Publications ORBi OA
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailMESURES INCITATIVES A LA PRODUCTION COTONNIERE ET PERSPECTIVES DE LA PRIVATISATION DES FILIALES CMDT AU MALI
Koné, Bouréma ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Cotton is the first export crop in Mali with 84,370 billion Fcfa in 2010 (INSTAT, 2010), but the production of this crop has huge problems due to external factors (prices of inputs and seed cotton) and ... [more ▼]

Cotton is the first export crop in Mali with 84,370 billion Fcfa in 2010 (INSTAT, 2010), but the production of this crop has huge problems due to external factors (prices of inputs and seed cotton) and internal (within payment to producers, internal debts of cooperatives). To boost cotton production during the years 2010/11 and 2011/12, the government had maintained the level of fertilizer subsidy at 50% of normal price on the market. In addition to this level of subsidy, the incentive price of 255Fcfa / kg was fixed to the producer and the National Union of Cotton Producers Cooperative Societies (NU-CPCS) facilitated the clearance of the internal debts of cooperatives. Despite the fall in world prices after 2011/12, the price of cotton seed remains little changed. The price stayed at 255 CFA francs / kg in 2012/13 and got back to 250 CFA francs / kg in 2013/14. The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of incentives factors cotton production with a view to the privatization of CMDT subsidiaries Surveys were conducted with a sample of 240 farms selected from the four zones of the CMDT zones based on two villages subsidiary during the years of 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2011/12. The results showed a positive trend in production (mainly due to an increase in the area) and in the income of cotton producers with a higher reimbursement rate of input credits under cultivation. The analysis of the Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) the Nominal protection coefficients (NPC) and the Effective (CPE) showed an improvement in thèse variables in 2011/12 with the incentive policy. An analysis of the determinants of the supply of cotton showed that only two variables were significant: the price cottonseed and payment period. The incentive factors are influenced by fiber market in 2011/12 which took a downward trend from the campaign. This incentive policy being favored by the market of fiber which is very unstable, it would be necessary to create conditions in which the producer can benefit from the price obtained on the quality of fiber to maintain the incentive policy for producers. For the privatization of Cotton Company, an upgrade of this company is necessary with the support of the Malian state. But this upgrade should not affect too much the selling price of sale of cotton that can bring new companies in a situation of too long term recovery of capital invested (long period of investment recovery). The privatization scheme as presented makes major companies more competitive. In order to reduce the operating costs a form of collaborative relationships among delivery companies would be required. Keywords: fertilizer subsidy, incentive price, cotton sector in Mali, privatization subsidiary, competitiveness. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe influence of background noise on vocal loading parameters in music theory teachers
Schiller, Isabel ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Sfez, Lou et al

Poster (2016, August 23)

Background: Music theory teachers, who teach rhythm, singing and other music-related skills and topics, depend greatly on a well-functioning voice. Unlike other schoolteachers, who primarily use their ... [more ▼]

Background: Music theory teachers, who teach rhythm, singing and other music-related skills and topics, depend greatly on a well-functioning voice. Unlike other schoolteachers, who primarily use their voice as a pedagogic tool, music theory teachers also use it as an instrument. Furthermore, they often engage in vocally demanding free-time activities requiring a singing voice. To date, few studies have specifically looked at the voice use of music theory teachers. This study aims (1) to measure the background noise level and the amount of vocal loading affecting this specific population, and (2) to describe the influence of background noise on vocal loading parameters. Methods: Thirteen French-speaking music theory teachers (9 females and 4 males) working in a music school were monitored for one workweek, using the VoxLog voice dosimeter (Sonvox). To investigate the professional and extra-professional environments, all subjects wore the dosimeter from early morning until the end of the day. The parameters analysed were background noise level, duration of phonation, sound pressure level (SPL) and fundamental frequency (F0) of voice. Results: Overall, the mean background noise level was 75.2 dB (SD=5.4). We measured higher background noise level at work (mean=78.2 dB, SD=5.8) than in the extra-professional environment (mean=72.2 dB, SD=5.2). As expected, a rise in background noise was accompanied by a significant rise in voice SPL in both males and females (r=.61, p<.001). A significant correlation between background noise and F0 was found in females (r=.41, p=.002), but not in males (r=.39, p=.055). Furthermore, our data exhibit a significant correlation between background noise and duration of phonation (r=.05, p<.001). Conclusion: Our data suggest, that in class, music theory teachers must cope with background noise levels that dramatically exceed the limit of 35 dB recommended by the WHO (Inserm, 2006). High background noise levels lead to an increase in voice SPL, a phenomenon known as the Lombard effect (Inserm, 2006). In female subjects, we also observed a rise in F0 further to high background noise. Like Ternström, Södersten, and Bohman’s (2002) study, our data indicate that high background noise levels increase the duration of phonation. In a noisy environment, subjects seem to prolong the voiced segments of speech to make themselves understood. In other words, high background noise levels result in higher vocal loading. In the long run, this may increase the risk of voice disorders such as hyperfunctional dysphonia or vocal fold pathologies consecutive to repeated microtrauma in music theory teachers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDevelopment of innovative and practical management tools to improve sustainability of milk production and quality of dairy products
Arnould, Valérie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

In the current complex economical context, novel strategies are needed to help local dairy farmers to face the European dairy sector crisis. This thesis was initiated in the framework of ManageMilk ... [more ▼]

In the current complex economical context, novel strategies are needed to help local dairy farmers to face the European dairy sector crisis. This thesis was initiated in the framework of ManageMilk project and was globally aimed to investigate the possibility to develop some innovative and practical management tools helping dairy farmers in their daily decisions. To develop such management tools, several conditions must be fulfilled. Firstly, used data must be relevant. According to the literature, the milk composition, and in particular, the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, appears to be a suitable trait allowing useful information about the dairy cow’s health status or about the management system efficiency. These data must also be easily available at low cost from milk recording organization. Recently, the MIR spectrometry offers the possibility to build routinely cheaper and more important databases. To develop management tools, milk samples have to be collected using comparable sampling methods. Unfortunately, in order to decrease the milk quality control costs, the International Committee for Animal Recording allows alternative sampling schemes including the collection of samples from morning or evening only milkings. This alternative sampling scheme can interact with phenotypic and genetic parameters. Therefore, additionally to the development of conversion equations, this thesis is establishing if morning or evening only milkings are genetically different traits. Last condition concerns a useful phenotypic and genetic variability. Milk FA profile is, among others, altered by genetics. So, one paper of this thesis concerns the setup of a useful genetic evaluation model able to estimate accurately the genetic part of milk fat composition variations. Routine genetic evaluation of production traits in dairy cattle commonly uses random regression model (RRM). Recently, “splines” have been advocated as a good alternative to Legendre polynomials (LP) for analyzing test-day yields in RRM. Therefore, several models are compared. Obtained results show the possibility to propose a practical and robust method for estimating accurate daily major FA production from single milking, useful for a further development of practical management tools helping dairy farmers in their daily decisions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailANALYSE DE LA DEMANDE EN CHARBON DE BOIS PAR LES MÉNAGES URBAINS DE BUJUMBURA AU BURUNDI
Sabuhungu, Emery Gaspard ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the demand for charcoal by urban households in Bujumbura in order to make recommendations ensuring the security of household energy and environmental protection ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study is to evaluate the demand for charcoal by urban households in Bujumbura in order to make recommendations ensuring the security of household energy and environmental protection. To achieve this objective, the analysis of the related documentation and collection of secondary data were carried out in order to formulate specific objectives, hypotheses and the methodology used in the course of this study. The specific objectives are: to analyze the structure, operation and market performance of the charcoal market in the city of Bujumbura and to compare this market to the cities of Lubumbashi and Kigali; to determine the charcoal consumption pattern by urban households in Bujumbura; to identify the factors which influence the demand for charcoal by urban households in Bujumbura; to evaluate the demand for charcoal by urban households in Bujumbura. The assumptions made in this study are: the charcoal market in the city of Bujumbura is a competitive and effective market; charcoal is the dominating cooking fuel used by urban households in Bujumbura and is consumed exclusively or in combination with others; an urban household’s demand for charcoal in Bujumbura is essentially based on household income, the size of household, eating habits (preparation of food that requires a long cooking time), the frequency of use of carbon and the possession or not of improved cooking stoves; the demand for charcoal by urban households in Bujumbura is high and this leads to significant annual deforestation. Three surveys were conducted to collect primary data. The first survey, with the specific objective of analysing the charcoal market in Bujumbura, was conducted among the key players of the charcoal value chain produced in the communes of Mugamba and Muramvya and consumed in the city of Bujumbura. The remaining two surveys, with the specific objective of analysing the consumption of charcoal by households, were conducted among households-users of charcoal of different standards of living in three areas of the city of Bujumbura (areas Buterere, Cibitoke and Rohero). The results indicate that the charcoal market is competitive. The production, the commercialisation and the consumption of charcoal allow the creation of positive value added all along the charcoal value chain. The use of cooking fuels by households in Bujumbura shows that they have not yet achieved an energy transition. In fact, 83% of those surveyed only use charcoal; 12% combine charcoal and electricity and 5% combine charcoal and firewood. The results revealed that the main factors influencing households demand for charcoal are: household income, the price of charcoal, household size, number of cooking sessions per day, frequency of preparation of cassava leaves and the possession or not of improved braziers. To solve the energy and environmental problem, a rehabilitation of woodland, an implementation of the best techniques of woodland planting with the most adaptable species on productive land, a greater penetration of substitutable energy to wood fuel such as gas or electricity, a growth in the use of improved cooking stoves in households and greater efficiency in wood carbonisation will help reduce the number of hectares of deforestation for wood energy needs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAspects fonciers de l'exil des religieux français en Belgique (1901-1914)
Murez, Jean-Baptiste ULg

Conference (2016, August 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIncorporation of iron and organic matter into young Antarctic sea ice during its initial growth stages
Janssens, Julie; Meiners, Klaus M.; Tison, Jean-Louis et al

in Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (2016), 4(1), 000123

This study reports concentrations of iron (Fe) and organic matter in young Antarctic pack ice and during its initial growth stages in situ. Although the importance of sea ice as an Fe reservoir for ... [more ▼]

This study reports concentrations of iron (Fe) and organic matter in young Antarctic pack ice and during its initial growth stages in situ. Although the importance of sea ice as an Fe reservoir for oceanic waters of the Southern Ocean has been clearly established, the processes leading to the enrichment of Fe in sea ice have yet to be investigated and quantified. We conducted two in situ sea-ice growth experiments during a winter cruise in the Weddell Sea. Our aim was to improve the understanding of the processes responsible for the accumulation of dissolved Fe (DFe) and particulate Fe (PFe) in sea ice, and of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, extracellular polymeric substances, inorganic macro-nutrients (silicic acid, nitrate and nitrite, phosphate and ammonium), chlorophyll a and bacteria. Enrichment indices, calculated for natural young ice and ice newly formed in situ, indicate that during Antarctic winter all of the measured forms of particulate matter were enriched in sea ice compared to underlying seawater, and that enrichment started from the initial stages of sea-ice formation. Some dissolved material (DFe and ammonium) was also enriched in the ice but at lower enrichment indices than the particulate phase, suggesting that size is a key factor for the incorporation of impurities in sea ice. Low chlorophyll a concentrations and the fit of the macro-nutrients (with the exception of ammonium) with their theoretical dilution lines indicated low biological activity in the ice. From these and additional results we conclude that physical processes are the dominant mechanisms leading to the enrichment of DFe, PFe, organic matter and bacteria in young sea ice, and that PFe and DFe are decoupled during sea-ice formation. Our study thus provides unique quantitative insight into the initial incorporation of impurities, in particular DFe and PFe, into Antarctic sea ice. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailModel Sensitivity Studies of the Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride
Chipperfield, M. P.; Liang, Q.; Rigby, M. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2016), 2016

Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this ... [more ▼]

Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (76% of total) but a reported 10% uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross-section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9% of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (15% of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large uncertainty range (157 to 313 years). With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg/yr, the reference simulation with best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past two decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 45 Gg/yr. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by systematic biases between observational datasets. For example, surface observations from the NOAA network are larger than from the AGAGE network but have shown a steeper decreasing trend over the past two decades. These differences imply a difference in emissions which is significant relative to uncertainties in the magnitudes of the CCl4 sinks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailÉmotion, ipséité, liberté. Réflexions à propos des fondements de la théorie sartrienne des émotions
Recchia, Fabio ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016), 12(5), 1-23

Entretenue durant la drôle de guerre, la correspondance épistolaire entre De Beauvoir et Sartre révèle une insatisfaction de ce dernier à l'égard de sa théorie des émotions. Celle-ci manquerait en effet ... [more ▼]

Entretenue durant la drôle de guerre, la correspondance épistolaire entre De Beauvoir et Sartre révèle une insatisfaction de ce dernier à l'égard de sa théorie des émotions. Celle-ci manquerait en effet de fondements solides. Répondant à ce constat, nous tenterons de dégager les fondations de cette théorie de manière à expliciter ses enjeux. Nous replacerons, pour ce faire, l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions dans la perspective plus générale de la théorie de l'intentionnalité du premier Sartre. De la sorte nous montrerons, d'une part, comment ce texte renouvelle significativement la catégorie de l'action en concevant l'émotion comme une activité ; et nous examinerons, d'autre part, l'interaction existant entre l¿émotion et l'ipséité de la conscience. Cette discussion dévoilera ainsi l'intentionnalité émotive comme une passion active reconduisant au fondement de la conscience qui est sa liberté personnelle. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnnual Greenland accumulation rates (2009–2012) from airborne snow radar
Koenig, L.; Ivanoff, A.; Alexander, P. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

Contemporary climate warming over the Arctic is accelerating mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through increasing surface melt, emphasizing the need to closely monitor its surface mass balance in ... [more ▼]

Contemporary climate warming over the Arctic is accelerating mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through increasing surface melt, emphasizing the need to closely monitor its surface mass balance in order to improve sea-level rise predictions. Snow accumulation is the largest component of the ice sheet's surface mass balance, but in situ observations thereof are inherently sparse and models are difficult to evaluate at large scales. Here, we quantify recent Greenland accumulation rates using ultra-wideband (2–6.5 GHz) airborne snow radar data collected as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge between 2009 and 2012. We use a semiautomated method to trace the observed radiostratigraphy and then derive annual net accumulation rates for 2009–2012. The uncertainty in these radar-derived accumulation rates is on average 14 %. A comparison of the radar-derived accumulation rates and contemporaneous ice cores shows that snow radar captures both the annual and long-term mean accumulation rate accurately. A comparison with outputs from a regional climate model (MAR) shows that this model matches radar-derived accumulation rates in the ice sheet interior but produces higher values over southeastern Greenland. Our results demonstrate that snow radar can efficiently and accurately map patterns of snow accumulation across an ice sheet and that it is valuable for evaluating the accuracy of surface mass balance models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTen years of atmospheric methane from ground-based NDACC FTIR observations
Bader, Whitney ULg; Bovy, Benoît ULg; Conway, S. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2016), 2016

Changes of atmospheric methane (CH4) since 2005 have been evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar observations performed at ten ground-based sites, all members of the Network for Detection ... [more ▼]

Changes of atmospheric methane (CH4) since 2005 have been evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar observations performed at ten ground-based sites, all members of the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From this, we find an increase of atmospheric methane total columns that amounts to 0.31 ± 0.03 % year-1 (2-sigma level of uncertainty) for the 2005–2014 period. Comparisons with in situ methane measurements at both local and global scales show good agreement. We used the GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Model tagged simulation that accounts for the contribution of each emission source and one sink in the total methane, simulated over the 2005–2012 time period and based on emissions inventories and transport. After regridding according to NDACC vertical layering using a conservative regridding scheme and smoothing by convolving with respective FTIR seasonal averaging kernels, the GEOS-Chem simulation shows an increase of atmospheric methane of 0.35 ± 0.03 % year-1 between 2005 and 2012, which is in agreement with NDACC measurements over the same time period (0.30 ± 0.04 % year-1, averaged over ten stations). Analysis of the GEOS-Chem tagged simulation allows us to quantify the contribution of each tracer to the global methane change since 2005. We find that natural sources such as wetlands and biomass burning contribute to the inter-annual variability of methane. However, anthropogenic emissions such as coal mining, and gas and oil transport and exploration, which are mainly emitted in the Northern Hemisphere and act as secondary contributors to the global budget of methane, have played a major role in the increase of atmospheric methane observed since 2005. Based on the GEOS-Chem tagged simulation, we discuss possible cause(s) for the increase of methane since 2005, which is still unexplained. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGreenland Ice sheet [in "State of the Climate in 2015"]
Tedesco, M.; Box, J.; Cappelen, J. et al

in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (2016), 97(8),

The Greenland Ice Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, experienced melting over more than 50% of its surface for the first time since the record melt of 2012.

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPlaying RPG Maker? Amateur Game Design and Video Gaming
Hurel, Pierre-Yves ULg

Conference (2016, August 04)

Game creation tools like Game Maker or RPG Maker democratize game making and facilitate the development of amateur game design. The best known among these programs have dynamic web-communities with active ... [more ▼]

Game creation tools like Game Maker or RPG Maker democratize game making and facilitate the development of amateur game design. The best known among these programs have dynamic web-communities with active members making thousands of games. However, as of now, there is little research on amateur game design except for modding or education fields. In this paper I argue that approaching amateur game making in these relations with video game playing allows a better understanding of game creation tools’ users. To support my argument, I will lean on the early results of the exploratory step of my ongoing research. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessment of the sea-ice carbon pump: Insights from a three-dimensional ocean-sea-ice biogeochemical model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES)
Moreau, Sébastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Bopp, Laurent et al

in Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (2016), 4(1), 000122

The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs). Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM ... [more ▼]

The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs). Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM design, is the link between sea-ice growth and melt and oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). Here we investigate whether this link is indeed an important feature of the marine carbon cycle misrepresented in ESMs. We use an ocean general circulation model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES) with sea-ice and marine carbon cycle components, forced by atmospheric reanalyses, adding a first-order representation of DIC and TA storage and release in/from sea ice. Our results suggest that DIC rejection during sea-ice growth releases several hundred Tg C yr−1 to the surface ocean, of which < 2% is exported to depth, leading to a notable but weak redistribution of DIC towards deep polar basins. Active carbon processes (mainly CaCO3 precipitation but also ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes and net community production) increasing the TA/DIC ratio in sea-ice modified ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes by a few Tg C yr−1 in the sea-ice zone, with specific hemispheric effects: DIC content of the Arctic basin decreased but DIC content of the Southern Ocean increased. For the global ocean, DIC content increased by 4 Tg C yr−1 or 2 Pg C after 500 years of model run. The simulated numbers are generally small compared to the present-day global ocean annual CO2 sink (2.6 ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1 ). However, sea-ice carbon processes seem important at regional scales as they act significantly on DIC redistribution within and outside polar basins. The efficiency of carbon export to depth depends on the representation of surface-subsurface exchanges and their relationship with sea ice, and could differ substantially if a higher resolution or different ocean model were used. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailParentification and related processes: distinction and implications for clinical practice
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg

in Journal of Family Psychotherapy (2016), 27(3), 185-199

With the emergence of what we call « new families », the place and the role of the child are increasingly questioned. If a child helps a parent or takes care of them, the terms “parentified child” ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of what we call « new families », the place and the role of the child are increasingly questioned. If a child helps a parent or takes care of them, the terms “parentified child”, “parental child” or “adult child” are used equally. However, these concepts hide different processes that have different impacts on the child’s development. In the present article, based on our doctoral research and clinical practice experience, we will try to make the distinction between these concepts and to illustrate them. We are convinced that by a better identification of each process, we can help therapists and social workers in their interventions with children and their families. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDroit constitutionnel belge - Syllabus du cours (année académique 2016-2017)
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Learning material (2016)

Syllabus pour les cours de Droit constitutionnel (DROI1203-4 et DROI1203-7) à la Faculté de droit, de science politique et de criminologie de l'Université de Liège ; syllabus pour le cours de Droit ... [more ▼]

Syllabus pour les cours de Droit constitutionnel (DROI1203-4 et DROI1203-7) à la Faculté de droit, de science politique et de criminologie de l'Université de Liège ; syllabus pour le cours de Droit constitutionnel au Collège de Défense de l'Ecole Royale Militaire. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14182 (2998 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRealization of the Najafi-Golestanian microswimmer
Grosjean, Galien ULg; Hubert, Maxime ULg; Lagubeau, Guillaume et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2016), 94(2), 021101

A paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. As such, it has been the subject of numerous analytical and numerical ... [more ▼]

A paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. As such, it has been the subject of numerous analytical and numerical studies. In this Rapid Communication, an experimental three-linked-spheres swimmer is created by self-assembling ferromagnetic particles at an air-water interface. It is powered by a uniform oscillating magnetic field. A model, using two harmonic oscillators, reproduces the experimental findings. Because the model remains general, the same approach could be used to design a variety of efficient microswimmers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDroit constitutionnel belge - Plan général du cours (année 2016-2017)
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Learning material (2016)

Le document constitue le Plan général de l'enseignement de Droit constitutionnel dispensé à l'Université de Liège en 2e année de bachelier en droit et en 2e année de bachelier en science politique.

Detailed reference viewed: 9476 (2058 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEnhancing Cover Song Identification with Hierarchical Rank Aggregation
Osmalsky, Julien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the 17th International for Music Information Retrieval Conference (2016, August)

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features ... [more ▼]

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features, recent work tends to demonstrate that combining similarity estimators based on multiple audio features increases the performance. We improve this approach by using a hierarchical rank aggregation method for combining estimators based on different features. More precisely, we first aggregate estimators based on global features such as the tempo, the duration, the loudness, the beats, and the average chroma vectors. Then, we aggregate the resulting composite estimator with four popular state-of-the-art methods based on chromas as well as timbre sequences. We further introduce a refinement step for the rank aggregation called “local Kemenization” and quantify its benefit for cover song identification. The performance of our method is evaluated on the Second Hand Song dataset. Our experiments show an significant improvement of the performance, up to an increase of more than 200 % of the number of queries identified in the Top-1, compared to previous results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInternational Trade Sanctions related to Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULg

in Athens Journal of Law (2016)

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may ... [more ▼]

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may have peaceful (civilian/commercial) or non peaceful/military applications. Trade of these categories of goods needs to be controlled, as they can provoke security concerns. Such control is pursued through control lists, licenses, authorizations to stakeholders of the supply chain, information- sharing and cooperation mechanisms, reports, records, declarations, screenings and sanctions as well. The paper aims at focusing on the issue of sanctions, in particular the ones established at the international level: these measures are provided for the violation of trade rules in reference to dual-use items, and/or sanctions have as an object this type of goods. The legal provisions established by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and at the United Nations level are analysed thereafter. Brief observations are offered as regards the EU framework of restrictive measures too. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)