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See detailFaire de la musique : rythmes et rapports chez Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Bazantay, Pierre; Bonnet, Antoine; Frangne, Pierre-Henry (Eds.) Mallarmé et la Musique, la Musique et Mallarmé (in press)

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle ... [more ▼]

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle musical prend, dans l'esthétique de Mallarmé, l'aspect d'un système de rapports généralisés à tous les paramètres de l'écrit. L'inhérence réciproque que le poète établit entre la "Musique" et les "Lettres", représentation imaginaire dont Un Coup de dés constitue la contrepartie réalisée, répond d'un côté à un matérialisme de la forme et de l'autre à un idéalisme fictif, voulant que les structures verbales et prosodiques s'offrent en miroir du système de rapports avec quoi se confond, en sa finitude sans extériorité, l’univers même. [less ▲]

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See detailLa richesse du sensible: Stumpf contre les néokantiens
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

in Calori, François; Foessel, Michael; Pradelle, Dominique (Eds.) De la Sensibilité: les Esthétiques de Kant (in press)

Me focalisant sur la réception de l'esthétique transcendantale de Kant en Allemagne à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle, je confronte deux lectures concurrentes du kantisme: la lecture ... [more ▼]

Me focalisant sur la réception de l'esthétique transcendantale de Kant en Allemagne à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle, je confronte deux lectures concurrentes du kantisme: la lecture "déflationiste" des néokantiens, qui aboutit à une conception appauvrie du sensible, et la lecture "inflationiste" de Stumpf, qui fait du sensible un champ richement et intrinsèquement structuré. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid processing of SCADA and synchronized phasor measurements for tracking network state
Alcaide-Moreno, Boris; Fuerte-Esquivel, Claudio; Glavic, Mevludin ULg et al

in Proc. IEEE PES General Meeting (in press)

This paper proposes a new tracking state estimator aimed at following some of the dynamics of the network state (bus voltage phasors) by a hybrid processing of SCADA and synchronized phasor measurements ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new tracking state estimator aimed at following some of the dynamics of the network state (bus voltage phasors) by a hybrid processing of SCADA and synchronized phasor measurements. The latter are assumed to be available in limited number. To avoid time skew effects, only the SCADA measurements received since the last execution of the estimator are processed. To ensure observability, estimated SCADA measurements are used as pseudo-measurements. The procedure includes a prediction, an innovation analysis and a correction step. The latter consists of solving a constrained least-squares optimization. The simulation results refer to a test system undergoing large disturbances, evolving to long-term voltage instability or stabilized by emergency control. The proposed method appears to satisfactorily track the overall network evolution, even during those severe conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailChronos et la clé du temps
Désert, Jean-Benoît ULg; Charon, valérie; Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg

in Revue des Hôpitaux de Jour Psychiatriques et des Thérapies Institutionnelles (in press), 15(15), 79-85

L’argument de ce XLème Colloque des Hôpitaux de jour psychiatriques nous a plongés dans un abîme de questionnements théoriques et pratiques. Défiés par cette immersion dans les tréfonds du modèle, nous ... [more ▼]

L’argument de ce XLème Colloque des Hôpitaux de jour psychiatriques nous a plongés dans un abîme de questionnements théoriques et pratiques. Défiés par cette immersion dans les tréfonds du modèle, nous avons choisi de nous accrocher aux fondements de notre univers. La mythologie grecque sera donc notre source d’inspiration en mettant un dieu antique à notre disposition. Chronos sera notre guide dans un périple réflexif soumettant nos théories et notre pratique à l’épreuve du temps. Le récit de la conception d’un atelier thérapeutique, l’atelier « Art & Temps », sera notre fil d’Ariane dans notre tentative de symboliser notre pratique thérapeutique quotidienne et ses enjeux. Par la suite, l’exposé d’un cas clinique concrétisera un raisonnement théorique visant à situer notre modèle de prise en charge dans le réseau psychiatrique global. [less ▲]

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See detailConscience et représentation. Introduction aux théories représentationnelles de l'esprit
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg; Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

Book published by Vrin (2016)

L’ambition de ce volume est d’introduire le lecteur aux débats récents, en philosophie de l'esprit, en mettant en lumière les principaux enjeux lié à l’approche représentationnelle de la conscience. Il s ... [more ▼]

L’ambition de ce volume est d’introduire le lecteur aux débats récents, en philosophie de l'esprit, en mettant en lumière les principaux enjeux lié à l’approche représentationnelle de la conscience. Il s'agit de montrer que, derrière l’étiquette de "théories représentationnelles" ou de "représentationalisme" se cachent une variété de positions alternatives : représentationalisme d’ordre supérieur, représentationalisme standard, auto-représentationalisme et théories de l’intentionnalité phénoménale. Il s’agit aussi, simultanément, d’examiner les présupposés théoriques de l’approche représentationnelle, qui est aujourd’hui la plus répandue. Nous avons donc réservé une place, dans ce recueil, à un petit échantillon de perspectives critiques, comme la théorie de l’intentionalisme modal de Tim Crane, le réalisme empirique de Bill Brewer et la critique contextualiste de Charles Travis. [less ▲]

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See detailProvenance of Ichthyosaura alpestris (Caudata: Salamandridae) introductions to France and New Zealand assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis
Arntzen, Jan W.; King, Tania M.; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in The Herpetological Journal (2016), 26

The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a ... [more ▼]

The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a particularly vulnerable group, exacerbated by the devastating effects of chytrid fungi. We report the malicious translocation and establishment of the alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) to its virtual antipode in North Island of New Zealand. We use network analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes to identify the original source population as I. a. apuana from Tuscany, Italy. Additionally, a population in southern France, presumed to be introduced, is identified as I. a. alpestris from western Europe. However, the presence of two differentiated haplotypes suggests a mixed origin. This type of analysis is made possible by the recent availability of a phylogenetic analysis of the species throughout its natural range. We discuss the particulars of both introductions. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge predatory marine reptiles from the Albian–Cenomanian of Annopol, Poland
Bardet, Nathalie; Fischer, Valentin ULg; Machalski, Marcin

in Geological Magazine (2016)

During the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, marine ecosystems in Eurasia hosted a diverse set of large predatory reptiles that occupied various niches. However, most of our current knowledge of these ... [more ▼]

During the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, marine ecosystems in Eurasia hosted a diverse set of large predatory reptiles that occupied various niches. However, most of our current knowledge of these animals is restricted to a small number of bonebed-like deposits. Little is known of the geographical and temporal extent of such associations. The middle Albian – middle Cenomanian phosphorite-bearing succession exposed at Annopol, Poland produces numerous ichthyosaurian and plesiosaurian fossils. These are mostly isolated skeletal elements (e.g. teeth, vertebrae), but disarticulated partial skeletons and an articulated, sub vertically embedded ichthyosaur skull are also available. The following taxa are identified: ‘Platypterygius’ sp., cf. Ophthalmosaurinae, Ichthyosauria indet., Polyptychodon interruptus, Pliosauridae indet., Elasmosauridae<indet. and Plesiosauria indet. The large-sized ichthyosaur ‘Platypterygius’ and the pliosaurid Polyptychodon interruptus predominate within the upper Albian – middle Cenomanian deposits. The Annopol record, combined with data from England, France and western Russia, suggests that ‘Platypterygius’ and Polyptychodon interruptus formed a long-term, stable ecological sympatry in marine ecosystems of the European archipelago, at least during the Albian – middle Cenomanian. In addition, the marine reptile assemblage from Annopol is distinct from other Eurasian ecosystems in containing also elasmosaurids in its Albian portion. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of a short Italian UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale
D'Orta, Isabella; Burnay, Jonathan ULg; Aiello, Daniela et al

in Addictive Behaviors Reports (2015), 2

Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that plays a prominent role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive disorders. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity, which distinguishes between ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that plays a prominent role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive disorders. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity, which distinguishes between five impulsivity components (positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, sensation seeking), has been increasingly investigated during the last decade in relation to addictive and risky behaviors. Unfortunately, it currently lacks a validated scale that allows Italian researchers and clinicians to measure impulsivity based on the UPPS-P model. The current study fills this gap by testing the psychometric properties of a short 20-item Italian scale used to assess the five dimensions of the UPPS-P model in 188 volunteer participants from the community. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of five distinct, but interrelated, impulsivity components. The results indicated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranges from .73 to .84). Construct validity was evidenced by specific relations with measures of addictive behaviors and depressive symptoms. On the whole, this study demonstrated that the Italian short UPPS-P has good psychometric properties. [less ▲]

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See detailA probabilistic model for predicting the uncertainties of the humid stiction phenomenon on hard materials
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (2015), 289

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the ... [more ▼]

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the surfaces roughness and the adhesive force range, the real contact areas are usually smaller than the apparent one, resulting in a scatter in the adhesive forces. Consequently, the stiction is an uncertain phenomenon. In this work, we develop a probabilistic model to predict the uncertainties of stiction due to the capillary forces acting on stiff materials. This model contains two levels: at the deterministic level, the model can predict the pull-out adhesive contact forces for a given surface topology; at the probabilistic level, the model generates independent identically distributed surfaces on which the deterministic solution can be applied to evaluate the uncertainties related to the stiction phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailTentative insight into the multiplicity of the persistent dust maker WR 106 from X-ray observations
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in New Astronomy (2015), 41

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust makers (WCd stars). The issue of the multiplicity of these dust makers is pivotal to understand the dust formation process, and in this context X-ray observations may allow to reveal an X-ray emission attributable to colliding-winds in a binary system. The main result of this analysis is the lack of detection of X-rays coming from WR 106. Upper limits on the X-ray flux are estimated, but the derived numbers are not sufficient to provide compelling constraints on the existence or not of a colliding-wind region. Detailed inspection of archive data bases reveals that persistent dust makers have been poorly investigated by the most sensitive X-ray observatories. Certainly, the combination of several approaches to indirectly constrain their multiplicity should be applied to lift a part of the veil on the nature of these persistent dust makers. [less ▲]

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See detailDerivation and Application of Sensitivities to Assess Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings
Weckesser, Tilman; Johannsson, Hjortur; Ostergaard, Jacob et al

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2015), 72

The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from ... [more ▼]

The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from the algebraic network equations. These provide information on the impact of a generator on the voltage magnitude at a load bus and the e ffect of load variation on the generator's power injection. It is shown that these sensitivities give valuable information to identify critical generator-load pairs and locations for applying preventive control measures. [less ▲]

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See detailA Parallel Processing Approach to Dynamic Simulations of Combined Transmission and Distribution Systems
Aristidou, Petros ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2015), 72

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is ... [more ▼]

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is proposed to provide accurate, detailed dynamic simulations of such systems. The simulation procedure is accelerated with the use of parallel programming techniques, taking advantage of the parallelization opportunities inherent to domain decomposition algorithms. The proposed algorithm is general, portable and scalable on inexpensive, shared-memory, multi-core machines. A large-scale test system is used for its performance evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding how people with MS get tired while walking
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Phan-Ba, Rémy; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Multiple Sclerosis Journal (2015, October 09)

BACKGROUND. Walking impairment is frequent, appears early in the disease course of MS patients (MSP), and is perceived as the most disabling symptom. When walking, patients get tired more and differently ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. Walking impairment is frequent, appears early in the disease course of MS patients (MSP), and is perceived as the most disabling symptom. When walking, patients get tired more and differently than healthy people (HP) [Phan-Ba et al PLOS 2012]. This limits their walking perimeter. Understanding this phenomenon is thus important to suggest adequate therapies at the right time. OBJECTIVE. Our aim is to understand how MSP get tired while walking compared to HP. Two groups of MSP are considered: those with a low disability level (MSPL) and those with a high one (MSPH). We consider two criteria to measure the disability: the EDSS and the deceleration index (DI) [Phan-Ba et al PLOS 2012]. The limit between the groups is set at DI=0.8 and EDSS=3 (inclusive for MSPL). METHODS. Many gait characteristics (GC) have been measured with the system GAIMS along a 500m path walked as fast as possible. The dataset gathers 464 visits of HP and 70 of MSP. Some people have been assessed several times. There are 33 visits in the group MSPL with the EDSS criterion, and 25 with the DI criterion. Statistical tests (Welch) were performed on the differences and relative differences of the GC measured during the first and last 100m of the test to detect differences between HP and MSPL, and between MSPL and MSPH, as in [ECTRIMS 2012 P755]. RESULTS. Both criteria for defining the groups lead to similar conclusions. For many GC, the distributions of the variations are significantly different between MSPL and MSPH. The largest difference is for the relative difference of speed (p=0.000119 for EDSS and p=0.000021 for DI). In contrast, only the variation of the average lateral distance between the feet, which is related to the size of the base of support (and thus to the balance) shows a very significant difference between HP and MSPL (p=0.000116 for EDSS and p=0.000120 for DI). The balance does not seem to change much from MSPL to MSPH. Besides, we note that the variance decreases slightly from HP to MSPL and increases a lot from MSPL to MSPH. CONCLUSIONS. Statistically, from the motor fatigue point of view, it seems that the course of the MS disease is divided in two different stages. In the first one, MSP get more tired than HP because of a deterioration of the balance. Then, in the second one, their fatigue becomes related to a faster decrease of the walking speed. This suggests that physical therapy exercises focused on the balance could be given to MSP in the early stage of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailA performance indicator for structures under natural fire
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Engineering Structures (2015), 100

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire ... [more ▼]

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire engineering. Indeed the actual requirement of non-occurrence of structural failure at peak temperature does not guarantee against a delayed failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire, which puts at risk the fire brigades and people proceeding to a building inspection after a fire. Therefore there is an urgent need to better comprehend and characterize the materials and structures behavior under decreasing temperatures. Sensitivity to delayed failure of a structural component depends on its typology and constituting materials. In particular, two structural components with the same Fire Resistance rating (R) under standardized fire may exhibit very distinct behavior under natural fire, one of them being more prone to delayed failure than the other. With the aim of quantifying this effect, a new indicator is proposed that characterizes the performance of structures under natural fire conditions. The paper presents the methodology to derive this new indicator as well as results for different typologies of structural components. Parametric analyses highlight the prime influence of constitutive material and thermal inertia of the element on the post-peak behavior. Used in conjunction with the Fire Resistance rating, it is shown how the new indicator carries additional and significant information for classifying structural systems in terms of their fire performance and propensity to delayed failure. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modeling of the cardiac mechano-electric feedback within a thermo-electro-mechanical framework. Study of its consequences on arrhythmogenesis.
Collet, Arnaud ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

This doctoral study characterizes, for simple geometries, the cardiac autonomous electrical activity induced by the mechanical deformations of the myocardium via the mechano-electric feedback within a ... [more ▼]

This doctoral study characterizes, for simple geometries, the cardiac autonomous electrical activity induced by the mechanical deformations of the myocardium via the mechano-electric feedback within a thermo-electro-mechanical framework. The underlying fundamental mechanisms are highlighted and discussed in detail. In a healthy heart, the mechano-electric feedback acts as a regulator able to damp mechanical perturbations undergone by the heart, by appropriately modulating electrical activity shortly after these perturbations. In this way, a new healthy electromechanical situation is recovered. However, under certain conditions, this feedback can be a generator of dramatic cardiac arrhythmias by inducing local electrical depolarizations resulting from abnormal cardiac muscle tissue deformations. These local perturbations can then propagate in the whole heart and, thus, lead to global cardiac dysfunctions. The one- and two-dimensional models developed in this work to study the arrhythmogenic consequences of the mechano-electric feedback within a thermo-electro-mechanical framework account for three couplings: the excitation-contraction coupling, the mechano-electric feedback, and the thermo-electric coupling. The excitation-contraction coupling allows the mechanical contraction of cardiac muscle cells resulting from the electrical excitation of these cells, triggered by a propagating action potential initially generated by the sino-atrial node in a healthy heart. The mechano-electric feedback takes into account the influence of mechanical deformations on the electrical activity, both at the cell and the macroscopic level. The thermo-electric coupling then modulates certain electrical properties due to a temperature change. The excitation-contraction coupling is modeled in a phenomenological way by combining the Aliev-Panfilov model and the Rogers-McCulloch model. The propagation of the electrical excitation through cardiac muscle tissue is modeled by using the monodomain approach. The mechano-electric feedback is taken into account by considering two different contributions, namely the physiological contribution (physiological feedback) and the geometric contribution (geometric feedback). The physiological feedback consists in the onset of stretch-activated currents due to the deformations of the cardiac muscle tissue via specific mechanosensitive channels. Regarding the geometric feedback, it simply reflects that the propagation of the depolarization waves is altered by the deformations of the geometry. The thermo-electric coupling is modeled via a dependence with respect to the temperature which is exponential for the gating kinetics of ion channels, exponential for the kinetics of the active tension development in cardiomyocytes, and linear for the ionic conductances. This study shows that the mechano-electric feedback can be arrhythmogenic under specific conditions. In particular, this work clearly reveals that the size of the domain and the importance of stretch-activated currents are key factors in the behavior of the autonomous electrical activity induced by the mechano-electric feedback. This doctoral study also shows that temperature variations such as those undergone by the heart during therapeutic hypothermia or hyperthermia play a central role in the cardiac electromechanical behavior. Moreover, this work emphasizes the influence of the initial conditions on the electromechanical behavior of cardiac tissue. In the one-dimensional framework, an important result of this work is that the disappearance of the autonomous electrical activity induced by the deformations of the cardiac muscle can be associated with different types of bifurcation phenomena, depending on the values of the parameters. These bifurcations, which correspond in fact to different ways for the AEA to vanish, are emphasized and discussed in detail. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du néerlandais en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles: objectifs, méthodes, résultats
Rasier, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Philippe

Conference (2015, September 30)

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See detailIntroduction au droit public - Plan général du cours (année 2015-2016)
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Learning material (2015)

Le document constitue le Plan général de l'enseignement d'Introduction au Droit public dispensé à l'Université de Liège en 1ère année de bachelier en droit et en 1ère année de bachelier en science ... [more ▼]

Le document constitue le Plan général de l'enseignement d'Introduction au Droit public dispensé à l'Université de Liège en 1ère année de bachelier en droit et en 1ère année de bachelier en science politique. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Ant Colony System for Responsive Dynamic Vehicle Routing
Schyns, Michael ULg

in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 245(3), 704-718

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets ... [more ▼]

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets (DVRPTWSD). Besides the traditional distance criterion, we address the important case of responsiveness. Responsiveness is defined here as completing a delivery as soon as possible, within the time window, such that the client or the truck may restart its activities. This is crucial for many production or service activities in different fields: express parcel deliveries, taxi services, Just in Time production, express repair services, medical care, petrol station replenishment, etc. We develop an interactive web-based solution to allow dispatchers to take new information into account in real-time. The algorithm and its parametrization were tested on real and artificial instances. We first illustrate our approach with a problem submitted by Liege Airport, the 8th biggest cargo airport in Europe. The goal is to develop a decision system to optimize the journey of the refueling trucks. We then consider some classical VRP benchmarks with extensions for more complex problems. [less ▲]

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