Publications ORBi OA
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailDiametral dimension and property Omega Bar far spaces Snu
Demeulenaere, Loïc ULg

Conference (2017, June 08)

Spaces Snu are metrizable sequence spaces defined by Jaffard in the context of multifractal analysis and signal treatment. From a functional analysis point of view, the study of these spaces points out ... [more ▼]

Spaces Snu are metrizable sequence spaces defined by Jaffard in the context of multifractal analysis and signal treatment. From a functional analysis point of view, the study of these spaces points out some topological properties, such as the facts they are locally pseudoconvex in general and locally p-convex in certain cases, Schwartz, and non-nuclear. In this talk, we focus on two topological invariants, namely the diametral dimension (Bessaga, Mityagin, Pelczynski, Rolewicz) and the property "Omega Bar" (Vogt, Wagner). Firstly, we revisit a result of Aubry and Bastin giving the diametral dimension of locally p-convex spaces Snu and extend it to some non-locally p-convex spaces Snu. Secondly, we explain how these developments can be used to prove that a subclass of spaces Snu (among which the locally p-convex ones) verifes the condition Omega Bar. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of concrete slabs acting in compressive membrane action
Molkens, Tom; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Caspeele, Robby

in Nigro, Emidio; Bilotta, Antonio (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Fire Safety Symposium - IFireSS 2017 (2017, June 08)

In building renovation, the real behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs cannot always be explained by the bending theory according to classical structural mechanics. Indeed, the bearing capacity, as ... [more ▼]

In building renovation, the real behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs cannot always be explained by the bending theory according to classical structural mechanics. Indeed, the bearing capacity, as assessed for instance by a loading test, sometimes appears to be much higher than what would be expected. This phenomenon may be caused by the activation of an arch-effect or so-called compressive membrane action (CMA) which can develop even with small vertical deformations. For a slab which is completely restrained, the presence of reinforcement becomes of lesser importance when this phenomenon is activated (except for end fields). Hence, for fire resistance purposes, it can be discussed whether reinforcement and concrete cover has a smaller influence on the bearing capacity for slabs subjected to fire which exhibit a significant concrete compressive membrane behaviour. This paper presents a loading test performed on a real concrete building which highlighted the development of CMA as the load bearing mode. It then proposes a strategy to evaluate the behaviour resulting from the development of CMA in reinforced concrete slabs at ambient and at elevated temperature based on numerical modelling. The numerical analyses are performed with the finite element software SAFIR® using a strip of layered shell elements. A plastic-damage constitutive model with an explicit transient creep formulation is used to capture the concrete behaviour at elevated temperature. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum
Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kei et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(6), 1-11

Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl ... [more ▼]

Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maize that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUps and downs for SoTL development in a collective project targeting feedback practice enhancement
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Detroz, Pascal ULg; Mohr, Audrey ULg et al

Conference (2017, June 08)

The “Feedback First-Year Project” (FFYP) was designed by IFRES (Institute for Training and Research in Higher Education) and the Study Guidance Service at the University of Liège (Belgium) to support ... [more ▼]

The “Feedback First-Year Project” (FFYP) was designed by IFRES (Institute for Training and Research in Higher Education) and the Study Guidance Service at the University of Liège (Belgium) to support First-Year professors’ efforts to think and act upon their current teaching and assessment practice, and possible improvements. Amongst lessons learnt, the presentation pinpoints three major risks that a collective project like FFYP might encounter. Recommendations likely to mitigate these risks are proposed, in case others would like to replicate the experience. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRetours d’expérience d’un partenariat Université - Agences de l'Eau pour une gestion de la qualité des eaux de surface
Deliège, Jean-François ULg; Everbecq, Etienne ULg; MAGERMANS, POL ULg et al

Conference (2017, June 08)

Un partenariat innovant a été établi entre une équipe de recherche universitaire (unité R&D de l’Aquapôle, Université de Liège) et des pouvoirs publics ayant dans leurs attributions la protection des ... [more ▼]

Un partenariat innovant a été établi entre une équipe de recherche universitaire (unité R&D de l’Aquapôle, Université de Liège) et des pouvoirs publics ayant dans leurs attributions la protection des ressources en eau et des milieux aquatiques (Agences de l’Eau françaises, Administrations wallonne et flamande). L’objectif principal de ce partenariat est la gestion des ressources par les Agences et Administrations en les dotant d’un outil innovant et opérationnel d’aide à la décision leur permettant de remplir leurs missions régionales (programmes d’intervention, SDAGE, …), nationales et internationales (DCE, rapportage européen, …). Pour atteindre cet objectif, le partenariat se base sur le développement d’une suite logicielle répondant aux attentes des opérateurs. Cette stratégie de développement, basée sur les besoins des partenaires, est au bénéfice direct de la restauration de la qualité des milieux aquatiques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCharacterization of the pre-metastatic niche in lymph node, in experimental and clinical settings
Noël, Agnès ULg; Balsat, Cédric; Garcia Caballero, Melissa et al

Poster (2017, June 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire risk assessment of multi-story buildings based on fragility analysis
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

in Nigro, Emidio; Bilotta, Antonio (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Fire Safety Symposium - IFireSS 2017 (2017, June 07)

Recent efforts aim at assessing the fire performance of structures in a probabilistic framework. But there is still no well-established method to quantify the reliability of entire buildings. Previous ... [more ▼]

Recent efforts aim at assessing the fire performance of structures in a probabilistic framework. But there is still no well-established method to quantify the reliability of entire buildings. Previous works focused on isolated structural members, therefore not allowing for a determination of the global safety level of buildings. Here, a new methodology is developed to quantify the reliability of buildings in fire. The methodology uses Monte Carlo simulations for constructing fragility functions associated with different fire breakout locations in a building, then combines the functions to characterize the overall building conditional probability of failure, and finally incorporates the probabilistic models for intensity measure and fire occurrence likelihood. The methodology is applied to multi-story steel buildings. This work addresses fire reliability at the building scale, and therefore is useful for standardizing safety level as well as for evaluating community resilience. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLeibniz's Metaphysics of Relations Revisited
Dony, Arthur ULg

Scientific conference (2017, June 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRaman Hyperspectral Imaging: An essential tool in the pharmaceutical field
Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Resulting from the combination of Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy, Raman hyperspectral imaging has proven to be an indispensable tool in the pharmaceutical field. This article will broach a ... [more ▼]

Resulting from the combination of Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy, Raman hyperspectral imaging has proven to be an indispensable tool in the pharmaceutical field. This article will broach a number of Raman hyperspectral imaging applications that were developed in our laboratory, in order to demonstrate the significance of the technique. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailCaméras 3D et plantes numériques : vers une automatisation de l’agriculture
Bouvry, Arnaud ULg; Stalport, Benoît ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg et al

Diverse speeche and writing (2017)

En cours de développement à la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, l’exploitation d’images en 3 dimensions de plantes permet de récolter une grande quantité de données. Cette technique, couplée à un ... [more ▼]

En cours de développement à la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, l’exploitation d’images en 3 dimensions de plantes permet de récolter une grande quantité de données. Cette technique, couplée à un système mathématique de modélisation de plantes, utilisé notamment par Pixar, offre de nombreuses possibilités pour la recherche scientifique. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (5 ULg)
Full Text
See detailIncremental-secant mean-field-homogenization method for elasto-visco-plastic materials systems
Wu, Ling ULg; Bidaine, Benoît; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2017, June 05)

With the increasing use of engineered and/or heterogeneous materials, there is a need to develop multi-scale methods in order to predict with accuracy structural behaviors. One computationally efficient ... [more ▼]

With the increasing use of engineered and/or heterogeneous materials, there is a need to develop multi-scale methods in order to predict with accuracy structural behaviors. One computationally efficient multi-scale method is the mean-field homogenization (MFH) one, which considers as homogenized strain and stress fields the volume average of their respective counterparts in the different composite material phases. Although originally developed for elastic materials, MFH methods have been extended to non-linear behaviors by considering a linear comparison composite (LCC). To define this LCC, the authors have developed an incremental-secant mean-field homogenization formulation, for which the residual stress and strain states reached in the phases upon a fictitious elastic unloading are considered as starting point to apply the secant method [1, 2]. The mean stress fields in the phases are then computed using isotropic secant tensors, which are naturally used to define the LCC. The incremental-secant formulation has several advantages: it can handle non-radial loading conditions, it avoids the isotropisation step required by other incremental methods, and it can handle softening behaviors in an accurate way. In this work, we present an extension of the incremental-secant mean-field homogenization to elasto-visco-plastic composite materials. The formulation can account for both first and second statistical moment estimates during the evaluation of the visco-plastic flow. The method predictions are compared to finite element (FE), to Fast-Fourier-Transform (FFT), and to experimental results, to demonstrate the accuracy of the method. References [1] Wu, L., Noels, L., Adam, L., & Doghri, I. (2013). A combined incremental-secant mean-field homogenization scheme with per-phase residual strains for elasto-plastic composites. International Journal of Plasticity, 51, 80-102 [2] Wu, L., Noels, L., Adam, L., & Doghri, I. (2013). An implicit-gradient-enhanced incremental-secant mean- field homogenization scheme for elasto-plastic composites with damage. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 50(24), 3843–3860 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMass spectrometry imaging of small xenobiotics on Danio rerio : influence of molecular profiles modification as potential localization asset
Tiquet, Mathieu ULg; Muller, Marc ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

Poster (2017, June 02)

MALDI Mass spectrometry often fail to locate small xenobiotics present in low concentration in tissues due to ion suppression effect. This new method compare tissues of contaminated zebrafish to controles ... [more ▼]

MALDI Mass spectrometry often fail to locate small xenobiotics present in low concentration in tissues due to ion suppression effect. This new method compare tissues of contaminated zebrafish to controles with the statistical tool called receiver operating characteristic. Results cannot directly locate the xenobiotic but can indicate which tissues are affected by the contamination and thus give a hint on the biolocalization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRôle des psychologues spécialisés en neuropsychologie auprès des patients en état de conscience altérée : état des lieux et perspectives
Wauquiez, Grégoire; Radiguer, François; Stephan, Julie et al

Poster (2017, June 02)

Avec les progrès des techniques de soins intensifs et de réanimation, de nombreuses personnes survivent à des lésions cérébrales graves et peuvent notamment présenter dans les suites un état de conscience ... [more ▼]

Avec les progrès des techniques de soins intensifs et de réanimation, de nombreuses personnes survivent à des lésions cérébrales graves et peuvent notamment présenter dans les suites un état de conscience altérée. La création depuis les années 2000 d’unités spécialisées dites “Etats Végétatifs Chroniques / Etats Pauci-Relationnels” témoigne du développement de l’offre de soin dédiée à ces problématiques complexes. De plus en plus d’études scientifiques sont également publiées chaque année sur le sujet de l’évaluation et de la prise en charge de ces patients (ref1). La question du diagnostic d'état d'éveil non répondant ou d'état de conscience minimale constitue entre autres un enjeu majeur pour proposer à ces patients une stimulation adaptée (ref2). Néanmoins, ce domaine d’intervention paraît aujourd'hui encore modérément investi par les psychologues spécialisés en neuropsychologie, professionnels qui semblent pourtant à même d’y contribuer de manière pertinente de par leurs connaissances et leurs compétences (ref3). Où en sont les pratiques sur le terrain et quelles seraient les perspectives de développement à envisager ? Pour tenter de répondre à ces questions, nous avons diffusé une enquête en ligne à destination des neuropsychologues francophones (Belgique, France, Québec et Suisse) en vue de recueillir des données sur la formation, les activités et les attentes de nos collègues. En parallèle, nous avons réalisé une brève revue de la littérature scientifique sur le sujet et sollicité l’avis d’experts concernant les pratiques et spécificités des neuropsychologues auprès de ces patients. Nos premiers résultats mettent en avant 1°) qu’un nombre non négligeable de psychologues spécialisés en neuropsychologie travaillent auprès de patients en état de conscience altérée, 2°) qu'ils ont des connaissances et une pratique spécifique leur permettant d'apporter un réel bénéfice dans le diagnostic et la prise en charge interdisciplinaire de ces patients, et 3°) que le sujet des états de conscience altérée mériterait une place plus importante dans la formation initiale et continue des neuropsychologues afin de contribuer au développement d’une pratique de haut niveau auprès de ces patients tout à fait particuliers. Ces résultats nous feront discuter des questions de la formation initiale, des variétés de pratiques et de la perspective d’une enquête élargie aux pays non francophones. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEfficacité de la combinaison des méthodes explicite et implicite pour intervenir sur les difficultés morphosyntaxiques
Houben, Lauren; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Leroy, Sandrine ULg

Poster (2017, June 01)

Pour que la logopédie puisse s’appuyer sur une pratique basée sur les preuves (Evidence-Based Practice), il est nécessaire de disposer d’études traitant de l’efficacité des interventions. Dans la ... [more ▼]

Pour que la logopédie puisse s’appuyer sur une pratique basée sur les preuves (Evidence-Based Practice), il est nécessaire de disposer d’études traitant de l’efficacité des interventions. Dans la littérature scientifique, deux approches sont mises en avant pour pallier aux difficultés morphosyntaxiques: les méthodes implicites opposées aux méthodes explicites. Les méthodes implicites s’avèrent pertinentes chez les enfants d’âge préscolaire, en raison de leurs faibles habiletés métalinguistiques. Ces méthodes réfèrent aux méthodes de facilitation grammaticale (imitation, modelage, stimulation focalisée et reformulation) et à l’approche basée sur l’usage. Cette dernière tient compte de l’apprentissage progressif des différentes structures grammaticales chez les enfants ayant un développement typique (notamment Riches, 2013). Les méthodes explicites offrent un apprentissage explicite du langage. Elles reposent sur le constat selon lequel, en raison d’un déficit de la mémoire procédurale, les enfants ayant des troubles du langage ne parviendraient pas à apprendre implicitement le langage. Actuellement, les résultats obtenus quant à l’efficacité de ces méthodes semblent contradictoires. Dès lors, la combinaison des deux types d’approches pourrait être envisagée. Actuellement, une seule étude (Smith-Lock et al., 2013) s’est intéressée à cette combinaison des deux méthodes et a prouvé son efficacité. Bien que cette étude soit assez prometteuse quant aux bienfaits d’une rééducation s’appuyant sur plusieurs méthodes, des recherches complémentaires sont indispensables. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe acquisition of nouns in children with Specific Language Impairment
Krzemien, Magali ULg; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Zghonda, Hela ULg et al

Poster (2017, June 01)

Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the language development of children with a normal nonverbal intelligence and no history of neurological disorder nor ... [more ▼]

Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the language development of children with a normal nonverbal intelligence and no history of neurological disorder nor auditory deficit (Leonard, 2014). A difficulty linked to SLI is the poor language productivity and the input dependency that children display compared with their peers: they tend to use a limited variety of verbal forms compared to younger siblings (Conti-Ramsden & Jones, 1997) and use a high proportions of the same verbs as their mothers (Jones & Conti-Ramsden, 1997). Recent studies suggested that these disorders could be linked to a deficit in generalizing constructions (constructions being units of language that vary in complexity and abstractness, Tomasello, 2009) from the input (Leroy et al., 2013). Specifically, some authors proposed that children with SLI would need more exemplars to abstract a given construction from the input and apply it to new instances (Leroy et al., 2013). In this study, we want to broaden this assumption to the acquisition of words: we evaluated the ability of children with SLI to generalize novel words, and in particular relational words. SLI seem indeed to be linked to an impairment in the processing of relations: children with SLI have poorer performance than their age-matched peers in linguistic or non-linguistic analogical tasks, which require to reason about relational structures (Leroy et al., 2014). We draw the hypothesis that children with SLI would need more exemplars in order to generalize words compared to age-matched but also to language-matched peers. We created a novel word extension task to improve this hypothesis: the first part is composed with nine test trials, each associated with a non-word. The child sees one, two, or three exemplars of a novel noun in short animations. The examiner tells him: “This is a /dyfɑ̃/”. Then, the child sees three other animations and the examiner says: “Show me which one of these is a /dyfɑ̃/”. The child has to choose the object that plays the same role as the exemplars among two distractors: an object that looks like one of the exemplar and a non-related distractor. The second part of the task is based on the same protocol but the exemplars are objects that have a specific spatial configuration (like symmetry). Here again, the child sees one, two, or three exemplars of a novel noun associated with the objects. The examiner tells him: “This is a /fegɑ̃/”. Then, the child sees three other objects and the examiner says: “Show me which one of these is a /fegɑ̃/”. The distractors are an object that has the same global form as one of the exemplar but without having the specific configuration required, and the non-related distractor. The participants are 20 children diagnosed with SLI aged from 6 to 12 years-old. Each child is match to a control child in age and non-verbal IQ on the one hand, and to a control child in linguistic age (based on a measure of vocabulary comprehension). Results show that children are better able to extend relational words when presented with several referents of these words, which confirms what has already been found in other experiments (Gentner, 2005). When the feature to be used is a spatial relation between the parts of the objects, children with SLI have more difficulties than age-matched controls extending new words, which confirms that SLI is linked to an impairment in the processing of relations and a greater dependance on perceptual information (Leroy et al., 2014). They also tend to benefit more than age-matched children from the presentation of several referents of a new word in order to extend it, what would mean that they greatly benefit from comparison and variability in order to identify relational similarities. It would be interesting to see if children can learn from several items that relational feature can be pertinent to define categories and extend words, as young children without SLI can do it with shape while children with SLI cannot (Collinson et al., 2015). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWaste Heat Recovery by Means of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System Coupled with Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphons
Le, Van Long ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Dumas, Xavier et al

in International Journal of Thermodynamics (2017)

This paper aims at assessing the performance of a waste heat-to-power plant by means of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system coupled with two-phase closed thermosyphons (or gravity-assisted heat pipes or ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at assessing the performance of a waste heat-to-power plant by means of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system coupled with two-phase closed thermosyphons (or gravity-assisted heat pipes or wickless heat pipes). The heat exchanger, made up of two-phase closed thermosyphons, is used for conveying heat from exhaust stream to ORC working fluid. In reality, a hot oil loop or a pressurized hot water loop or a saturated ste am loop or even a direct evaporator is often used to transfer heat from the heat source to the ORC system. However, installing a heat exchanger directly in the hot gas paths of ORC system evokes the concerns for the flammability and/or toxicity of organic working fluids especially when the heat source has a relatively high temperature. Also the use of an intermediate heat carrier loop such as thermal oil or saturated steam or pressurized water loop is costly and involves installation of comparatively heavy components. In principle, the use of two-phase closed thermosyphons for capturing and transporting heat from a waste heat source to organic working fluid is less expensive than utilizing an intermediate heat transfer loop and eliminates safety issues as in the case of direct installation of an ORC evaporator in the hot gas paths. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailL'Open Access en Belgique francophone : bientôt une réalité ?
Desseilles, François ULg; Thys, Laurence ULg

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (16 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailValidation of MOPITT carbon monoxide using ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer data from NDACC
Buchholz, R. R.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2017), 10(5), 1927--1956

The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument provides the longest continuous dataset of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. We perform the first validation of MOPITT version ... [more ▼]

The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument provides the longest continuous dataset of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. We perform the first validation of MOPITT version 6 retrievals using total column CO measurements from ground-based remote-sensing Fourier transform infrared spectrometers (FTSs). Validation uses data recorded at 14 stations, that span a wide range of latitudes (80°N to 78°S), in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). MOPITT measurements are spatially co-located with each station, and different vertical sensitivities between instruments are accounted for by using MOPITT averaging kernels (AKs). All three MOPITT retrieval types are analyzed: thermal infrared (TIR-only), joint thermal and near infrared (TIR–NIR), and near infrared (NIR-only). Generally, MOPITT measurements overestimate CO relative to FTS measurements, but the bias is typically less than 10%. Mean bias is 2.4% for TIR-only, 5.1% for TIR–NIR, and 6.5% for NIR-only. The TIR–NIR and NIR-only products consistently produce a larger bias and lower correlation than the TIR-only. Validation performance of MOPITT for TIR-only and TIR–NIR retrievals over land or water scenes is equivalent. The four MOPITT detector element pixels are validated separately to account for their different uncertainty characteristics. Pixel 1 produces the highest standard deviation and lowest correlation for all three MOPITT products. However, for TIR-only and TIR–NIR, the error-weighted average that includes all four pixels often provides the best correlation, indicating compensating pixel biases and well-captured error characteristics. We find that MOPITT bias does not depend on latitude but rather is influenced by the proximity to rapidly changing atmospheric CO. MOPITT bias drift has been bound geographically to within ±0.5%/yr or lower at almost all locations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (2 ULg)