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See detailCambiamenti climatici e gestione dei rischi naturali
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December)

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See detailDe beklemtoning van samenstellingen in de tussentaal van Franstalige leerders van het Nederlands uit het immersie- en niet-immersieonderwijs
Bui-Anh, Vu ULg; Jouniaux, Anthony; Hiligsmann, Philippe et al

in n/f (2014), 12

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See detailTree species diversity effects on soil microbial biomass, diversity and activity across European forest types
Carnol, Monique ULg; Baeten, Lander; Bosman, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, December)

Increasing tree species diversity in forests might contribute to ecosystem-service maintenance, as well as to the reconciliation of regulating, provisioning and supporting services within the frame of ... [more ▼]

Increasing tree species diversity in forests might contribute to ecosystem-service maintenance, as well as to the reconciliation of regulating, provisioning and supporting services within the frame of multifunctional and sustainable forestry. Individual tree species influence biogeochemical cycling through element deposition (throughfall, litterfall), and through microbial activities in the soil. Yet, the influence of mixing tree species on these ecosystem processes is unclear, in particular concerning the microbial diversity and activity in soils. Here we synthesize results from the Exploratory Platform of the FunDivEUROPE project (http://www.fundiveurope.eu/). This network of 209 comparative plots covering a tree diversity gradient of 1 to 5 tree species was established in existing mature forests in 6 European regions. These six focal regions represent a gradient of major European forest types from boreal to Mediterranean forests. We analysed the impact of tree species diversity and the role of other controlling factors on the metabolic diversity of soil bacteria (BIOLOG Ecoplate), soil microbial biomass (fumigation-extraction) and potential nitrification (shaken soil slurry) in the forest floor and the upper organo-mineral soil horizon. Mean values of microbial biomass carbon ranged from 240 (Poland) to 1762 (Germany) mg kg-1 in the forest floor and from 4197 (Italy) to 11207 (Finland) mg kg-1 in the upper organo-mineral horizon. Tree diversity and soil water content were important controlling factors. Statistical models predict microbial biomass to increase in both horizons by 7-8% with each step increase in tree diversity. Metabolic diversity of soil bacteria (% of substrates used) showed high variability both within and between sites. Further results analysed with mixed linear models will be presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of tree species mixture on earthworm communities on a continental scale
De Wandeler, Hans; Baeten, Lander; Carnol, Monique ULg et al

Poster (2014, December)

The belowground food web represents a major part of associated biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and plays a significant role in the ecosystem processes of litter decomposition and nutrient turnover ... [more ▼]

The belowground food web represents a major part of associated biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and plays a significant role in the ecosystem processes of litter decomposition and nutrient turnover. Past research has demonstrated overwhelming evidence of strong tree species identity effects on earthworm communities. It has been proposed that increased plant community diversity would be beneficial to the abundance and diversity of the belowground food web, but effects of tree species diversity on earthworm communities have seldom been reported, and are inconclusive. In this study at continental scale we evaluated whether tree species diversity positively affects earthworm biomass and diversity. For this purpose the FunDivEUROPE Exploratory Platform was used with 209 plots in 6 regions well spread over Europe with a low within-region site variability, but a within-region tree species diversity gradient from monocultures to 3 or 4 species plots. In every plot earthworms were sampled using a combined method of mustard extraction and hand sorting of litter and a soil monolith. Data are being analysed with multivariate tools and mixed effects models. First results suggest only limited influence of tree diversity on the biomass of earthworm communities at continental scale. Tree diversity effects are weak, context specific and interacting with tree identity. In nutrient poor soils we found a negative tree diversity effect on earthworm biomass when deciduous monocultures are enriched with coniferous species, while in rich soils we found a positive tree diversity effect which could be related with the food security this provides to the earthworm community. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasi-loss of nationality - policy recommendations
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; de Groot, Gérard-René

Conference (2014, December)

This presentation gives a summary of the policy recommendations which were drafted in the framework of the ILEC project on loss of nationality (http://www.ilecproject.eu/). The recommendations pertain to ... [more ▼]

This presentation gives a summary of the policy recommendations which were drafted in the framework of the ILEC project on loss of nationality (http://www.ilecproject.eu/). The recommendations pertain to the situation of 'quasi-loss', i.e. the situation in which a person who was assumed to possed a nationality, learns that he/she never has possessed that nationality. The recommendations were presented in a policy brief (available at www.ceps.eu/node/9871). They will be included in Guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detailManifesto de Curitiba: pela Prevenção Quaternária e por uma Medicina sem conflitos de interesse
Silva, André Luiz da; Mangin, Derelie; Pizzanelli, Miguel et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2014), 9(33), 371-374

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See detailThe European Certificate of Succession
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December)

Cette présentation offre un aperçu des principes généraux qui gouvernent l'octroi et l'utilisation du certificat successoral européen tel que mis en place par le Règlement 650/2012 relatif aux successions.

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See detailExiste-t-il des phénomènes mentaux?
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg; Seron, Denis ULg

in Philosophie (2014), 124

This paper offers a critical discussion of the so-called argument from the transparency of experience. We recall of the argument against the historical background of phenomenal anti-dualism (Natorp, Wundt ... [more ▼]

This paper offers a critical discussion of the so-called argument from the transparency of experience. We recall of the argument against the historical background of phenomenal anti-dualism (Natorp, Wundt, Russell) and identify three difficulties of it. Eventually, we propose an alternative view, which we call phenomenological dualism. On the proposed view, there is a sense in which our mental states may be said to appear to us, hence there is a sense to say that there are mental phenomena. [less ▲]

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See detailSur les définitions de Dieu. Entretien avec Valère Novarina
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg; Novarina, Valère

in Littérature (2014)

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See detailThe influence of bioavailable copper and zinc concentrations on metallothionein levels, DNA damage and gene expression in the polychaete Nereis (Alitta) virens (M. Sars, 1835)
Pini, Jennifer; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Watson, Gordon

Poster (2014, December)

Nereis (Alitta) virens is an ecologically and commercially important polychaete of intertidal soft sediment and an ideal species to investigate long term effects of metals. Using a spike approach, worms ... [more ▼]

Nereis (Alitta) virens is an ecologically and commercially important polychaete of intertidal soft sediment and an ideal species to investigate long term effects of metals. Using a spike approach, worms (1-3 g) were incubated for nine months in sediments spiked at environmentally relevant concentrations of copper, zinc and copper & zinc together: low (copper: 70 mg kg-1, zinc: 200 mg kg-1), medium (copper 120 mg kg-1, zinc: 270 mg kg-1) and high (copper 575 mg kg-1, zinc: 1160 mg kg-1) concentrations. These concentrations were based on an extensive sampling regime of sediment, pore water and worms from seven sites with different levels of contamination across the UK. Worms were fed and maintained under ambient conditions in a flow-through seawater system and sampled at 3, 6 and 9 months. Using BCR sequential extraction, bioavailable metal concentrations in the sediment were assessed in addition to pore water and tissues metal concentrations. The induction of metallothionein (MT) activity, especially at month 6, revealed the detoxification potential of N. virens under metal stress conditions. Significant correlations were obtained between copper bioavailable concentrations in the sediment and MT levels at month 3 and between zinc bioavailable concentrations in the sediment and MT levels at month 6. The highest DNA damage was recorded at month 3 for high copper & zinc combined treatment with 36.44%. Significant correlations were obtained between sediment bioavailable metal concentrations and DNA damage. In addition, the study of metal induced gene expression will reveal for the first time metal regulation process in the polychaete N. virens. This study showed that (1) not only high copper was toxic to N. virens but high copper & zinc combined treatment was the most toxic to the worms and (2) MT and DNA damage were sensitive and reliable endpoints used to evaluate copper and zinc toxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailA physically motivated pixel-based model for background subtraction in 3D images
Braham, Marc ULg; Lejeune, Antoine ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D) (2014, December)

This paper proposes a new pixel-based background subtraction technique, applicable to range images, to detect motion. Our method exploits the physical meaning of depth information, which leads to an ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new pixel-based background subtraction technique, applicable to range images, to detect motion. Our method exploits the physical meaning of depth information, which leads to an improved background/foreground segmentation and the instantaneous suppression of ghosts that would appear on color images. In particular, our technique considers certain characteristics of depth measurements, such as failures for certain pixels or the non-uniformity of the spatial distribution of noise in range images, to build an improved pixel-based background model. Experiments show that incorporating specificities related to depth measurements allows us to propose a method whose performance is increased with respect to other state-of-the-art methods. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace element kinetics in caged Mytilus galloprovincialis
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Donnay, Annick et al

Poster (2014, December)

Trace elements (TEs) remain contaminants of concern because of their persistence, ability to concentrate in organisms and toxicity. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 is a ... [more ▼]

Trace elements (TEs) remain contaminants of concern because of their persistence, ability to concentrate in organisms and toxicity. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 is a relevant bioindicator of TE coastal contamination. However, little research has studied the combined influence of environmental condition changes and physiological processes on their kinetics in that species. Caged M. galloprovincialis were thus immerged in 2 contrasted pristine Corsican (France) coastal environments, the semi-enclosed Diane salty pond and the open Calvi Bay, from February to June 2011. Mussels were regularly sampled to study the kinetics of 19 TEs in their flesh; dissolved and particulate TEs were also monitored. The primary production and the water physico-chemical variables were measured, and meteorological data were purchased from Météo-France. TE kinetics in mussels differed between sites. Mussel spawning, a temperature and saline-induced physiological process that occurred about 10 days later in the Diane pond, was followed by a short time increase of TE levels in the mussel flesh. Mussel contamination also evolved according to changes of their respective environmental TE levels. Raining events temporary led, in the Diane pond, to the water enrichment with TEs, nutrients and detrital material, to peaks of primary production and to the increase of TE concentrations in the mussel flesh. This step by step evolution of TE levels in the environment and mussels was afterwards followed by a rapid return to initial conditions. In the open Calvi Bay, these fast and balanced kinetics were not so obvious, because of the rapid dilution of environmental constrain effects in the Bay. Mussels are often used as bioindicator in estuaries and coastal enclosed meadows with rapidly changing environmental conditions. In such conditions, the influence of the environment on TE kinetics in mussels must be considered, in addition to physiological processes, when monitoring the TE coastal contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of shading on meiofauna in a Posidonia oceanica meadow
Pete, Dorothée ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2014, December)

Posidonia oceanica meadow is an endemic ecosystem of the Mediterranean coasts. A known threat to this ecosystem is aquaculture. In zones of intensive fish production, P. oceanica meadow tends to be less ... [more ▼]

Posidonia oceanica meadow is an endemic ecosystem of the Mediterranean coasts. A known threat to this ecosystem is aquaculture. In zones of intensive fish production, P. oceanica meadow tends to be less healthy or to disappear .One of the reasons for this is a decrease in the light that reaches the leaves (direct shading, increase of water turbidity or of epiphytic algae density). Unfortunately, when the meadow begins to die, it is often too late to act. So, people are trying to find indicators that react early to this kind of perturbations. In this framework, this study focuses on the impact of shading (without nutrient enrichment) on the meiofauna living in the surface sediment of a P. oceanica meadow. An in situ shading experiment was led from the end of May to the end of August 2009, at a depth of 10 m, in a reference P. oceanica meadow. Three shading nets were put in the meadow to reach a light extinction of 50%. A control site was also defined. The first two centimetres of sampled sediment cores were studied. After three months of shading, the total abundance of meiofauna at the shading site was lower than at the beginning of the experiment, while it stayed around the same level at the control site. This difference is mainly due to a decrease in the total number of foraminiferans, nematods, gnathostomulids, copepods and bivalves. However, no significant difference in diversity was observed. At the end of this experiment, it appeared that, contrarily to what is mostly said in the literature, the direct organic enrichment that occurs at fish farms is not the only reason to the modification of the meiofauna communities of the ecosystem. The shading by itself has also an effect. [less ▲]

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See detailLettre d'information du projet Dacefi-Synthèse & réalisations majeures
Meunier, Quentin; Morin, Amélie; Moumbougou, Carl et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Cette dernière lettre d'information du projet présente le bilan de ses réalisations et les avancées importantes du Gabon en termes de foresterie communautaire

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See detailEvaluation of pairwise calibration techniques for range cameras and their ability to detect a misalignment
Lejeune, Antoine ULg; Grogna, David ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg et al

in International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D) (2014, December)

Many applications require the use of multiple cameras to cover a larger volume. In this paper, we evaluate several pair-wise calibration techniques dedicated to range cameras. We compare the precision of ... [more ▼]

Many applications require the use of multiple cameras to cover a larger volume. In this paper, we evaluate several pair-wise calibration techniques dedicated to range cameras. We compare the precision of a self-calibration technique based on the movement in front of the cameras to object based calibration. While the self-calibration method is less precise than its counterparts, it yields a first estimation of the transformation between the cameras and permits to detect when the cameras become mis-aligned. Therefore it is useful in a practical situations. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet DACEFI 2. Atlas cartographique. Présentation des outils d'analyse spatiale et d'aide à la décision.
Morin, Amélie; Meunier, Quentin; Federspiel, Michèle et al

Cartographic material (2014)

Faisant suite à une première phase (2006-2008), le projet pilote Développement d’Alternatives Communautaires à l’Exploitation Forestière Illégale (DACEFI-2, de 2010 à 2014) s’est employé à tester au Gabon ... [more ▼]

Faisant suite à une première phase (2006-2008), le projet pilote Développement d’Alternatives Communautaires à l’Exploitation Forestière Illégale (DACEFI-2, de 2010 à 2014) s’est employé à tester au Gabon la mise en oeuvre des forêts communautaires, promues par le code forestier gabonais en 2001 (loi n°016/01). Pour cela, le projet a appuyé les communautés rurales désireuses de gérer elles-mêmes une portion de forêt et les a accompagnées tout au long du processus de création d’une forêt communautaire. Ce processus, adapté dans la mesure du possible aux communautés rurales, est jalonné de multiples étapes et peut paraitre parfois long et fastidieux. Présentant des méthodologies d’action et des cartes, cet atlas a été développé à la fin des 5 années d’exécution dans l’idée de capitaliser la démarche adoptée par le projet pour aboutir à la délimitation d’une forêt communautaire. Il vient également synthétiser pour le lecteur les travaux cartographiques réalisés dans les villages et regroupements de villages, que le projet a appuyés tout au long de sa mise en oeuvre. Par ailleurs, la loi indique qu’une « forêt communautaire est une portion du Domaine Forestier Rural (DFR) affectée à une communauté villageoise ». Dans le contexte local, lors du projet DACEFI-2, l’absence de définition précise du DFR a poussé l’équipe à mener une étude complémentaire pour déterminer l’espace nécessaire et l’espace disponible pour la mise en place de forêts communautaires. Cet atlas est donc également l’occasion de présenter cette synthèse. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the CMS Higgs lepton-flavor violating
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Vicente, Avelino ULg

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2014), 90(11), 115004

Direct searches for lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays in the τ μ channel have been recently reported by the CMS collaboration. The results display a slight excess of signal events with a ... [more ▼]

Direct searches for lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays in the τ μ channel have been recently reported by the CMS collaboration. The results display a slight excess of signal events with a significance of 2.5σ, which translates into a branching ratio of about 1%. By interpreting these findings as a hint for beyond the standard model physics, we show that the Type-III 2HDM is capable of reproducing such signal while at the same time satisfying vacuum stability, perturbativity, electroweak precision data, measured Higgs standard decay modes and low-energy lepton flavor violating constraints. We have found that the allowed signal strength ranges for the bb, WW* and ZZ* standard channels shrink as soon as BR(h→τμ)∼ 1% is enforced. Thus, we point out that if the excess persists, improved measurements of these channels may be used to test our Type-III 2HDM scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailEcology of 20 trace elements in Mytilus galloprovincialis
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Lejeune, Pierre et al

Conference (2014, December)

Trace elements (TEs) are considered as non-degradable pollutants. This persistent character can alter their natural biogeochemical balance in contaminated environments. TEs are further toxic for aquatic ... [more ▼]

Trace elements (TEs) are considered as non-degradable pollutants. This persistent character can alter their natural biogeochemical balance in contaminated environments. TEs are further toxic for aquatic organisms from threshold levels and are thus likely to cause multiple damages to the population, the community and the ecosystem levels. For these reasons, their environmental occurrence has to be accurately monitored. The main interest of the use of quantitative sentinel organisms to this end, or bioindicator species, is their capacity to give information on the bioavailability of environmental contaminants. Mussels from the genus Mytilus are particularly well suited organisms for the monitoring of the coastal contamination. Native wild and cultured Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 have been widely used since around 40 years to this purpose along coasts of the eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. But the accurate use of a bioindicator relies on the detailed knowledge of its ecophysiology and the influence of environmental variables on the bioaccumulation processes. In the framework of the STARECAPMED project, the ecology of 20 TEs in M. galloprovincialis is therefore investigated. The mussel morphometry and biology firstly define the TE accumulation processes. Accumulated TE are internally regulated and redistributed between body compartments; these internal processes notably depend on the essential or non-essential character of TEs. As filter feeder, mussels accumulate soluble and suspended TEs whose environmental levels are determined by the geomorphology, the physico-chemistry and the hydrology of monitored coastal meadows. All these factors are acting together to modulate the TE accumulation processes in mussels. TE bioaccumulated levels further balance quickly when any physiological or environmental changes occur in order to reach a new steady-state with environmental TE loads. The ecology of TEs in M. galloprovincialis is thus complex and very dynamic; these considerations must be taken into account when monitoring the chemical contamination of coastal meadows. [less ▲]

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