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See detailDECONSTRUCTING LANDSCAPE IN THE MIND OF PEOPLE: AN EXPLORATION OF EVERYDAY AND WIND ENERGY LANDSCAPES
Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

In the 19th century, geography was defining itself as the science of landscape, led by German and French schools. Other disciplines were also interested in landscape, each one with its own definition(s ... [more ▼]

In the 19th century, geography was defining itself as the science of landscape, led by German and French schools. Other disciplines were also interested in landscape, each one with its own definition(s). In public policy, landscape has remained, for a long time, a heritage object to be protected (e.g. cultural landscapes of UNESCO). In 2000, the European Landscape Convention, which aims to safeguard the European landscape diversity, proposed a common definition. This includes the idea of areas perceived by people. One of the recommendations of the Convention is the call to focus on other landscapes that only heritage landscapes, such as everyday landscapes and degraded landscapes. The convention also calls for better management and planning practices towards landscape changes. Today, landscape is often invoked as arbitrator in territorial disputes. This is the case in discussions for the installation of wind farms. Newcomers and farmers ‘visions on landscape are often opposed: idyllic landscape for living and recreation for the firsts, working environment for the seconds. Despite the European Landscape Convention, many grey areas remain about how to achieve its goals. Long before it, leading researchers called for a better interest in everyday landscapes. Yet they remain the poor relation in landscape research, to the benefit of natural, wild landscapes. Many uncertainties also remain on how non-specialists perceive their ordinary landscapes and how they have appropriated the landscape concept. The research helps to fill this double gap, deconstructing the concept through the lens of ordinary landscape. With several research questions, I plan to explore what is the landscape in people’s mind, how they conceptualize it, how they think it and how they question their own views on landscape. I will show how these conceptualizations and thoughts are shaped by the living environment, which often provides the tools necessary to the apprehension of the landscape. I will analyse how new elements such as wind farm can disrupt these patterns. The first part of the research is dedicated to the overall perception of their ordinary landscapes by Belgians, especially facing the issue of wind energy. Using a photo-questionnaire survey, we surveyed a representative sample of the Belgian population (n = 1542). Based on this investigation a model was developed. It highlights the positive influence of forest cover and the lack of anthropogenic elements, but also the negative influence of its urbanization and too flat relief on landscape attractiveness. The influence of wind turbines has to be qualified according to the landscape in which they are implanted. In landscapes strongly marked by the human footprint, they seem perceived as increasing the landscape attractiveness. In unspoilt landscapes, they seem rather to contribute to their degradation. These global findings are nuanced in further research. Deeper analysis shows that Flemish people have a more positive view of the landscape than Walloons. I hypothesize a decisive influence of the local context. Indeed, Flemish landscapes are generally more urbanized and marked by man than most of the Walloon landscapes. The building of wind farms seems to change or even reverse the situation. The analysis also shows significant influences related to educational level and gender. Anthropogenic landscapes are less disregarded by low educated people. Women seem to attach importance to stewardship and landscape maintenance. In contrast, although suspected, age influence has not been formally demonstrated. The second part of this dissertation, the cornerstone of this doctoral research, aims at deconstructing the landscape concept in the mind of people. In this part, wind farms are no longer considered as a case study, but as a leitmotif. I deeper surveyed smaller groups (n = 54) in three areas of Wallonia (Walloon Picardy, between the Sambre and Meuse rivers, and Ardennes) with qualitative techniques. This survey was conducted five years after the first. The analysis of the vocabulary used by the regional sub-groups shows that people are not equipped the same way for analysing landscapes. The experience of living environment seems to be crucial in providing analytical keys. Thus Ardennes people seem better equipped to talk about the forest, marking their landscapes, while the Picards seem more loquacious about their iconic cultivated landscapes. The research also highlighted different landscape analysis patterns. Some people ordered landscapes according to their degree of naturalness, the less spoiled landscapes being the most attractive. On the contrary, fewer attach importance to landscapes where human footprint is clearly visible. Some respondents remain in a purely aesthetic landscape analysis, while others project themselves into the landscape, imagining they are performing different actions. Depending on their interests, these actions influence the perception of one same landscape. Research shows that this overall pattern analysis is disturbed by various factors. The recognition of certain places transformed landscape analysis in an analysis of the place, with the emotional changes that this entails. The position of the participants facing wind energy projects also appears sharper. In the time between the two parts of the research, Wallonia has experienced unprecedented wind development; opinions have therefore had time to form. This was not yet totally the case during the first survey. Beyond these major disruptions, the research also shows clear influences of the ordered character of landscapes, their living character and variety of land uses. The research also highlights the influence of non-visual criteria such as noise or odours detectable in the landscape. In conclusion, the research shows that respondents often show a sense of landscape, weaker than sense of place and stronger than aesthetic. [less ▲]

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See detailPalynology and palaeogeography of the middle Přídolí from Saudi Arabia
Steemans, Philippe ULg; Breuer, P.; Al-Hajri, S. et al

Conference (2016, October 27)

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See detailOccurrence and significance of minute palynomorphs of marine and non - marine origin in the Middle Ordovician from Saudi Arabia
Le Hérissé, A.; Guidat, C.; Not, F. et al

Conference (2016, October 27)

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See detailSilurian palynomorphs from the Precordillera basin, western Argentina: biostratigraphy and diversity trends
Garcia Muro, V.J.; Rubinstein, C.V.; Steemans, Philippe ULg

Poster (2016, October 27)

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See detailLes 10 ans d’Envol à l’école Saint-Pierre : La musique et le conte au centre des apprentissages et du vivre ensemble dans les classes
Gavray, Claire ULg

Conference (2016, October 27)

historique du projet, évaluation des apports et perspectives

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See detailNew features in SAFIR® 2016 - SWS 2016
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 27)

Presentation of the new capabilities and developments in the version 2016 of SAFIR, a non linear software dedicated to the analysis of the behaviour of structures in fire.

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See detailBollywood et les limites du soft power indien
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Telos (electronic journal) (2016)

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See detailL'Union européenne ou la désunion des valeurs
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg; Wildemeersch, Jonathan ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 27)

Cette intervention visait à introduire l'exposé des ministres hongrois Laszlo Trocsanyi et polonais Aleksander Stepkowski. Les auteurs adressent une série de questions en lien avec les évolutions ... [more ▼]

Cette intervention visait à introduire l'exposé des ministres hongrois Laszlo Trocsanyi et polonais Aleksander Stepkowski. Les auteurs adressent une série de questions en lien avec les évolutions politiques et juridiques que connaissent la Hongrie et la Pologne, tant sur le plan interne (réformes électorales, réformes des juridictions constitutionnelles, mises en cause de certaines droits fondamentaux) que dans leurs relations avec l'Union européenne. [less ▲]

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See detailDéfi climatique: l'état et le marché
Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detail6ème Cours de Mécanique Analytique II (2016-17), Bac3 phys, Master 1 Sc. Sp.
Surdej, Jean ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailEcoNum, a research unit devoted to marine environment monitoring
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Batigny, Antoine; Georges, Nadège et al

Conference (2016, October 27)

The monitoring of coastal environments remains a research domain of great interest and concern. Coastal ecosystems are threatened by natural and human-induced stressors and are, as transitional ... [more ▼]

The monitoring of coastal environments remains a research domain of great interest and concern. Coastal ecosystems are threatened by natural and human-induced stressors and are, as transitional environments, particularly sensitive to disturbances. EcoNum first research thematic revolves around hermatypic corals, calcifying organisms, and their adaptation potentials to environmental changes including by using original and patented chemostats. The studied organisms are grown and maintained in artificial mesocosms that simulate environmental conditions of a natural system. This infrastructure allows to perform long-term experiments, giving time to organisms to adapt to the tested conditions (e.g., increased temperature or lowered pH). Longer-term studies have demonstrated that many organisms are more resistant to environmental stressors than previously observed on the short-term. EcoNum also studies coastal plankton abundance and diversity. Plankton is particularly sensitive to physicochemical changes of water bodies. The classification and the enumeration of planktonic organisms require specialized tools in order to analyse time series of multiple samples. EcoNum has developed a software for the semi-automatic classification of planktonic organisms called Zoo/PhytoImage. This software has been used to study a 10-year time series of coastal Mediterranean zooplankton samples. The concomitant analysis of environmental parameters registered at high frequency with specific statistical tools such as the R package pastecs allows to understand the processes governing the changes observed in plankton assemblages. The use and the development of statistical tools in R (e.g., Zoo/Phytoimage, pastecs) is a priority of EcoNum to favour open access knowledge and reproductive sciences. EcoNum research topics also focus on coastal ecotoxicology. Chemicals, including trace elements, remain contaminants of concern, mainly in coastal environments that are the final sink of inland pollution sources. The chemical integrity of coastal ecosystems thus has to be accurately monitored. The partitioning of chemicals between their dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases does not provide information on their bioavailability. EcoNum thus monitors coastal waters using bioindicator species such as seagrasses, mussels or sand worms. A global map of the contamination of the Mediterranean by trace elements has been drawn using seagrasses has bioindicator species. EcoNum also studies trace element ecology and toxicology. For instance, it has demonstrated the toxicity of copper on the coral Seriatopora hystrix and it's symbiont's photosynthetic processes, or its bioaccumulation and basipetal translocation towards rhizomes in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica as reserve nutrient for subsequent leaf growth. Finally, coastal vegetated systems are potential carbon thinks (or sources) in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, EcoNum studies the primary productivity of seagrass meadows, from the individual to the community, with measuring techniques as diverse as PAM-fluorometry or biomass production determination. To conclude, EcoNum is a research unit devoted to marine environment monitoring. It develops research thematics on major coastal communities such as coral reefs, seagrass beds or plankton assemblages and studies their natural dynamics and the effects of stressors on their global functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailInterspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: a comparative analysis
Melotte, Geoffrey ULg; Vigouroux, Régis; Michel, Christian ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016)

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic ... [more ▼]

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in clade diversification. All piranha species showed the same kind of sound-producing mechanism: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding the bladder ventrally. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration and dictate the fundamental frequency. It results the calling features of the eight piranha species logically share many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of multiple continuous cycles. However, the sounds of Serrasalmus elongatus (higher number of cycles and high fundamental frequency) and S. manueli (long cycle periods and low fundamental frequency) are clearly distinguishable from the other species. The sonic mechanism being largely conserved throughout piranha evolution, acoustic communication can hardly be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process. However, sounds of some species are clearly distinguishable despite the short space for variations supporting the need for specific communication. Behavioural studies are needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during spawning events. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of rotational hardening rule on the behavior of clayey soils
Ahayan, Sanae ULg; Kotronis, Panagiotis; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, October 26)

Induced anisotropy is a constitutive feature of clays that can be numerically introduced through a proper "Rotational Hardening Rule" allowing the rotation of the yield and the potential plastic surfaces ... [more ▼]

Induced anisotropy is a constitutive feature of clays that can be numerically introduced through a proper "Rotational Hardening Rule" allowing the rotation of the yield and the potential plastic surfaces in the stress space. In this presentation, rotational hardening rule of yield surface for clays are first reviewed. Then, two typical rotational hardening rules are selected and compared through simulating drained triaxial tests of two Finnish clays. Furthermore, finite element simulations of a strip rigid footing considering different rotational hardening rules together with the case of isotropic yield surface without rotation are carried out in order to study the consequences of the isotropy assumption and the influence of the rotational hardening rule on the behavior of shallow foundation. [less ▲]

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See detailPlace de l'élevage bovin dans l'économie rurale des Peuls du Nord Bénin
Chabi Toko, Roukayath ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group mainly encountered in West Africa and usually raises cattle. In Benin, Fulani are predominantly met in the two eastern departments of the North where they lead an ... [more ▼]

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group mainly encountered in West Africa and usually raises cattle. In Benin, Fulani are predominantly met in the two eastern departments of the North where they lead an agro-pastoral way of life. In addition to livestock farming, they cultivate food and cash crops such as cotton. However, they hold majority of the country’s cattle population. The present study was initiated to understand to what extend cattle contributes to their rural economy. A stratified random sample of 150 heads of Fulani households, cattle farmers have been identified in Malanville, Banikoara and Kalalé districts in Borgou and Alibori departments. The criteria considered were: the agro-ecological zone, cattle population and the importance of Fulani population. The first series of surveys enable to characterize Fulani’s cattle farming system and their family farms. Among the 50 heads of households of Kalalé district (which has the more important Fulani community), 16 were selected and it is within their households that the study continued. The households selected were that with a better milk production. Surveys were then carried out during two years, both in dry season and rainy season to describe the Fulani’s household’s economy. The cattle stock composition showed a gender imbalance, with a preponderance of female stock (76%). Cattle herds which average size were 66 animals are made of 86% of Borgou breed. The herds have low breeding performance characterized by a high rate of calf mortality (10%) and low reproductive parameters: calving and fertility rates were 64%. The purchase of fodder in dry season, which concerns 17% of farmers, is a practice encountered in agroecological zones that register light rainfall. Fulani’s large households enable them to have enough family labor to carry out both livestock and agriculture activities. The land is mostly inherited and the average size for a household is about 10.5 ha. All Fulani households are crops producers of which majority (80%) is consumed. A significant part (45%) of them grow an average of 3.3 ha of cotton. In Fulani family farms, cattle represent 52% of the household livestock size; there is also small ruminants and poultry. This cattle permit to majority (76%) of Fulani households to have milk for sale. But milk is managed to favor household consumption and ensure the herd's reproduction. The organization around milk involves male and female. The profits from milk and cheese are distributed among the women of the household at various levels. Although the low (7%) cattle market rate, it contributes significantly (68%) to the household’s monetary income in rainy season and represents the second source (27%) of revenue in dry season. The 20% of food products are mainly sold in dry season and thus contribute to the majority (64%) of income sources. However, when rains started late and the delayed payment of cotton fees, the majority of Fulani households’ cash income in the rainy season, came from cotton (64%) and food products (23%). The growing involvement of Fulani cattle herders of northern Benin on the foodstuffs market and in cotton will lead to two types of farms with opposed production targets (those that will favor livestock and others agriculture). Fulani are a target population that should receive a little more support from authorities because enable them to value their resources would ensure availability and accessibility of food and pastoral products and contribute to the improvement of country’s agricultural production. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific interests in Autism with versus without speech onset delay : the importance of perceptually versus thematically organized interests
Chiodo, Liliane ULg; Eusèbe, Sandrine; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 25)

To explore whether autistic adults with versus without speech delay also differ in the perceptual vs thematic nature of their specific interests.

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See detailDes expériences vécues aux savoirs d'expérience : (in)former la santé et la maladie dans des associations de patients en Belgique francophone
Duysens, Fanny ULg

Conference (2016, October 25)

Le diagnostic médical d'une pathologie est un événement significatif dans les parcours de vie des patients et de leurs proches. Il vient catégoriser des symptômes, participer aux processus de (re ... [more ▼]

Le diagnostic médical d'une pathologie est un événement significatif dans les parcours de vie des patients et de leurs proches. Il vient catégoriser des symptômes, participer aux processus de (re)construction de soi, et induire des attitudes et comportements en vue d'intervenir activement sur les événements. Notamment, il correspond pour certains au moment de leur engagement au sein d'une association concernée par la pathologie ou le syndrome diagnostiqué en question. De telles associations de patients s'impliquent souvent dans diverses activités de production, de mobilisation et de circulation de connaissances sur les conditions et leurs causes. Ces modes d'activisme dits "basés sur la connaissance" (evidence-based activism) se caractérisent par une articulation étroite entre des connaissances issues d'expertise biomédicale et des connaissances expérientielles, issues des expériences vécues au quotidien par les patients et leurs proches, dont ils revendiquent la légitimité. S'inscrivant à la croisée des Science and Technology Studies et de l'anthropologie de la santé et de la maladie, la présente communication vise à explorer les dynamiques de cette articulation à partir d'une ethnographie multi-site menée auprès d'associations belges francophones concernées par des pathologies ou syndromes génétiques. Plus particulièrement, la communication s'intéresse à un projet d'information et de sensibilisation autour du trouble du spectre autistique (TSA) qui est développé par un groupe de parents concernés. Le TSA y est défini comme une condition complexe et multidimensionnelle, aux causes incertaines et controversées mais dont ils revendiquent la part déterminante de la génétique. Comment des "connaissances expérientielles" sont-elles produites, validées et mises en circulation dans le cadre de telles activités ? Au-delà de la simple information, les observations montrent qu'elles comportent des enjeux identitaires importants. [less ▲]

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See detailORBi : user friendly interface & services
Chalono, Dominique ULg; Dohogne, Cécile ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 25)

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See detailInventory routing for perishable products
Rezaei Sadrabadi, Mahmood ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

We explore three problems in this thesis and develop solution methods for each problem. First, an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands is considered and different ... [more ▼]

We explore three problems in this thesis and develop solution methods for each problem. First, an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands is considered and different approximate solution methods are developed to solve. Based on computational experiments, the solution methods are compared in terms of average profit, service level, and actual freshness. The impact of relevant parameters on the performance of the solution methods is investigated. Managerial insights are drawn by analyzing the impact of shelf life and store capacity on the profit. The value of considering uncertainty and the value of accessing full information are measured. The computational results highlight that a simple ordering policy can often replace a more sophisticated solution method, while preserving the same efficacy. Second, we introduce a vehicle routing problem (VRP) where a set of stores places deterministic orders to a logistics service provider (LSP) for two successive periods. Deliveries requested in each period can be shifted by the LSP to the other period, possibly with modified quantities. The LSP incurs a penalty for any diversion from the initial delivery period. The data regarding shifted delivery quantities and penalties are provided by the stores. From the perspective of the LSP, diversions could be beneficial if savings in the routing costs outweigh the penalties. In this work, we introduce a new two-period VRP model where the LSP seeks to improve its total cost, compared to solving two independent VRPs with fixed delivery periods, by allowing deliveries to be shifted. We solve this model to optimality by an efficient branch-and-price algorithm implementing several cutting-edge techniques. We draw algorithmic and managerial insights based on our test instances. Third, a two-period VRP is considered where the orders placed by stores for each period can be partially shifted to the other period, given that the sum of the delivery quantities in two periods to each customer is fixed. A linear penalization of delivery shifts is assumed based on the quantity shifted. We represent two mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulations for the problem. A column-row generation algorithm to solve the LP-relaxation of the first formulation is developed. To solve the LP-relaxation of the second formulation, we develop a column generation algorithm. Details of two label-setting algorithms to solve the pricing problems of the column-row generation and column generation algorithms are discussed. Numerical results can be compared with a similar model in which only full delivery shifts are allowed. [less ▲]

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See detailVelocimetry of superconducting vortices based on stroboscopic resonances
Jelic, Zeljko ULg; Milosevic, Milorad; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present ... [more ▼]

An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present work we introduce a method combining conventional transport measurements and a frequency-tuned flashing pinning potential to obtain reliable estimates of the vortex velocity. The proposed device is characterized using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism, where the velocimetry method exploits the resonances in mean vortex dissipation when temporal commensuration occurs between the vortex crossings and the flashing potential. We discuss the sensitivity of the proposed technique on applied current, temperature and heat diffusion, as well as the vortex core deformations during fast motion. [less ▲]

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