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See detailBeyond the Line: Murray Bail's Spatial Poetics
Herbillon, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

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See detailBases histo-physio-anatomiques et propédeutique de l’appareil génital de la vache
Hanzen, Christian ULg

Learning material (2016)

Cours donné à l’attention des étudiant(e)s de 3ème année en médecine vétérinaire de l'Université Saad Dahlab de Blida (Algérie) à l'Institut des Sciences Vétérinaires le 20 janvier 2016.

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See detailLa justice pénale internationale à l'épreuve des droits humains : étude de la privation de liberté devant la Cour pénale internationale
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Entre instrument de protection des libertés fondamentales et menace à l'égard de ces mêmes libertés, l'activité pénale est un phénomène cerné de paradoxes. Les règles de protection des droits humains ont ... [more ▼]

Entre instrument de protection des libertés fondamentales et menace à l'égard de ces mêmes libertés, l'activité pénale est un phénomène cerné de paradoxes. Les règles de protection des droits humains ont notamment pour ambition de contenir ces paradoxes : en encadrant le pouvoir de contrainte que l'autorité répressive peut exercer sur les individus, ces normes essentielles doivent permettre de garantir une justice pénale qui demeure fidèle aux principes qu'elle entend défendre. Mais quelle peut bien être l'emprise des droits humains sur l'action du juge pénal international ? Dès lors que le droit international des droits de l'homme a été pensé et conçu pour circonscrire l'autorité des États, qu'en reste-t-il lorsqu'on cherche à l'appliquer – en particulier – à la Cour pénale internationale ? Dans quelle mesure et sur la base de quel(s) fondement(s) juridique(s) cet acteur répressif d'un genre nouveau est-il tenu au respect de règles auxquelles il n'a pas expressément souscrit ? Les spécificités de la justice pénale internationale – et, singulièrement, la gravité des crimes ayant favorisé son émergence – réclament-elles une adaptation du niveau de protection accordé aux suspects et accusés internationaux ? Quel accueil le Statut de la Cour pénale internationale et les règlements qui l'accompagnent réservent-ils aux standards pertinents, en particulier en matière de privation de liberté ? La jurisprudence de la Cour révèle-t-elle une pratique conforme à ces standards ? Le projet de recherche vise à apporter un éclairage sur l'ensemble de ces questions et, ainsi, à mettre la justice pénale internationale à l'épreuve des droits humains. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du potentiel des sous-produits vinicoles pour des applications à haute valeur ajoutée
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2016, January 19)

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are ... [more ▼]

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are limited to poor value added applications like composting, agricultural spreading or bioethanol. This work focuses on high value added valorisation possibilities of grape pomace. It takes part in the current trend of using natural bioactive molecules in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industry, through the extraction of polyphenols. Firstly, chemical characterization is performed on grape pomace from two grape varieties (Cabernet sauvignon and Pinot noir) in order to determine variability. Secondly, the same approach is applied to grape seeds and skins. Finally, a method of extraction of polyphenols is developed. Results shown in this work tend to indicate a high valorisation potential of grape pomace thank to the identification of compounds like bioactive molecules and especially polyphenols (0.7% in seeds and 0.4% in skins) as well as high concentrations of other compounds in seeds (lignin (43-53%), grape oil (12%), proteins (12%)) and in skins (lignin (20%), tartaric acid (4%), proteins (10%)) of which the valorisation potential from wine-making byproducts needs to be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailTradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate- Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios
Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(1): e0146360

Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i ... [more ▼]

Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over the long term. [less ▲]

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See detailLa médecine dans l’œil du cyclone
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Le spécialiste (2016)

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See detailFeasibility of improving a priori regional climate model estimates of Greenland ice sheet surface mass loss through assimilation of measured ice surface temperatures
Navari, M.; Margulis, S.A.; Bateni, S.M. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause ... [more ▼]

The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent changes and would help to better estimate the past, current and future contribution of the GrIS to sea level rise. Though the estimates of the GrIS surface mass fluxes have improved significantly over the last decade, there is still considerable disparity between the results from different methodologies (e.g., Rae et al., 2012; Vernon et al., 2013). The data assimilation approach can merge information from different methodologies in a consistent way to improve the GrIS surface mass fluxes. In this study, an ensemble batch smoother data assimilation approach was developed to assess the feasibility of generating a reanalysis estimate of the GrIS surface mass fluxes via integrating remotely sensed ice surface temperature measurements with a regional climate model (a priori) estimate. The performance of the proposed methodology for generating an improved posterior estimate was investigated within an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework using synthetically generated ice surface temperature measurements. The results showed that assimilation of ice surface temperature time series were able to overcome uncertainties in near-surface meteorological forcing variables that drive the GrIS surface processes. Our findings show that the proposed methodology is able to generate posterior reanalysis estimates of the surface mass fluxes that are in good agreement with the synthetic true estimates. The results also showed that the proposed data assimilation framework improves the root-mean-square error of the posterior estimates of runoff, sublimation/evaporation, surface condensation, and surface mass loss fluxes by 61, 64, 76, and 62 %, respectively, over the nominal a priori climate model estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of response surface methodology to optimize samples preparations in laboratory
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Romnee, Jean-Michel; Lognay, Georges ULg

Conference (2016, January 17)

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See detailMy First Fifty Tweets
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2016)

“Sharing” is not as simple as it sounds. Over the last few years, at the University of Liège (Belgium), we have been surprised and delighted by the resounding success of Orbi, our Open Repository and ... [more ▼]

“Sharing” is not as simple as it sounds. Over the last few years, at the University of Liège (Belgium), we have been surprised and delighted by the resounding success of Orbi, our Open Repository and Bibliography platform. As a “young” Professor Emeritus – don’t smile, sooner than you think, you will retire too! –, I wondered how to best share what I had learned – and am still learning today –, in my field of research and interest: “Internet-Based Global Investing”. I think that I finally found a solution. It’s called Twitter. And even if it’s not perfect, I have learned the hard way to make decisions that were approximately right, rather than precisely wrong! [less ▲]

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See detailBiomarqueurs dans l'arthrose et acide hyaluronique
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Conference (2016, January 16)

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See detailL'univers QGIS - Illustration présentant l'organisation globale des principaux constituants et fonctionnalités de QGIS 2.12
Denis, Antoine ULg

Learning material (2016)

Illustration présentant l'organisation globale des principaux constituants et fonctionnalités de QGIS 2.12.

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See detailQGIS Universe - Illustration presenting the global organisation of QGIS 2.12 main components and functionalities
Denis, Antoine ULg

Learning material (2016)

Illustration presenting the global organisation of QGIS 2.12 main components and functionalities

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See detailTranscriptome-wide distribution and function of RNA hydroxymethylcytosine
Delatte, Benjamin; Wang, F; Ngoc, LV et al

in Science (2016), 351(6270), 282-285

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the ... [more ▼]

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the transcriptome-wide hydroxymethylation landscape, revealing hydroxymethylcytosine in the transcripts of many genes, notably in coding sequences, and identify consensus sites for hydroxymethylation. We found that RNA hydroxymethylation can favor mRNA translation. Tet and hydroxymethylated RNA are found to be most abundant in the Drosophila brain, and Tet-deficient fruitflies suffer impaired brain development, accompanied by decreased RNA hydroxymethylation. This study highlights the distribution, localization, and function of cytosine hydroxymethylation and identifies central roles for this modification in Drosophila. [less ▲]

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See detailInitiation à QGIS - Travaux pratiques sur les Systèmes d'Information Géographique - SIG
Denis, Antoine ULg

Learning material (2016)

This manual (in French) is an introduction to QGIS with data needed provided. It is freely available here: http://hdl.handle.net/2268/190559 Objectives of this manual are: 1. To give you a global view and ... [more ▼]

This manual (in French) is an introduction to QGIS with data needed provided. It is freely available here: http://hdl.handle.net/2268/190559 Objectives of this manual are: 1. To give you a global view and understanding of what a GIS is and what it is useful for 2. To introduce you to manipulation and processing of geographic data with the free QGIS software The vast majority of this manual is composed of exercises contextualized on the thematic of developing countries, environment management, and natural risk management. [less ▲]

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See detailStimuli-responsive self-assembled macromolecular systems with potential drug delivery applications: structural characterization by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering
Joset, Arnaud ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Colloids are known since the early 19th century but they have mainly sparked interest since the last few decades thanks to their use in biomedical applications or in the design of new materials. The aim ... [more ▼]

Colloids are known since the early 19th century but they have mainly sparked interest since the last few decades thanks to their use in biomedical applications or in the design of new materials. The aim of this thesis is the study of stimuli-responsive colloids by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). The stimuli may be the pH, the temperature, the addition of a ligand or of metallic ions or a combination of them. SANS is a useful technique which provides information about the internal structure of nano-objects but also, if appropriate conditions are met, about the organization of the objects in solution. Several samples built from the auto-assembly of block copolymers and liposomes have been prepared. The macroscopic cross sections have been modeled with the aim to infer the main structural parameters of the samples: the global size, the polydispersity, the structure and volume occupied by the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components inside the nano-objects. The SANS measurements have been performed as a function of the intensity of the stimulus, in order to quantify the evolution of the structural parameters. The first experimental part focuses on micellar samples built from sequenced block copolymers. The blocks may be biodegradable (e.g., poly(ε-caprolactone)), biocompatible (e.g., poly(ethylene oxide)), pH-sensitive (e.g., poly(2 vinylpyridine), poly(acrylic acid)) or temperature-sensitive (e.g., poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)). The influence of the concentration and the formation of bridges between micelles have been investigated through the analysis of metallo-supramolecular micellar gels resulting from the self-assembling of polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butylacrylate) PS-b-PtBA-tpy (tpy stands for terpyridine) block copolymers in the presence of transition metal ions. The second part focuses on the analysis of liposomes interacting with an increasing concentration of Randomly Methylated β-cyclodextrins (RAMEB). This part is divided into two chapters. The first one deals with liposomes mainly composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the second one investigates the effects of cholesterol doping on the same DMPC liposomes interacting with RAMEB. [less ▲]

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See detailLa disponibilité et le prix du foncier à vocation économique: quel impact sur le développement économique en Wallonie?
Vandermeer, Marie-Caroline ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This doctoral dissertation concerns the policy of land production related to economic land in Wallonia. This policy corresponds to the development of economic estates by public authorities, through ... [more ▼]

This doctoral dissertation concerns the policy of land production related to economic land in Wallonia. This policy corresponds to the development of economic estates by public authorities, through economic development agencies, to accommodate businesses. It is based on the argument according to which the availability of land – cheap if possible – is an essential factor in territorial attractiveness and competitiveness. The reflections presented in this dissertation originate from the discrepancy between this argument and the scientific literature devoted to regional development. Indeed, unlike elected representatives and economic development agencies, scholars active in the field of regional sciences only very rarely refer to the impact of the land markets on levels of development. Rather than focusing on the theme of land prices and land availability, regional scientists underline the importance of intangible factors such as innovation, education, integration into networks, territorial identity, strategic management or governance. In view of this difference, it seems appropriate to assess the spatial and economic effectiveness of the Walloon policy of land production. To do this, our wish is to objectify the real role of the availability and the price of economic land on territorial development. The first part of the dissertation develops a reflection on the literature dedicated to the relationships between land and property markets and regional development. It leads to highlight the need to develop knowledge on the impact of land and property markets on business competitiveness, regional attractiveness and economic development. The second part is devoted to the study of the availability of economic land and aims to assess the spatial effectiveness and the economic effectiveness of policies which offer an important quantity of economic land. To do this, statistical analyses were conducted on two study areas: the Northwest Europe and Belgium. As regards spatial effectiveness, the results underline significant national differentials in terms of land consumption on the one hand, while highlighting the economic sprawl that characterises France and Belgium on the other hand. As regards economic effectiveness, our results show that the impact of the development of economic estates on growth depends largely on regional contexts. Our analyses identified three regional profiles. First, urban regions, where land availability only plays a marginal role, most likely owing to the presence of numerous activities that are not very extensive spatially, yet very productive in terms of added value. Secondly, intermediate regions, where the availability of economic land has a real impact on development. However, it would appear that the profile of these regions is adapted to the presence of activities which, like logistics, generate a limited amount of jobs and added value per surface unit. Thirdly, rural regions, where the opening of land to urbanisation does not deliver the desired results. In these regions, the availability of land is not a sufficient condition for economic growth and job creation. However, we have to precise that the Belgian rural regions are rather similar to intermediate regions, probably thanks to their good connectivity. The third part concerns the study of the economic land prices. It tends to assess the impact of these prices on company property costs. The developed statistical analysis is based on annual accounts of companies with one reporting unit localised in Walloon economic estates. Results suggest that property costs are rather low. On average, they represent 1.4% of all their operational costs and 5.4% of their added-values. By contrast, labour costs are eight times higher. In addition, our analyses suggest that an increase in land prices would have a limited impact on property costs. These results tend to invalidate the hypothesis that low land prices are a key determinant of regional development. Although, property costs are highly dependent on the business sector and the size of firms. For instance, for logistic companies and small firms, property costs represent more than 10% of their added-values and 2% to 5% of their operational costs. These results tend to highlight the fact that high land prices can have a negative impact on the development of these companies. As a final point, our conclusion discusses the recommendation that economic land supply policies must be adapted according to both, the profile of the territories and the profile of the firms. Indeed, in urban regions, land supply policies aiming to supply an important land supply at low price is probably inefficient from an economic standpoint. By contrast, economic development can be expected in intermediate regions with active land policies dedicated to land-intensive activities. Moreover, a specific attention should be paid to small companies. [less ▲]

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See detailQuel outil d’entrainement pour des étudiants en médecine évalués par QCM en physique ?
Marique, Pierre-Xavier ULg; Van de Poël, Jean-François ULg; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg

Conference (2016, January 14)

La réforme des études de médecine mise en application dès la rentrée académique de septembre 2012 en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles a introduit une liste abondante de prérequis dans les cours dits de « ... [more ▼]

La réforme des études de médecine mise en application dès la rentrée académique de septembre 2012 en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles a introduit une liste abondante de prérequis dans les cours dits de « sciences fondamentales » (physique, chimie, biologie) et favorisé l’évaluation sous forme de questions à choix multiples en première année de bachelier. Or, les étudiants sortant de l’enseignement secondaire maitrisent rarement, pour de multiples raisons, l’ensemble des prérequis. Par ailleurs, ils sont très peu entrainés à ce mode d’évaluation et n’en maitrisent donc pas les spécificités. Lors de leur arrivée à l’université, les causes d’échec des étudiants sont multiples. Parmi celles-ci, nous pouvons citer le temps d’adaptation de l’étudiant au système d'enseignement supérieur, la difficulté d’apprendre la nouvelle matière vue au cours (problèmes de méthode de travail, quantité de matière plus importante, laps de temps plus court pour l’assimiler, …) et, éventuellement, une mauvaise maitrise des prérequis. Cela nous a poussé à développer un outil de soutien à l'apprentissage pour le cours de physique. Nous avons opté pour une plate-forme en ligne afin qu’elle soit accessible à chaque instant et de n’importe quel endroit, moyennant une connexion internet. L’étudiant peut notamment y travailler la nouvelle matière ou les prérequis via une série de tests formatifs présentés sous forme de QCM. L’étudiant peut à tout moment générer un test selon trois paramètres : la(les) matière(s) qu’il souhaite travailler, le temps qu’il désire y consacrer et le niveau de maitrise qu’il souhaite atteindre à ce moment-là. La matière vue au cours a préalablement été décomposée en cinq grands thèmes. L’étudiant peut, lors de l’ouverture d’une session, choisir un ou plusieurs de ces thèmes. Le nombre de questions figurant dans son test formatif dépendra de la durée qu’il aura préalablement sélectionnée (30, 60, 90 ou 120 minutes). Un barème de 10 questions par heure, identique aux conditions d’examens, est appliqué. L’étudiant pourra, en outre, choisir un niveau parmi trois échelons de difficulté. Les questions portant sur chacune des cinq matières, issues notamment des examens des années antérieures, ont été évaluées par plusieurs membres de l’équipe pédagogique et un niveau de difficulté de 1 à 4 leur a été attribué. Le niveau de la question est établi sur la base de 4 critères : abstraction, réflexion, mixité et niveau mathématique. Chaque évaluateur de questions donne un score de 1 à 3 à chacun des critères et ce, pour chaque question. Le total sur l’ensemble des critères fixera le niveau général de la question. Le critère d’abstraction est lié à l’abstraction de l’énoncé et de la réponse attendue. Le deuxième critère évalue la réflexion développée par l’étudiant pour répondre à la question qui lui est posée, et donc notamment le nombre d’étapes de résolution. Le critère de mixité est lié à la diversité des sujets intervenant dans un problème. Le dernier critère est lié au niveau de mathématique que requiert la résolution de la question ou du problème de physique. La moyenne des différentes évaluations fournit alors le niveau de la question. Afin de vérifier la concordance des évaluations, le Kappa de Fleiss a été mesuré et nous indique une concordance moyenne. Vingt ensembles de questions ont été créés, soit un par niveau de difficulté de question et par matière. Une attention particulière est apportée à la rédaction des questions, notamment afin de respecter les règles de conception développées par Leclercq (Leclercq, 1986) et sériant les niveaux d’abstraction des questions selon les taxonomies de Bloom (Bloom, 1956). Une fois les trois paramètres sélectionnés par l’étudiant, un test formatif est généré automatiquement. Un nombre de questions, fixé par la durée choisie par l’étudiant, est tiré aléatoirement en respectant le niveau de difficulté (du test) que l’étudiant a choisi. Le niveau « faible » de test proposera uniquement des questions de niveaux 1 et 2, le niveau « moyen », des questions de niveaux 1, 2 et 3 et le niveau « fort » des questions de niveaux 2, 3 et 4. L’étudiant pourra visualiser son état d’avancement dans la maitrise de chacun des thèmes grâce à un rapport qu’il pourra à tout moment générer. Dans le futur, ce rapport détaillera également quel type (théorie, application directe de formule, problèmes, …) de questions l’étudiant a tendance à réussir ou rater. Une vue simplifiée et ludique, à l’aide de médailles à gagner sera également proposée à l’étudiant. A l’aide de cette vue simplifiée et du rapport complet, l’équipe pédagogique pourra travailler plus efficacement avec l’étudiant si ce dernier demande un rendez-vous de remédiation. En effet, sur la base des rapports, les membres de l’équipe pédagogique pourront facilement et rapidement cibler les difficultés précises rencontrées par l’apprenant et lui proposer des pistes concrètes de travail pour y remédier. Outre cet outil, la plate-forme propose le travail des prérequis et de la nouvelle matière sous différentes formes (vidéos d’expérience à commenter, résolution guidée de problèmes, forums, questions débats, …). Cette diversité d’outils proposés a pour but d’augmenter la motivation des étudiants selon la théorie de Viau (Viau, 1994). Ces outils ont été présentés précédemment (Marique, 2014). [less ▲]

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