performed. Mutation of the two residues presumed to act as zinc ligands into alanine (H34A and D164A) yielded inactive proteins which had also lost their ability to bind zinc. By contrast, the active H154N mutant retained the capacity to bind the metal ion. Three other residues which could be involved in the AmpD catalytic mechanism have been mutated (Y63F, E116A, K162H and K162Q). The E116A mutant was inactive, but on the basis of the molecular modelling this residue is not directly involved in the catalytic mechanism, but rather in the binding of the zinc by contributing to the correct orientation of His-34. The K162H and K162Q mutants retained very low activity (0.7 and 0.2% of the wildtype activity respectively), whereas the Y63F mutant showed 16% of the wild-type activity. These three latter mutants exhibited a good affinity for Zn ions and the substituted residues are probably involved in the binding of the substrate. We also describe a new method for generating the N-acetylglucosaminyl-1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl-tripeptide AmpD substrate from purified peptidoglycan by the combined action of two hydrolytic enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailAdditional science potential for COROT
Weiss, W. W.; Aerts, C.; Aigrain, S. et al

in Favata, F.; Aigrain, S.; Wilson, A. (Eds.) Stellar Structure and Habitable Planet Finding (2004, January 01)

Space experiments which are aiming towards asteroseismology and the detection of exoplanets, like COROT or MOST, Eddington and Kepler, are designed to deliver high precision photometric data. Obviously ... [more ▼]

Space experiments which are aiming towards asteroseismology and the detection of exoplanets, like COROT or MOST, Eddington and Kepler, are designed to deliver high precision photometric data. Obviously, they can be used also for other purposes than the primary science goals and in addition many other targets can or will be automatically observed simultaneously with the primary targets. As a consequence, fascinating possibilities for additional (parallel, secondary) science projects emerge. For COROT a dedicated working group was thus established with the goal to contribute any useful information which may optimize the scientific output of the mission. [less ▲]

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