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See detailExploration of the neural substrates of executive functioning by functional neuroimaging
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Hogge, Michaël; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Neuroscience (2006), 139(1), 209-221

This review presents neuroimaging studies that have explored the cerebral substrates of executive functioning. These studies have demonstrated that different executive functions not only recruit various ... [more ▼]

This review presents neuroimaging studies that have explored the cerebral substrates of executive functioning. These studies have demonstrated that different executive functions not only recruit various frontal areas but also depend upon posterior (mainly parietal) regions. These results are in accordance with the hypothesis that executive functioning relies on a distributed cerebral network that is not restricted to anterior cerebral areas. However, there exists an important heterogeneity in the cerebral areas associated with these different processes, and also between different tasks assessing the same process. Since these discrepant results could be due to the paradigms used (subtraction designs), recent results obtained with conjunction and interaction analyses are presented, which confirm the role of parietal areas in executive functioning and also demonstrate the existence of some specificity in the neural substrates of the executive processes of updating, shifting and inhibition. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies show that the activity in cerebral areas involved in executive tasks can be transient or sustained. Consequently, to better characterize the functional role of areas associated with executive functioning, it is important to take into account not only the localization of cerebral activity but also the temporal pattern of this activity. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation-curing binders and a process for their preparation
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg

Patent (2006)

The invention relates to a process for preparing binders which contain 1) allophanate groups, 2) groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic ... [more ▼]

The invention relates to a process for preparing binders which contain 1) allophanate groups, 2) groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups) and 3) optionally NCO-reactive groups, by reacting at temperatures <=130 DEG C. A) one or more NCO-functional compounds containing uretdione groups with B) one or more compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and groups that react with ethylenically unsaturated compounds with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), and then C) with one or more saturated, hydroxyl-containing compounds other than B), at least one of these compounds having an OH functionality of >=2, in the presence of D) a catalyst containing one or more zinc compounds, the reaction with compounds C) taking place at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups. The present invention also relates to the binders obtained by the pro cess of the invention. [less ▲]

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See detailExportations : oser se comparer
Nondonfaz, Robert ULg

Article for general public (2006)

L'analyse comparative des chiffres d'exporation devrait inciter les entreprises à plus de dynamique

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See detailDendritic cell differentiation and immune tolerance to insulin-related peptides in Igf2-deficient mice
Hansenne, Isabelle ULg; Renard-Charlet, C.; Greimers, Roland ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (2006), 176(8), 4651-4657

There is some evidence that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) may intervene in the control of T cell differentiation. To further study the immunoregulatory function of this growth factor, we analyzed ... [more ▼]

There is some evidence that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) may intervene in the control of T cell differentiation. To further study the immunoregulatory function of this growth factor, we analyzed the immune system of Igf2(-/-) mice. Phenotypically, some immunological parameters such as lymphoid organ morphology and cellularity were unaltered in Igf2(-/-) mice, but an increase of CD8(+) cells and a decrease of B220(+) cells were observed in spleen. In vitro, the development of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells was affected by the absence of Igf2 expression. After maturation, a higher percentage of immature dendritic cells was observed in Igf2(-/-) population, together with a secondary decrease in allogenic T cell proliferation. Activation of T cells was also affected by the lack of expression of this growth factor. The profile of B cell response in mutant mice immunized with IGF-2 evidenced a T-dependent profile of anti-IGF-2 Abs that was absent in Igf2(+/+) mice. The influence of IGF-2 upon tolerance to insulin was also assessed in this model, and this showed that IGF-2 also intervenes in tolerance to insulin. The presence of a T-dependent response in Igf2-deficient mice should allow cloning of specific "forbidden" T CD4(+) lymphocytes directed against IGF-2, as well as further investigation of their possible pathogenic properties against insulin family. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of procollagen amino-propeptide processing during mouse embryogenesis by specialization of homologous ADAMTS proteases: insights on collagen biosynthesis and dermatosparaxis
Le Goff, Carine; Somerville, Robert PT; Kesteloot, Frédéric ULg et al

in Development (2006), 133(8), 1587-1596

Mutations in ADAMTS2, a procollagen amino-propeptidase, cause severe skin fragility, designated as dermatosparaxis in animals, and a subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (dermatosparactic type or VIIC ... [more ▼]

Mutations in ADAMTS2, a procollagen amino-propeptidase, cause severe skin fragility, designated as dermatosparaxis in animals, and a subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (dermatosparactic type or VIIC) in humans. Not all collagen-rich tissues are affected to the same degree, which suggests compensation by the ADAMTS2 homologs ADAMTS3 and ADAMTS14. In situ hybridization of Adamts2, Adamts3 and Adamts14, and of the genes encoding the major. brillar collagens, Col1a1, Col2a1 and Col3a1, during mouse embryogenesis, demonstrated distinct tissue-specific, overlapping expression patterns of the protease and substrate genes. Adamts3, but not Adamts2 or Adamts14, was co-expressed with Col2a1 in cartilage throughout development, and with Col1a1 in bone and musculotendinous tissues. ADAMTS3 induced procollagen I processing in dermatosparactic. broblasts, suggesting a role in procollagen I processing during musculoskeletal development. Adamts2, but not Adamts3 or Adamts14, was co-expressed with Col3a1 in many tissues including the lungs and aorta, and Adamts2(-/-) mice showed widespread defects in procollagen III processing. Adamts2(-/-) mice had abnormal lungs, characterized by a decreased parenchymal density. However, the aorta and collagen fibrils in the aortic wall appeared normal. Although Adamts14 lacked developmental tissue-specific expression, it was co-expressed with Adamts2 in mature dermis, which possibly explains the presence of some processed skin procollagen in dermatosparaxis. The data show how evolutionarily related proteases with similar substrate preferences may have distinct biological roles owing to tissue specific gene expression, and provide insights into collagen biosynthesis and the pathobiology of dermatosparaxis. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation-curing binders and a process for their preparation
Weikard, Jan; Greszta-Franz, Dorota; Fischer, Wolfgang et al

Patent (2006)

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a process for preparing a binder which contains (1) an allophanate group, (2) a group that reacts with an ethylenically unsaturated compound with polymerization on ... [more ▼]

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a process for preparing a binder which contains (1) an allophanate group, (2) a group that reacts with an ethylenically unsaturated compound with polymerization on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing group) and (3) optionally an NCO-reactive group; and to provide the binder obtained by the process. ; SOLUTION: The process comprises reacting at a temperature <=130[deg.]C, (A) one or more NCO-functional compounds containing uretdione groups with (B) one or more compounds that contain isocyanate-reactive groups and radiation-curing groups and then (C) with one or more saturated hydroxy-containing compounds other than (B), at least one of these compounds having an OH functionality of >=2, in the presence of (D) a catalyst containing one or more zinc compounds, the reaction with compounds (C) taking place at least proportionally with the formation of allophanate groups. [less ▲]

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See detailLow viscosity allophanates containing actinically curable groups
Weikard, Jan; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Greszta-Frank, Dorota et al

Patent (2006)

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a process for producing a radiation-curing binder containing an allophanate group; and to provide the binder obtained by the process, and a coating composition containing ... [more ▼]

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a process for producing a radiation-curing binder containing an allophanate group; and to provide the binder obtained by the process, and a coating composition containing the binder. ; SOLUTION: The process comprises reacting at a temperature of <=130[deg.]C (A) one or more compounds containing uretdione groups with (B) one or more OH-functional compounds which contain groups which react, with polymerization, with ethylenically unsaturated compounds on exposure to actinic radiation (radiation-curing groups), (C) optionally NCO-reactive compounds other than (B) in the presence of (D) a catalyst containing at least one zinc compound to form allophanate groups by opening the uretdione ring. [less ▲]

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See detailWind tunnel protocol for spray drift assessment
stainier, Charles; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg et al

Conference (2006, April 11)

The objective of wind tunnel protocol is to measure spray drift in a reproducible way in order to evaluate the relative drift potential

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See detailDependence of the structure of core-shell-corona micelles on the composition of water/toluene mixtures
Lei, Liangcai; Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas ULg et al

in Polymer (2006), 47(8), 2723-2727

The poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethyleile oxide) triblock copolymer. PS200-b-P2VP(140)-b-PEO590, where the subscripts refer to the average degrees of polymerisation of the ... [more ▼]

The poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethyleile oxide) triblock copolymer. PS200-b-P2VP(140)-b-PEO590, where the subscripts refer to the average degrees of polymerisation of the constitutive blocks, has been dissolved in water/toluene mixtures with a large range of composition, i.e. in (i) toluene added with a small amount of water. (ii) water-in-toluene emulsion forming mixtures, (iii) toluene-in-water emulsion forming mixtures, and (iv) water added with a small amount of toluene. These Solutions have been cast on a carbon-coated copper grid, and the morphology of the dried copolymer deposition has been observed by transmission electron microscopy. Rod-like aggregates with a core-shell-corona micellar structure are formed in cases (i) and (iv). Nevertheless, PEO is the core and PS is the corona in case (i). whereas the reverse situation prevails in case (iv). When an emulsion is the precursor of the dried copolymer aggregates, either onion-like structures (case ii) or vesicles mixed with more complex aggregates are formed (case iii). These structures are thought to reflect the self-organization of the PS200-b- P2VP(140)-b-PEO590 copolymer at the water/toluene interface of the water-in-toluene and toluene-in-water emulsions. respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of fatty acid profile in cow milk by mid-infrared spectrometry
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Dardenne, Pierre; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

Poster (2006, April 03)

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See detailL'astronomie dans le monde
Manfroid, Jean ULg

Article for general public (2006)

Etoile artificielle pour Yepun; Météorite ferreuse; Comète 73P/Schassmann-Wachmann 3; Le méthane de Titan; HD 189733b; Super-Terres; La danse cosmique des galaxies distantes; Découverte du chaînon ... [more ▼]

Etoile artificielle pour Yepun; Météorite ferreuse; Comète 73P/Schassmann-Wachmann 3; Le méthane de Titan; HD 189733b; Super-Terres; La danse cosmique des galaxies distantes; Découverte du chaînon manquant dans le zoo des galaxies distantes; M82; Céphéides; Naines brunes en éclipse; Inflation comsique; Rivière d'étoiles [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the ultraviolet Io footprint emission and its control by Io's location
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2006), 111(A4),

[1] A total of 74 images of the ultraviolet footprint of the Io flux tube (IFT) on Jupiter's upper atmosphere made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope have ... [more ▼]

[1] A total of 74 images of the ultraviolet footprint of the Io flux tube (IFT) on Jupiter's upper atmosphere made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope have been analyzed to characterize their location, morphology, and brightness distribution. The observations cover a wide range of central meridian Jovian longitudes and Io orbital positions and include north and south footprint emissions. Comparing the location of the IFT with that expected from the VIP4 model of the Jovian magnetic field, we find that the lead angle is generally not significantly different from zero in the System III longitude sector 125 degrees - 195 degrees. Instead, the lead angles reach about 8 degrees in the 50 degrees sector, coinciding with a region of possible magnetic anomaly. We observe that the brightness of the main footprint shows intrinsic intensity changes that appear to be controlled by the system III longitude of Io and its position above or below the center of the torus. The size of the primary spot magnetically maps into a region varying from 1 to over 10 Io diameters in Io's orbital plane. Multiple footprints are observed with varying brightness relative to the mean spot. The number of spots is found to increase as Io gets closer to the torus outer edge facing the spots. The separation between the first and second spots is typically 1 degrees-3 degrees of longitude and increases when Io is displaced from the torus center in the direction of the IFT signature. These features confirm that Alfven waves play an important role and generate energization of precipitated electrons. However, the observed variation of the FUV spot structure with Io's position appears inconsistent with models where reflections of Alfven wings occur between the torus boundary and Jupiter's ionosphere. Instead, the multiple spots apparently correspond to electron precipitation generated by Alfven waves reflected inside the plasma torus. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-wavelength study of the gravitational lens system RXS J113155.4-123155. I. Multi-epoch optical and near infrared imaging
Sluse, Dominique ULg; Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Altieri, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2006), 449

Aims.RXS J113155.4-123155 (z=0.66) is a quadruply imaged lensed quasar with a resolved Einstein Ring. The goal of this paper is to provide a full characterization of this system, and more particularly ... [more ▼]

Aims.RXS J113155.4-123155 (z=0.66) is a quadruply imaged lensed quasar with a resolved Einstein Ring. The goal of this paper is to provide a full characterization of this system, and more particularly accurate astrometry and photometry. These observational constraints constitute a mandatory ingredient for the precise determination of the lens mass profile, the derivation of the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] from time delay measurements and investigations on the presence of massive substructures in the lensing galaxy.Methods.Visible and near-infrared imaging observations of RXS J113155.4-123155 were carried out at various epochs using several ground based telescopes and the HST. The frames have been deconvolved using the MCS algorithm. A Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid (SIE) + external shear has been used to model the lensing galaxy potential. Results. MCS deconvolution enables us to separate the flux of the QSO (point-like images) from that of its host galaxy and to accurately track the flux variations of the point-like images in various filters. The deconvolved frames unveil several multiply imaged structures in the Einstein ring and an unidentified object in the vicinity of the lensing galaxy. We discuss the lightcurves and the chromatic flux ratio variations and deduce that both intrinsic variability and microlensing took place during a span longer than one year. We demonstrate that microlensing may easily account for the so called anomalous flux ratios presented in the discovery paper. However, the observed flux ratios are still poorly reproduced when modeling the lens potential with a SIE+shear. We argue that this disagreement can hardly be explained by milli-lensing caused by substructures in the lensing galaxy. A solution proposed in Paper II consists in a more complex lens model including an octupole term to the lens gravitational potential. [less ▲]

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See detailEpilepsie chez des enfants infirmes moteurs-cérébraux
Peduzzi, M.; Defontaine, E.; Misson, Jean-Paul ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(4), 237-239

The incidence of epilepsy in 110 patients with cerebral palsy (the majority with spastic tetraplegia) was 46,4%. Almost half of the patients with spastic tetraplegia (45%) and hemiplegia (52%) had ... [more ▼]

The incidence of epilepsy in 110 patients with cerebral palsy (the majority with spastic tetraplegia) was 46,4%. Almost half of the patients with spastic tetraplegia (45%) and hemiplegia (52%) had epilepsy. The incidence was lower in patients with spastic diplegia (32%). Half of epilepsy in spastic hemiplegia were partial seizures and the other half consisted of generalized seizures, while generalized tonic-clonic episodes predominated in all other forms of C.P. A high incidence of West syndrome was observed in patients with spastic tetraplegia. Etiological factors of C.P. were perinatal in 75%. 16,65% had neonatal antecedents of convulsions; most of them had spastic tetraplegia (75%) and a significant mental retardation. A low intelligence quotient (I.Q.) was seen in most of the children with epilepsy, and patients with tetraplegia had significantly lower intelligence quotient than other groups. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Code Procedures for Seismic Assessment of Existing Buildings: Italian Seismic Code, EC8, ATC-40, FEMA356, FEMA440
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2006)

It is widely recognized that ground shaking may induce unacceptable levels of damage in existing buildings located in seismic regions. This vulnerability has been attributed to several reasons, such as ... [more ▼]

It is widely recognized that ground shaking may induce unacceptable levels of damage in existing buildings located in seismic regions. This vulnerability has been attributed to several reasons, such as insufficient strength and stiffness, poor detailing, irregularities in plan and elevation, domination of brittle failure modes over ductile ones, etc. On account of that, seismic assessment of existing buildings is adopted as a problem which needs specific treatment in building codes. The present study analyzes five codes for assessment of existing buildings: the Italian seismic code, EC8, FEMA356, ATC-40 and FEMA440. The analysis of each code is performed within a common theoretical frame. The code assumptions and simplifications are pointed out together with their possible inconsistencies and weaknesses. Comparisons between the different procedures are performed as well. The most important outcomes stress insufficiencies in the analysis procedures as well as in the criteria for choice of model dimension and analysis type, consideration of dynamic P-Δ effects, in non-linear modeling, shear resistance evaluation, and application of force-based procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailVingt cerises sur le gâteau
Habrand, Tanguy ULg

Article for general public (2006)

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See detailMolecular phylogeny of the Cricetinae subfamily based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes and the nuclear vWF gene
Neumann, K.; Michaux, Johan ULg; Lebedev, V. et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2006), 39(1), 135-148

Despite some popularity of hamsters as pets and laboratory animals there is no reliable phylogeny of the subfamily Cricetinae available so far. Contradicting views exist not only about the actual number ... [more ▼]

Despite some popularity of hamsters as pets and laboratory animals there is no reliable phylogeny of the subfamily Cricetinae available so far. Contradicting views exist not only about the actual number of species but also concerning the validity of several genera. We used partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA) and one partial nuclear gene (von Willebrand Factor exon 28) to provide a first gene tree of the Cricetinae based on 15 taxa comprising six genera: According to our data, Palaearctic hamsters fall into three distinct phylogenetic groups: Phodopits, Mesocricetus, and Cricetus-related species which evolved during the late Miocene about 7-12 MY ago. Surprisingly, the genus Phodopus, which was previously thought to have appeared during the Pleistocene, forms the oldest clade. The largest number of extant hamster genera is found in a group of Cricetus-related hamsters. The genus Cricetulus itself proved to be not truly monophyletic with Cricetulus migratorius appearing more closely related to Tscherskia, Cricetus, and Allocricetulus. We propose to place the species within a new monotypic genus. Molecular clock calculations are not always in line with the dating of fossil records. DNA based divergence time estimates as well as taxonomic relationships demand a reevaluation of morphological characters previously used to identify fossils and extant hamsters. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSeconde campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET de Happe- Chapois Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Denne, Pierre; Cobut, Pierre

Report (2006)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on the site of Happe-Chapois. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has used dynamic olfactometry to estimate the odour flux emitted by the tipping area, through a sample collected by a dynamic flux chamber. The report presents also a critical discussion about the advantages and limits of the field inspection technique. [less ▲]

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See detailFinancing of Women-Owned Ventures: The Impact of Gender and Other Owner- and Firm-Related Variables
Constantinidis, Christina ULg; Cornet, Annie ULg; Asandei, Simona

in Venture Capital (2006), 8(2), 133-157

While women-owned ventures represent an increasing proportion of new businesses in most western countries, most of them have particular financing patterns and encounter barriers in their access to ... [more ▼]

While women-owned ventures represent an increasing proportion of new businesses in most western countries, most of them have particular financing patterns and encounter barriers in their access to financing. Recent research on the question argues that barriers to financing are mainly dependent on factors other than gender, such as owner- and firm-related characteristics. This quantitative and qualitative study, through descriptive statistics and interview analysis, examines the relationship between financing patterns and barriers and gender from the woman entrepreneur’s viewpoint. It explores the behaviours and representations of women entrepreneurs towards financing, and considers to what extent the women see their own approaches as being different from those of men. Our study suggests that a gender effect still exists, and tries to identify its location and the corresponding implications for further research and action. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychrophilic microorganisms: challenges for life
D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Collins, T.; Marx, J. C. et al

in EMBO Reports (2006), 7(4), 385-389

The ability of psychrophiles to survive and proliferate at low temperatures implies that they have overcome key barriers inherent to permanently cold environments. These challenges include: reduced enzyme ... [more ▼]

The ability of psychrophiles to survive and proliferate at low temperatures implies that they have overcome key barriers inherent to permanently cold environments. These challenges include: reduced enzyme activity; decreased membrane fluidity; altered transport of nutrients and waste products; decreased rates of transcription, translation and cell division; protein cold- denaturation; inappropriate protein folding; and intracellular ice formation. Cold- adapted organisms have successfully evolved features, genotypic and/ or phenotypic, to surmount the negative effects of low temperatures and to enable growth in these extreme environments. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of these adaptations as gained from extensive biochemical and biophysical studies and also from genomics and proteomics. [less ▲]

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