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See detailBlack British Literature
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Birch, Dinah (Ed.) The Oxford Companion to English Literature, seventh edition (2009)

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See detailDamage and functional recovery of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) inner ear hair cells following local injection of gentamicin
Faucher, Karine ULg; Aas-Hansen, Øyvind; Damsgård, Borge et al

in International Journal of Audiology (2009), 48(7), 456-464

This study addresses the ultrastructural and functional damage and subsequent recovery of the inner ear in the Atlantic cod following intrasaccular gentamicin injection. Inner ear damage was assessed ... [more ▼]

This study addresses the ultrastructural and functional damage and subsequent recovery of the inner ear in the Atlantic cod following intrasaccular gentamicin injection. Inner ear damage was assessed using SEM and measurements of AEP following 250-Hz pure-tone stimuli. Data from gentamicin-treated fish were compared with control (no injection) and sham (injection of saline) fish. Control fish had normal response thresholds associated with welldeveloped hair cell bundles in their macula sacculi. Sham fish had higher response thresholds compared with control fish during the first week post-intervention, but response thresholds were subsequently normal. Treated fish displayed significant inner ear damage associated with an increased average AEP threshold on the third day following treatment. Thereafter, inner ear tissue displayed signs of progressive regeneration until it was comparable to controls from the 14th day. Response thresholds were similar to those of control fish from the 17th day following treatment. These observations suggest that the macula sacculi of Atlantic cod can regenerate towards a near-complete functional and ultrastructural recovery within 17-21 days following ototoxic gentamicin treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailA rare-event approach to build security analysis tools when N-k (k > 1) analyses are needed (as they are in large-scale power systems)
Belmudes, Florence ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech (2009)

We consider the problem of performing N − k security analyses in large scale power systems. In such a context, the number of potentially dangerous N − k contingencies may become rapidly very large when k ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of performing N − k security analyses in large scale power systems. In such a context, the number of potentially dangerous N − k contingencies may become rapidly very large when k grows, and so running a security analysis for each one of them is often intractable. We assume in this paper that the number of dangerous N − k contingencies is very small with respect to the number of non-dangerous ones. Under this assumption, we suggest to use importance sampling techniques for identifying rare events in combinatorial search spaces. With such techniques, it is possible to identify dangerous contingencies by running security analyses for only a small number of events. A procedure relying on these techniques is proposed in this work for steady-state security analyses. This procedure has been evaluated on the IEEE 118 bus test system. The results show that it is indeed able to efficiently identify among a large set of contingencies some of the rare ones which are dangerous. [less ▲]

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See detailPolicy search with cross-entropy optimization of basis functions
Busoniu, Lucian; Ernst, Damien ULg; De Schutter, Bart et al

in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Adaptive Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning (ADPRL-09) (2009)

This paper introduces a novel algorithm for approximate policy search in continuous-state, discrete-action Markov decision processes (MDPs). Previous policy search approaches have typically used ad-hoc ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces a novel algorithm for approximate policy search in continuous-state, discrete-action Markov decision processes (MDPs). Previous policy search approaches have typically used ad-hoc parameterizations developed for specific MDPs. In contrast, the novel algorithm employs a flexible policy parameterization, suitable for solving general discrete-action MDPs. The algorithm looks for the best closed-loop policy that can be represented using a given number of basis functions, where a discrete action is assigned to each basis function. The locations and shapes of the basis functions are optimized, together with the action assignments. This allows a large class of policies to be represented. The optimization is carried out with the cross-entropy method and evaluates the policies by their empirical return from a representative set of initial states. We report simulation experiments in which the algorithm reliably obtains good policies with only a small number of basis functions, albeit at sizable computational costs. [less ▲]

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See detailReactions cutanees indesirables des traitements par anticorps monoclonaux.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(5-6), 339-46

A number of adverse skin reactions can occur during some treatments using monoclonal antibodies. Some of the reactions are specifically linked to the pharmacological effect of the drug. Others are the ... [more ▼]

A number of adverse skin reactions can occur during some treatments using monoclonal antibodies. Some of the reactions are specifically linked to the pharmacological effect of the drug. Others are the expression of more common drug reactions. Their early recognition and their adequate management are important to consider in order to avoid a morbidity severely altering the quality of life and even the life prognosis. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologies sociales de la communication
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Questions de Communication (2009), 15

La communication, dans sa généralité et dans la perspective des travaux récents de l'Ecole de Francfort, est généralement pensée comme solution à diverses pathologies sociales (isolement, malentendus ... [more ▼]

La communication, dans sa généralité et dans la perspective des travaux récents de l'Ecole de Francfort, est généralement pensée comme solution à diverses pathologies sociales (isolement, malentendus réciproques, aliénation, etc.). Le présent article l'envisage comme un vecteur de pathologies spécifiques : anomie, censure, propagande, production d'idéologèmes divers. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous formulation for bottom friction in free surface flows modelling
Machiels, Olivier ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in River Basin Management V (2009)

Bottom friction modelling is an important step in river flows computation with 1D or 2D solvers. It is usually performed using empirical laws established for uniform flow conditions or a modern approach ... [more ▼]

Bottom friction modelling is an important step in river flows computation with 1D or 2D solvers. It is usually performed using empirical laws established for uniform flow conditions or a modern approach based on turbulence analysis. Following the definition of the flow validity field of the main friction laws proposed in the literature, an original continuous formulation has been developed. It is suited to model river flows with a wide range of properties (water depth, discharge, roughness…). The efficiency of this new formulation, theoretically established and numerically adjusted, is demonstrated through various practical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomic aspect of emotional response in depressed patients: relationships with personality.
Mardaga, S.; Hansenne, Michel ULg

in Neurophysiologie Clinique = Clinical Neurophysiology (2009), 39(4-5), 209-16

STUDY AIM: Affective symptoms are major descriptors of depression; therefore, a lot of studies investigated emotional-responsiveness modulation in depression, and reported either a potentiation of ... [more ▼]

STUDY AIM: Affective symptoms are major descriptors of depression; therefore, a lot of studies investigated emotional-responsiveness modulation in depression, and reported either a potentiation of negative affects, a reduction of positive affects, or a reduction of both positive and negative affects. On the other hand, personality was classically found to be modulated in depression, with behavioral inhibition system (BIS)-related dimensions (namely harm avoidance (HA), neuroticism) showing higher scores in depressed subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between emotional responsiveness (as measured by skin conductance response [SCR]) and personality in depression. METHODS: SCR was recorded following the presentation of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures in 20 depressed subjects and 20 controls. RESULTS: Pleasant pictures elicited more and larger responses than unpleasant ones in control but not in depressed subjects. This effect was not modulated by personality. Moreover, depressed subjects were found to show generally faster half-recovery times and to rate emotional pictures as less arousing than control subjects and these effects disappeared when BIS-related dimensions were controlled. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BIS-related dimensions are independent from the specifically reduced responses to pleasant pictures, but are involved in the observed general affect reducing. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term glycaemic control with metformin– sulphonylurea–pioglitazone triple therapy in PROactive (PROactive 17)
Scheen, André ULg; Tan, M. H.; Betteridge, D. J. et al

in Diabetic Medicine : A Journal of the British Diabetic Association (2009), 26(10), 1033-1039

Aims We assessed the long-term glycaemic effects and the safety profile of triple therapy with the addition of pioglitazone vs. placebo in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with combined ... [more ▼]

Aims We assessed the long-term glycaemic effects and the safety profile of triple therapy with the addition of pioglitazone vs. placebo in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with combined metformin–sulphonylurea therapy in the PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events (PROactive). Methods In a post-hoc analysis, we identified patients treated with metformin plus sulphonylurea combination therapy and not receiving insulin at baseline (n = 1314). In those patients, we compared the effects of pioglitazone (force-titrated to 45 mg⁄ day, n = 654) vs. placebo (n = 660) on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction, concomitant changes in medications and initiation of permanent insulin use (defined as daily insulin use for a period of ‡ 90 days or ongoing use at death ⁄ final visit). Results Significantly greater reductions in HbA1c and greater proportions of patients with HbA1c at target were noted with pioglitazone vs, placebo, despite a decrease in the use of other oral glucose-lowering agents. Therewas an approximate twofold increase in progression to permanent insulin use in the placebo group vs. the pioglitazone group: 31.1 vs. 16.1%, respectively, when added to combination therapy. The overall safety of themetformin–sulphonylurea–pioglitazone triple therapy was good. Conclusions Intensifying an existing dual oral therapy regimen to a triple oral regimen by adding pioglitazone to the classical metformin–sulphonylurea combination resulted in sustained improvements in glycaemic control and reduced progression to insulin therapy. The advantages and disadvantages of adding pioglitazone instead of adding basal insulin should be assessed further. [less ▲]

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See detailThérapies biologiques et maladies inflammatoires chroniques intestinales
Reenaers, Catherine ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(5-6), 301-304

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See detailInsights into the Defense-Related Events Occuring in Plant Cells Following Perception of Surfactin-Type Lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis
Jourdan, Emmanuel ULg; Henry, Guillaume; Duby, F. et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [=MPMI] (2009), 22(4), 456-468

Multiple strains of Bacillus subtilis were demonstrated to stimulate plant defense responses, and cyclic lipopeptides may be involved in the elicitation of this induced systemic resistance phenomenon ... [more ▼]

Multiple strains of Bacillus subtilis were demonstrated to stimulate plant defense responses, and cyclic lipopeptides may be involved in the elicitation of this induced systemic resistance phenomenon. Here, we further investigated molecular events underlying the interaction between wuch lipopeptides and plant cells. Addition of surfactin but not fengycin or iturin in the micromolar range to tobacco cell suspensions induced defense-related early events such as extracellular medium alkalinization coupled with ion fluxes and reactive oxygen species production. Surfactin also stimulated the defense enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase and lipoxygenase and modified the pattern of phenolics produced by the elicited cells. The occurence of these surfactin-elicited early events is closely related to Ca2+ influx and dynamic changes in protein phosphorylation but is not associed with any marked phytotoxicity or adverse effect on the integrity and growth potential of the treated tobacco cells. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into short-chain prenyltransferases: structural features, evolutionary history and potential for selective inhibition.
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Cusson, M.

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2009), 66

Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1'-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate ... [more ▼]

Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1'-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) with an allylic acceptor, the first of which is dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)). The reactions leading to the production of geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)), which are the precursors of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes, respectively, are catalyzed by a group of highly conserved enzymes known as short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, or prenyltransferases. In recent years, the sequences of many new prenyltransferases have become available, including those of several plant and animal geranyl diphosphate synthases, revealing novel mechanisms of product chain-length selectivity and an intricate evolutionary path from a putative common ancestor. Finally, there is considerable interest in designing inhibitors specific to short-chain prenyltransferases, for the purpose of developing new drugs or pesticides that target the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailPréface à "Mot à Mot" de Henri Deleersnijder
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Deleersnijder, Henri (Ed.) Mot à Mot (2009)

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See detailCardiac Power Output during Dobutamine Stress
Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Mc Entee, Kathleen ULg; Deleuze, Stefan ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2009)

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See detailCe que causer veut dire
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Durand, Pascal (Ed.) Entre presse et littérature. Le Mousquetaire, journal de M. Alexandre Dumas (1853-1857) (2009)

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See detailEffects of oral contraception with ethinylestradiol and drospirenone on oxidative stress in women 18-35 years old.
De Groote, D.; PERRIER d'HAUTERIVE, Sophie ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Contraception (2009), 80(2), 187-93

Background Oral contraceptives (OCs) with estrogens and progestins may affect oxidative stress (OS) status. Study design A group of 32 women using oral contraceptives (OCU) containing 0.03 mg ... [more ▼]

Background Oral contraceptives (OCs) with estrogens and progestins may affect oxidative stress (OS) status. Study design A group of 32 women using oral contraceptives (OCU) containing 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone have been compared to a matched control group of 30 noncontraception users (NCU). Blood levels of antioxidants, trace elements and markers of lipid peroxidation were assessed by biochemical methods. A microarray analysis of whole blood mRNA levels of 200 genes involved in OS-dependant pathway was also performed. Results Levels of zinc, vitamin E and antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) were not significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, significant increases in the mean levels of lipid peroxides (+176%, p<.001), oxidized LDLs (+145%, p<.002), copper (+103%, p<.001), Cu/Zn ratio (+100%, p<.001) and a significant decrease in the mean level of β-carotene (−41%, p<.01) were observed in the OCU compared to NCU. There was a highly significant positive correlation between the lipid peroxide levels and the copper-to-zinc ratio. From the 200 genes tested by microarray, one coding for HSP70 was significantly up-regulated (log2 fold change=+ 0.45, p<.02) and one coding for inducible nitric oxide synthase significantly down-regulated (log2 fold change=−0.24, p<.05) in the OCU compared to the NCU. Conclusions The recently introduced combination of ethinylestradiol and drospirenone induced the heightening of lipid peroxidation correlated with high levels of copper, a situation that could be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 1. Accumulation patterns in harbour seals and harbour porpoises
Weijs, Liesbeth; Dirtu, Alin C; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2009), 157

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl ... [more ▼]

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and sum of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were 23.1 mg/g lipid weight (lw) and 0.33 mg/g lw in blubber of harbour seals (n ¼ 28) and 12.4 mg/g lw and 0.76 mg/g lw in blubber of harbour porpoises (n¼ 35), respectively. For both species, the highest PCB concentrations were observed in adult males indicating bioaccumulation. On the contrary, the highest PBDE concentrations were measured in juveniles, likely due to better-developed metabolic capacities with age in adults. A higher contribution of lower chlorinated and non-persistent congeners, such as CB 52, CB 95, CB 101, and CB 149, together with higher contributions of other PBDE congeners than BDE 47, indicated that harbour porpoises are unable to metabolize these compounds. Harbour seals showed a higher ability to metabolize PCBs and PBDEs. [less ▲]

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See detailSciences, technologies et société : Guide pratique en 250 questions
Wautelet, Michel; Duvivier, Damien; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Book published by De Boeck - 3e édition (2009)

Nous vivons incontestablement dans une société où les sciences et les technologies jouent un rôle essentiel. Étant donné le nombre grandissant de questions cruciales, possédant un ou plusieurs aspects ... [more ▼]

Nous vivons incontestablement dans une société où les sciences et les technologies jouent un rôle essentiel. Étant donné le nombre grandissant de questions cruciales, possédant un ou plusieurs aspects technoscientifiques, il est nécessaire que chacun puisse se faire une idée, personnelle, mais justifiée. Mais, entre le spécialiste, le technicien et le citoyen, une étape est généralement manquante. Lorsqu’on essaye d’en savoir plus sur une technologie donnée ou un problème scientifique complexe pour essayer d’effectuer des calculs d’ordres de grandeur, on trouve peu de données utiles. C’est le point de départ de cet ouvrage : associer des connaissances suffisantes de notions fondamentales de sciences à des données techniques afin d’en savoir plus sur une technologie donnée ou un problème scientifique complexe C’est donc au travers de 250 questions et réponses que le lecteur pourra appréhender des thématiques aussi diverses que le bâtiment, l’informatique, les énergies ou encore les transports. Ce livre s’adresse à plusieurs catégories de lecteurs. D’abord, au citoyen désireux de se faire une opinion sur certains thèmes à caractère technoscientifique. Au curieux aussi, qui veut savoir sur quoi reposent différentes technologies, quels sont leurs liens et implications avec la société. Aux enseignants, qui trouveront des données numériques, des formules de base pour illustrer leur cours de sciences. La volonté de cet ouvrage est de démontrer qu’il est possible d’appréhender des problèmes de société majeurs, à partir de notions scientifiques vues dans le secondaire. N’est-ce pas une voie à suivre pour recréer une dynamique nouvelle dans l’enseignement des sciences, et pour montrer aux enseignants et aux jeunes l’utilité des cours de sciences ? Ce livre s’adresse aussi à tous ceux qui ont mission d’informer le public. Ils trouveront ici des données, des raisonnements utiles pour, selon leurs propres sources, réévaluer certains chiffres officiels, analyser certains discours techniques ou politiques à l’aide de faits scientifiques et techniques. La plupart des réponses aux 250 questions qui suivent sont donc accessibles au plus grand nombre, ce qui fait de cet ouvrage un guide pratique à l’usage de tous ! [less ▲]

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See detailIs phonological short-term memory related to phonological analysis stages in auditory sentence processing?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Lorent, Julie

in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2009), 21

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See detailSerial order short-term memory capacities and specific language impairment: No evidence for a causal association
Majerus, Steve ULg; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Grossman, Aurélie et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2009), 45

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