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See detailLa simulation thermo-aéraulique du bâtiment : Validation et développement d’une approche couplée CFD-Multizone pour l’étude de la modélisation du phénomène de surchauffe estivale en Belgique
Barbason, Mathieu ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

For decades, growing interests in environmental and buildings energy performance concerns lead architects and building engineers to develop new skills and to get used to advanced simulation tools. Among ... [more ▼]

For decades, growing interests in environmental and buildings energy performance concerns lead architects and building engineers to develop new skills and to get used to advanced simulation tools. Among them, Multizone models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are increasingly used to solve problems of building physics. This Thesis reports the development of a new and optimized tool based on the coupling of these two tools and its application to a typical Belgian two-storey house. Indeed, separately, these two tools have significant advantages and disadvantages : • Multizone models are based on the hypothesis that the temperature is uniform in every simulated zone which implies that they are not suited for large spaces. However, in small spaces, Multizone models generate accurate results in a small amount of time. • CFD models are very accurate, independently of the size of the room or the type of physical phenomena encountered. However, it is also well known that CFD simulation are time and resources consuming. Consequently, it is not possible to use it for a long term study. This Thesis will first introduce these approaches and discuss their validity field. In order to do this, a validation process has been developed to assess the ability of CFD to model accurately physical phenomena at different study scales. This Thesis will then discuss the coupling scheme developed in this study, based on experimental results of a two-storey house in Belgium. Different coupling level will be studied in order to understand deeply needs of such approach. Eventually, it will be shown that coupling approach can drastically improve overheating prediction for buildings even for a long term simulation. Thanks to this new tool, building actors may design optimized cooling strategies while maximizing occupants comfort. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit du travail congolais face à l'usage des technologies de l'information et de la communication: la problématique de nouveaux défis
Mbungu Tsende, Lievin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

La thèse s’intéresse, d’une part, aux bouleversements entraînés par les technologies de l’information et de la communication dans le monde du travail congolais et, d’autre part, aux solutions qu’ils ... [more ▼]

La thèse s’intéresse, d’une part, aux bouleversements entraînés par les technologies de l’information et de la communication dans le monde du travail congolais et, d’autre part, aux solutions qu’ils appellent compte tenu du contexte socioculturel, économique, psychologique et technologique propre à la R.D.Congo. Il s’agit d’une étude qui tend non seulement à démontrer que le contexte actuel, marqué par l’emprise irréversible des TIC sur les relations de travail, remet partiellement en cause le cadre juridique et le modèle classique ou traditionnel congolais de réglementation des rapports entre employeur et travailleur, mais aussi à proposer, de lege ferenda, les aménagements susceptibles de remédier à cette situation. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing XCO2 retrievals for assessing the long-term consistency of NDACC/FTIR data sets
Barthlott, S; Schneider, M; Hase, F et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8

Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many ... [more ▼]

Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these NDACC data records. Our XCO2 retrieval setup is kept simple so that it can easily be adopted for any NDACC/FTIR-like measurement made since the late 1950s. By a comparison to coincident TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements, we empirically demonstrate the useful quality of this suggested NDACC XCO2 product (empirically obtained scatter between TCCON and NDACC is about 4‰ for daily mean as well as monthly mean comparisons, and the bias is 25 ‰). Our XCO2 model is a simple regression model fitted to CarbonTracker results and the Mauna Loa CO2 in situ records. A comparison to TCCON data suggests an uncertainty of the model for monthly mean data of below 3 ‰. We apply the method to the NDACC/FTIR spectra that are used within the project MUSICA (multi-platform remote sensing of isotopologues for investigating the cycle of atmospheric water) and demonstrate that there is a good consistency for these globally representative set of spectra measured since 1996: the scatter between the modelled and measured XCO2 on a yearly time scale is only 3 ‰. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of past and future atmospheric circulation changes over the North Atlantic region with the help of an automatic circulation type classification
Belleflamme, Alexandre ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Future projections of the atmospheric circulation over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes, especially the North Atlantic, have high uncertainties and some of the projected changes are opposed to ... [more ▼]

Future projections of the atmospheric circulation over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes, especially the North Atlantic, have high uncertainties and some of the projected changes are opposed to circulation changes that have been observed since the 2000s. In this thesis, we focus on three particular aspects of the past and projected future summertime atmospheric circulation over the broader North Atlantic region. First, we analyse whether the 2007-2012 summertime anticyclonic anomaly over the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Greenland might rather be due to global warming or to the internal variability of the atmospheric circulation by putting it in perspective with the circulation variability over the last 150 years given by five reanalysis datasets. Then, this analysis is extended for the future circulation projected towards 2100 by CMIP3 and CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) over Greenland. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the uncertainties of the future atmospheric circulation projections on the mitigating or enhancing influence of the summertime circulation changes on temperature and precipitation over Europe. We use an automatic circulation type classification to analyse in detail the atmospheric circulation changes by grouping similar daily SLP (mean sea level pressure) or Z500 (500 hPa geopotential height) fields into homogeneous circulation types. It appears that the choice of the index, on the basis of which the days are grouped together, strongly influences the characteristics of the circulation types and the kinds of circulation changes that can be detected. In comparison with Euclidean distance and pressure gradient-based indices, correlation-based indices, especially the Spearman rank correlation, are the most suitable indices when focusing on the circulation pattern. Over the Arctic region, four periods with circulation anomalies similar to that of 2007-2012 (i.e. a summertime anticyclonic anomaly over the western Arctic region) have been detected over the last 150 years, despite a higher uncertainty of the circulation given by the reanalyses due to the scarcity of observational data before 1940. Nevertheless, the 2007-2012 anomaly appears to be exceptional and several connexions with other variables, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation index and sea ice loss, suggest that it could be part of a major climatic anomaly extending beyond the Arctic region. However, the occurrence of similar periods in the past and the influence of several external and internal forcings do not allow us to attribute it to global warming. The future summertime atmospheric circulation projected by GCMs over Greenland confirms this conclusion. In fact, no significant circulation pattern changes are simulated towards 2100, besides a generalised Z500 increase caused by the projected warming. Since GCMs are able to simulate atmospheric circulation changes over other regions and since the atmospheric circulation itself is influenced by other variables, such as sea ice or snow extent, which are already impacted by long-term changes, we conclude that the 2007-2012 anomaly could rather be attributed to the internal variability of the climatic system. Finally, we evidence that projected future atmospheric circulation changes impact on the SLP and precipitation changes simulated over Europe towards 2100 for summer. Over north-western Europe, these circulation changes could mitigate the SLP decrease by around 50 % and cancel out the precipitation increase. Nevertheless, high uncertainties among the GCMs on the magnitude and even on the sign of these changes cast doubt on the reliability of these projections. On the other hand, future atmospheric circulation changes are not projected to affect significantly the warming and drying simulated for the next decades over the Mediterranean region and eastern Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailFaut-il payer le train plus cher à l'heure de pointe ?
Gautier, Axel ULg

Article for general public (2015)

La semaine dernière, la presse faisait écho du projet de la SNCB d'introduire des tarifs plus élevés pour les voyages effectués à l'heure de pointe. Concrètement, celui qui prendrait le train dans les ... [more ▼]

La semaine dernière, la presse faisait écho du projet de la SNCB d'introduire des tarifs plus élevés pour les voyages effectués à l'heure de pointe. Concrètement, celui qui prendrait le train dans les tranches 6h-9h et 15h-18h paierait un supplément. La SNCB motive son projet par le fait que le prix actuel est un des plus faible d'Europe. La proposition a –comme on s'en doute- reçu un accueil glacial de la part des usagers du rail. Dans ce focus de Regards économiques, Axel Gautier livre les réflexions d'un économiste (qui est aussi navetteur) à propos de ce projet de la SNCB. [less ▲]

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See detailPast changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends
Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15(6), 8565--8608

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by ... [more ▼]

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC) maximised in the second half of the 1990s. We therefore examine the trends in the periods before and after that peak to see if any change in trend is discernible in the ozone record. Prior to 1998, trends in the upper stratosphere (~ 45 km, 4 hPa) are found to be −5 to −10% per decade at mid-latitudes and closer to −5% per decade in the tropics. No trends are found in the mid-stratosphere (28 km, 30 hPa). Negative trends are seen in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres and in the deep tropics. However it is hard to be categorical about the trends in the lower stratosphere for three reasons: (i) there are fewer measurements, (ii) the data quality is poorer, and (iii) the measurements in the 1990s are perturbed by aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991. These findings are similar to those reported previously even though the measurements for the two main satellite instruments (SBUV and SAGE II) and the ground-based Umkehr and ozonesonde stations have been revised. There is no sign of a continued negative trend in the upper stratosphere since 1998: instead there is a hint of an average positive trend of ~ 2% per decade in mid-latitudes and ~ 3% per decade in the tropics. The significance of these upward trends is investigated using different assumptions of the independence of the trend estimates found from different datasets. The averaged upward trends are significant if the trends derived from various datasets are assumed to be independent, but are generally not significant if the trends are not independent. This arises because many of the underlying measurement records are used in more than one merged dataset. At this point it is not possible to say which assumption is best. Including an estimate of the drift of the overall ozone observing system decreases the significance of the trends. The significance will become clearer as (i) more years are added to the observational record, (ii) further improvements are made to the historic ozone record (e.g. through algorithm development), and (iii) the data merging techniques are refined, particularly through a more rigorous treatment of uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailDispreferred structures through language change: the diachrony of affix ordering in Ancient Egyptian - Coptic
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, March 23)

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a ... [more ▼]

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a long-term diachronic macro-change from mixed suffixing-prefixing to an overwhel¬ming preference for prefixing. We argue that each of the micro-changes implicated in this macro-change are better understood in terms of regular changes at the level of individual constructions, via, e.g., grammaticalization, rather than in terms of a broad Sapirian ‘drift.’ Crucially, it is the particular constellation of structural features of the language at a particular moment in time, together with regular mechanisms of language change, that give rise to the cross-linguistically unusual ‘macro-preference’ of the language. [less ▲]

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See detailComment optimiser l’efficience de l’aide internationale, dans le domaine de la santé, en République Démocratique du Congo
Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Guillaume, Michèle ULg et al

in Santé Publique : Revue Multidisciplinaire pour la Recherche et l'Action (2015), 27(Janvier-Févier), 129-134

Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularly for the funding of general referral ... [more ▼]

Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularly for the funding of general referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones and funding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency of international aid for the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control of food chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significant funds to the fight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty of DRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use of generic drugs and generalization of micro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of tree species diversity in drought resistance of oak and beech sapling
Rahman, Md Masudur ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg

Scientific conference (2015, March 21)

Drier condition during the growing season have been predicted in the future. It has been suggested that diverse forest could maintain productivity and provide better ecosystem services under stress ... [more ▼]

Drier condition during the growing season have been predicted in the future. It has been suggested that diverse forest could maintain productivity and provide better ecosystem services under stress condition such as drought. However, those studies focused mainly on mature forest and little known about young forest. Oak and beech are the important species in European forestry, and may face a strong challenge in the future. Drought effects on young ( ̴5yr) oak and beech saplings in monoculture and mixed with other species are not known. Moreover, single studies evaluating both above- and below-ground ecosystem response to drought are scarce. A two-year manipulative field experiment has been planned to answer the following questions. (i) Can species mixtures improve oak and beech sapling performances under drought conditions? (ii) What are the mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning and sapling performance in mixed species stands subjected to drought? A 3m × 3m rainout shelter will be placed only in growing season in Zedelgem sites of FORBIO experimental platform (http://www.treedivbelgium.ugent.be/pl_forbio.html). Tree diversity vary from 1 to 4 species and about 50% of precipitation will be taken off. Both aboveground sapling performance and belowground microbial properties and biogeochemical processes will be investigated. We will present the design of the experimental tree species diversity plantation of Zedelgem site, the setting of the drought experiment and planned analysis [less ▲]

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See detailDommage psychique par répercussion chez l'enfant
Malchair, Alain ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

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See detailNueva visión en las relaciones médico-paciente, de la Prevención Cuaternaria a la Actitud Cuaternaria.
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

Conference (2015, March 21)

Allocution plénière finale du congrès de Montevideo de la Wonca CIMF Description du concept de prévention quaternaire. Annonce de la parution et présentation des auteurs du numéro spécial de la revue ... [more ▼]

Allocution plénière finale du congrès de Montevideo de la Wonca CIMF Description du concept de prévention quaternaire. Annonce de la parution et présentation des auteurs du numéro spécial de la revue Brésilienne de médecin de famille et communautaire (RBMFC) qui va paraitre incessamment sur ce thème. Annonce de la création par les représentants des associations de médecine de famille de 15 pays, au sein de la branche ibéro américaine de la Wonca (Wonca CIMF), d'un groupe d'intérêt sur la prévention quaternaire [less ▲]

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See detailImproving knowledge on Forest elephant’s ecophysiology (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) for better wildlife conservation
Ngama, Steeve ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg

Poster (2015, March 21)

Conservation of large wildlife species is currently a major issue in Africa. Protected areas dedicated for biodiversity conservation unfortunately do not suffice and conservation practices must be ... [more ▼]

Conservation of large wildlife species is currently a major issue in Africa. Protected areas dedicated for biodiversity conservation unfortunately do not suffice and conservation practices must be extended to man-used areas. But in those areas conservation actions are limited because of conflicts between human and wildlife especially due to damages on crops. The worst crop raiders known are elephants because they can destroy the yearly harvest of a field in a single visit. This threatens not only people livelihoods but also elephants themselves when angry farmers retaliate by shooting or trapping them. After decades of investigations crop raiding drivers related to elephants’ ecophysiology remain largely unknown. A pilot study was conducted between July and November 2014 in Monts de Cristal National Park (Gabon, central Africa) to have a first view on environmental drivers to crop raiding. While the presence of some fruiting trees around crop fields lead to more damages, high slopes discouraged elephants. In further experiments, the link between the nutritive value of raided plants and the animal’s physiological requirements and status will be assessed through hormones and parasites measurements; while tracking of individual elephants’ movements using DNA analyses in feces will be done. [less ▲]

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See detailSiltation and Pollution of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion and Runoff
Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur ULg; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore ULg

in International Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews (2015), 3(3), 206-212

In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount ... [more ▼]

In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount of material coming from plots cultivated in the Méloh Watershed. In a natural rocky-bottomed well measuring 0.90 m deep, 3 m long, and 2.5 m wide, for a period of three years we performed the collection, differentiation, and measurement of trapped sediment in the cultivated part of river that runs through the watershed. Both cultivated sides of the watershed had fairly regular slopes of 14% on one side and 17% on the other side. The material retrieved consisted of soil, plant residues, chemical packages, and plastic casing used for irrigation. During the years 2012 and 2013, farmers practiced both flatbed cultivation and ridging along the steepest slopes. These two methods of land preparation are inefficient in terms of water conservation, as evidenced by the collection of 10.429 t.ha-1 average total sediment per year during this period. Tied ridging cultivation method was experimented during the 2013 crop year and adopted on 75% of plots in 2014. We subsequently collected 3.586 t.ha-1 total sediment, a decrease of 65.61% compared to the average of previous years. The tied ridging cultivation method significantly reduced siltation of the Méloh River (p<0.05). This study showed that traditional agricultural practices are a principal cause of siltation and pollution of the Méloh River. By extrapolation, we can state that the problem must occur in almost all rivers in the study area with similar topography and agricultural practices [less ▲]

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See detailRessources secondaires et matériaux bio-sourcés pour une construction durable
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2015, March 20)

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See detailInternational Classification of Primary Care in a cross-lingual terminology portal
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Pizzanelli, Miguel; Grosjean, Julien et al

Poster (2015, March 20)

International Classification of Primary Care in a cross-lingual terminology portal M. Jamoulle1, M. Pizzanelli2, J. Grosjean 3 , G. Kerdelhué 3, SJ. Darmoni 3&4 1 Department of General practice, Liege ... [more ▼]

International Classification of Primary Care in a cross-lingual terminology portal M. Jamoulle1, M. Pizzanelli2, J. Grosjean 3 , G. Kerdelhué 3, SJ. Darmoni 3&4 1 Department of General practice, Liege University, Belgium 2 Unidad docente asistencial rural de Florida, Uruguay 3 Deparment of Biomedical Informatics, Rouen University Hospital, Normandy & TIBS, LITIS EA 4108, France 4 LIMICS, INSERM, U1142, Paris, France. ICPC is available in the HeTOP cross-lingual terminology portal (URL: www.hetop.eu) [1] in 19 languages, mostly European (e.g. Spanish, Portuguese) but also in Japanese or Mandarin. The HeTOP interface has been also translated in 10 languages, including by Wonca colleagues (in Turkish, Vietnamese and Romanian). This is very important for non-English speakers to access a health Web site in his/her native language. Thanks to a partial manual mapping between ICPC2 and MeSH, it is now also possible to query PubMed from 20% of ICPC2 codes. This task is time consuming as in lot of cases, the mapping is 1 to N (one ICPC code generates several MeSH terms; e.g. the ICPC term "diverticular disease" is mapped to two MeSH terms " diverticulosis, colonic" and " diverticulitis". HeTOP currently contains 56 health terminologies and ontologies (only 17 are included in UMLS as most of them are French terminologies), 1,951,834 concepts, 6,636,000 terms, 8,023,181 relations and 1,340,855 relations. Overall, HeTOP contains 108 millions of SPARQL triplets. These figures underlines the possible application of the so called "health big data". Overall, the number of distinct UMLS concepts with at least one French translation in UMLS (MeSH, MedDRA, WHOART, ICPC) is 45,405 vs. 317,539 in HeTOP. 1. Grosjean, J; Merabti, T; Griffon, N; Dahamna, B & Darmoni, SJ. Teaching medicine with a terminology/ontology portal. Stud Health Technol Inform 2012:180;949-53. [less ▲]

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See detailLE PROJET AGROMOB - Utilisation des matériaux bio-sourcés dans la construction
Grigoletto, Sophie ULg; Paul, Julien; Courard, Luc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Depuis une dizaine d'années, la construction à ossature bois représente un marché en plein essor. L'un des défauts de ce système constructif est son manque d'inertie thermique. Le projet Agromob a visé à ... [more ▼]

Depuis une dizaine d'années, la construction à ossature bois représente un marché en plein essor. L'un des défauts de ce système constructif est son manque d'inertie thermique. Le projet Agromob a visé à étudier la possibilité d'incorporer, dans la phase de préfabrication, une couche d'inertie fabriquée à partir de matériaux bio-sourcés à base d'argile et de quelques adjuvants. Le résultat est une haute capacité d'emmagasinement d'énergie par rapport à la surface et au volume utilisé dans le bâtiment. [less ▲]

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See detailRomanian Standards for Energy Performance in Buildings Translation of the Romanian Standards for Energy Performance in Buildings
Attia, Shady ULg; Ana Muresan, Adina

Report (2015)

This work is a part of the Master of Science Thesis written during the mobility organized by the Erasmus + Programme for exchange students at Universite de Liege, in Belgium (Université de Liège, Belgique ... [more ▼]

This work is a part of the Master of Science Thesis written during the mobility organized by the Erasmus + Programme for exchange students at Universite de Liege, in Belgium (Université de Liège, Belgique), which is in bilateral agreement with Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, in Romania (Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, România) available between 2014 – 2020. The audience of this technical report is civil engineers and specialists in building energy and it aims to inform about the content of the standards for building energy performance used in Romania. The report presents the essential information of the Romanian standards for building energy performance, such as the calculation of the global thermal insulation coefficient or the annual heating demand, along with some critical aspects regarding the efficiency of the standards and their alignment with the European requirements and regulations. The original content of the standards is found in the official language Romanian and is published in the special law publication from Romania named Monitorul Oficial al României. The legislative body that approved the publication of the Romanian energy performance standards C107 – 2005, Mc001 – 2006, C107/6-02 and C107-02, along with their annexes and modifications is the Ministry of Transport, Constructions and Tourism (Ministerul Transporturilor, Construc iilor i Turismului). The content of the standards was elaborated by the following Romanian institutions: The University of Architecture and Urban Planning “Ion Mincu” – Bucharest (Universitatea de Arhitectura i Urbanism ”Ion Mincu” – Bucure ti), The Institute for Research in Buildings and Building Economy – Bucharest (Institutul de Cercetari în Construc ii i Economia Construc iilor INCERC – Bucure ti), The Associastion of the Building Service Engineers from Romania (Asocia ia Inginerilor de Instala ii din România – AIIR) and The Technical University of Civil Engineering – Bucharest (Universitatea Tehnica de Construc ii – Bucure ti). [less ▲]

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