Publications of Catherine Elsen
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See detailInclusion of Down Syndrome in Architectural Design: Towards a Methodology
Schelings, Clémentine ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

in Proceedings of the second international conference on Universal Accessibility in the Internet of Things and Smart Environments (in press)

This paper develops an in-situ methodology to help architects insure better inclusion of people with Down syndrome all along preliminary phases of the architectural design process, and eventually to the ... [more ▼]

This paper develops an in-situ methodology to help architects insure better inclusion of people with Down syndrome all along preliminary phases of the architectural design process, and eventually to the designed space. This methodology first offers architects some design keys in regard of how people with Down syndrome interact with two types of spaces: their personal dwellings and some completely unknown spaces. The methodology then unfolds towards more pro-active inclusion of the participants thanks to playful expression of their feelings and perceptions. This paper discusses how this methodology relates to inclusive and universal design principles as well as prevalent models of disability in architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart City concepts: from perception to acceptability
Schelings, Clémentine ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

in Proceedings of the 21th Conference of the Environmental and Sustainability Management Accounting Network (EMAN) (in press)

This paper studies the sustainability of the Smart City from the acceptability perspective. Assuming that there is a possibility for end-users to reject some of the Smart City principles and, consequently ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the sustainability of the Smart City from the acceptability perspective. Assuming that there is a possibility for end-users to reject some of the Smart City principles and, consequently, to jeopardize its perenniality, we argue that studying how citizens perceive some of the Smart City concepts is a prerequisite for the assessment of the Smart City sustainability scheme. In this paper, we test the acceptability of the Smart City by confronting the theoretical concepts generally mobilized in the literature with the people’s actual perceptions. To this end, a short survey was distributed on the occasion of three Smart City events. This article analyses the obtained results in regard of three demographic factors (age, gender and professional background). It thus repositions chore concepts of the Smart City in regard of acceptability, and particularly in relation to the associated risks for its sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of architectural representations on conveying design intent.
Cunin, Maxime; Yang, Maria C.; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (in press)

Architects express themselves graphically in order to communicate ideas both to clients and to themselves. In practice, they rely on a variety of representations such as free-hand drawings, 3D computer ... [more ▼]

Architects express themselves graphically in order to communicate ideas both to clients and to themselves. In practice, they rely on a variety of representations such as free-hand drawings, 3D computer rendered images, and photomontages to convey their design intent. Research to date has demonstrated differences and commonalities in the ways in which expert designers and laymen perceive visual understanding. It is still unclear how architects themselves use different types of representations to express different intentions, and how accurately their expected audience perceives those intentions. The purpose of this research is to investigate how laymen interpret the initial design intent of an architect’s design, and what role different forms of representations play in this process of understanding a design. This paper describes a five-step process for developing a survey that was used to gather data from 686 laymen respondents. It was found that certain types of simpler representations presented in specific contexts are unexpectedly found to be a more efficient way to faithfully transmit an architectural intent. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Living Lab: une méthode parmi tant d'autres?
Elsen, Catherine ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

Cette brève s’inscrit dans une série de publications destinées à partager les expériences et réflexions du WeLL. Ce mois-ci, nous nous attelons à repositionner l’approche Living Lab (son caractère centré ... [more ▼]

Cette brève s’inscrit dans une série de publications destinées à partager les expériences et réflexions du WeLL. Ce mois-ci, nous nous attelons à repositionner l’approche Living Lab (son caractère centré utilisateur, ses méthodes) au sein d’un panorama plus large de nouvelles manières de penser la créativité et l’innovation. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à deux approches complémentaires que sont le Design Thinking et le Creative Problem Solving (ou « C.P.S.»). [less ▲]

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See detailWal-e-Cities
Schelings, Clémentine ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege et al

Poster (2017, May 02)

L’objectif du portefeuille FEDER Wal-e-Cities est le développement de villes intelligentes («Smart Cities») au sein d’un territoire wallon interconnecté. La technologie, vue ici comme un outil au service ... [more ▼]

L’objectif du portefeuille FEDER Wal-e-Cities est le développement de villes intelligentes («Smart Cities») au sein d’un territoire wallon interconnecté. La technologie, vue ici comme un outil au service de la Smart Région Wallonne et de ses citoyens, permettra de répondre à cinq défis principaux identifiés: connectivité, mobilité, énergie et environnement, gouvernance et enfin bien-être en environnement urbain. Les partenaires de ce portefeuille (Universités et Centres de Recherche), et parmi eux l’UR Urban & Environmental Engineering de l'Ulg, oeuvreront au déploiement de solutions dédiées en regard des besoins spécifiques (géographiques, démographiques, socio-économiques et culturels) de chaque ville pilote partenaire. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle place pour l'usager dans la stratégie globale de l'entreprise ?
Elsen, Catherine ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

L'intervention aborde les différentes approches centrées usagers possibles et leur mise en oeuvre en contexte entrepreneurial. La présentation fait particulièrement état de la posture et méthodologie du ... [more ▼]

L'intervention aborde les différentes approches centrées usagers possibles et leur mise en oeuvre en contexte entrepreneurial. La présentation fait particulièrement état de la posture et méthodologie du Design Thinking et en présente les principaux aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability of users' commitment to Collaborative Design Tasks: an exploratory research
Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Vigneron, Lara ULiege; Acconcia, Alessandro ULiege et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2017), 10451

This paper investigates why end-users sometimes find difficult to fully invest themselves in a Living Lab initiative, at least on the long run. The paper builds insights on the basis of users’ feedback ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates why end-users sometimes find difficult to fully invest themselves in a Living Lab initiative, at least on the long run. The paper builds insights on the basis of users’ feedback about four projects currently managed by the Wallonia e-health Living Lab (WeLL) and pave the way for renewed models of interaction that could lead to sustainable satisfaction and commitment of end-users. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Cities. Ingénierie des usages et co-conception : un nouveau cadre pour le développement durable des bâtiments et villes intelligents.
Schelings, Clémentine ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

Poster (2016, December 12)

Ce projet de recherche aborde le défi de l'opposition des utilisateurs finaux à certains des concepts clés de la ville intelligente (Smart City), et plus spécifiquement leur faible niveau d'engagement vis ... [more ▼]

Ce projet de recherche aborde le défi de l'opposition des utilisateurs finaux à certains des concepts clés de la ville intelligente (Smart City), et plus spécifiquement leur faible niveau d'engagement vis-à-vis du développement de leurs bâtiments intelligents. L'acceptation des utilisateurs finaux ayant une influence déterminante sur le taux d'échec / de réussite du projet Smart City en tant que tel, cette recherche se fonde sur l'expertise des concepteurs de la Smart City (architectes, ingénieurs architectes; ingénieurs en construction, ingénieurs en développement urbain et environnement, ...) et suggère qu'une partie de la solution relève de l'interaction que ces acteurs peuvent avoir avec les utilisateurs finaux au cours des phases préliminaires du processus de construction d'un projet. La recherche vise à développer des cadres théoriques dédiés (i) à l'ingénierie des usages et (ii) au processus de co-conception, de manière à outiller les concepteurs avec des modèles théoriques, des méthodes de travail et des outils adaptés pour (i) la capture et l'analyse des comportements des utilisateurs finaux et (ii) l'investissement actif des utilisateurs finaux au sein des processus de conception de bâtiments intelligents et de leurs modèles d'occupation intelligente. [less ▲]

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See detailRuptures et démesures de l'architecture non standard à l'ère du numérique: la paramétrisation comme outil de réconciliation.
Stals, Adeline ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Jancart, Sylvie ULiege

in Goulette, Jean-Pierre; Ferries, Bernard (Eds.) Actes du Séminaire de Conception Architecturale Numérique (2016)

L’intégration de l’outil numérique au processus de conception architectural a ouvert les champs morphologiques et a favorisé l’émergence de l’architecture non standard. Cette contribution identifie les ... [more ▼]

L’intégration de l’outil numérique au processus de conception architectural a ouvert les champs morphologiques et a favorisé l’émergence de l’architecture non standard. Cette contribution identifie les principaux bouleversements pratiques et réflexifs liés à l’émergence de cette architecture parfois démesurée. Il les résume en trois ruptures entre les différentes phases du projet-objet et les acteurs du projet. Nous proposons ensuite de considérer la modélisation paramétrique comme l’un des outils d’une maîtrise renouvelée du processus de génération de la forme, et de la forme elle-même. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do small and medium architectural firms deal with architectural complexity? A look into digital practices
Stals, Adeline ULiege; Jancart, Sylvie ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

in Hentila, Helka-Liisa; Herneoja, Aulikki; Pihlajaniemi, Henrika (Eds.) et al Proceedings of te 34th eCAADe annual conference: Complexity and Simplicity (2016)

Digital design tools are nowadays deeply rooted in most architectural design processes. Either used as a way to communicate a designed artifact, or rather as a medium to test innovative morphologies ... [more ▼]

Digital design tools are nowadays deeply rooted in most architectural design processes. Either used as a way to communicate a designed artifact, or rather as a medium to test innovative morphologies (lately referred to as non-standard architecture), these design tools profoundly shape the way architects envision complexity all along their day-to-day tasks. The large teams of "star-architects" were able to develop dedicated and specific strategies and digital tools to overcome some of the technological gaps they were faced to when using commercial packages. But how are small and medium firms dealing with the inherent complexities of such software? This contribution analyzes how those firms (and more specifically the Walloon ones) deal with the growing complexity of digital tools, both in terms of use and interdisciplinarity. [less ▲]

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See detailWhom do architects have in mind during design when users are absent? Observations from a design competition
Verhulst, Lore; Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Heylighen, Ann

in Journal of Design Research (2016), 14(4), 368-387

As design processes become more complex, the distance between architects and their buildings’ users increases. In large-scale projects, future users often remain absent or hypothetic during design, and in ... [more ▼]

As design processes become more complex, the distance between architects and their buildings’ users increases. In large-scale projects, future users often remain absent or hypothetic during design, and in some design competitions, architects are not even allowed to interact with the client. This article considers whom architects design for in such a case, and how they imagine them. Through an in-depth case study of a real-world design process, it investigates what can be learned from what architects say about whom they have in mind during design. The findings reveal a gap between how users are considered in literature versus by the architects observed. Strikingly, the term ‘user’ is not used at all by the latter while corporeality seems to be largely absent in how they talk about whom they design for. These findings complete Kostof’s model of homunculi and contribute to a more nuanced understanding of whom architects have in mind when future users are absent or hypothetic. [less ▲]

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See detailConnections between the design tool, design attributes, and user preferences in early stage design
Häggman, Anders; Tsai, Geoff; Elsen, Catherine ULiege et al

in Journal of Mechanical Design (2015), 137(7), 13

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user ... [more ▼]

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user response to a product, this paper investigates how design experts use sketches, physical prototypes, and computer-aided design (CAD) to generate and represent ideas, as well as how these tools are linked to design attributes and multiple measures of design quality. Eighteen expert designers individually addressed a 2 hr design task using only sketches, foam prototypes, or CAD. It was found that prototyped designs were generated more quickly than those created using sketches or CAD. Analysis of 406 crowdsourced responses to the resulting designs showed that those created as prototypes were perceived as more novel, more aesthetically pleasing, and more comfortable to use. It was also found that designs perceived as more novel tended to fare poorly on all other measured qualities. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation de l'image, mutation de l'intention ? L'impact des représentations numériques en composition architecturale
Cunin, Maxime; Yang, Maria C.; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

in de Boissieu, Aurélie; Deshayes, Catherine; Tufano, Antonella (Eds.) Mutations du Projet - Milieux et Cultures Numériques (2015, June)

Les architectes ont toujours eu recours à de multiples représentations pour générer, faire évoluer puis communiquer leurs concepts architecturaux (tant aux pairs qu’aux usagers, ou encore aux décideurs ... [more ▼]

Les architectes ont toujours eu recours à de multiples représentations pour générer, faire évoluer puis communiquer leurs concepts architecturaux (tant aux pairs qu’aux usagers, ou encore aux décideurs). Cet article envisage comment la représentation externe impacte la perception « naïve » d’une intention architecturale, les « non experts » assumant des rôles de plus fondamentaux au sein de certains mécanismes décisionnels. Comment l’image, en pleine mutation depuis l’ère du numérique, façonne-t-elle la perception des facteurs clés (ou « attributs ») d’une intention architecturale ? L’article résume les principaux résultats d’une enquête menée en ligne via l’interface « Amazon Mechanical Turk » et générant 790 échelles d’évaluation de 6 avant-projets architecturaux. Les résultats abordent l’analyse des données en regard des différentes attributs; en regard des trois types de représentation choisies et en regard enfin des inconsistances dont font preuve les architectes eux-mêmes, étant donné l’évaluation de leurs propres projets et représentations. Ils révèlent que les attributs ne sont pas équitablement propices à un transfert d’intention exclusivement graphique et que les formes plus abstraites de représentations constituent, dans certains contextes, le moyen le plus efficace pour le transfert fidèle d’une intention architecturale. [less ▲]

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See detailLa médiation par les objets en design industriel
Elsen, Catherine ULiege

Scientific conference (2015, March 10)

Le cycle des Midis de l’Innovation est une initiative du Département de la Compétitivité et de l’Innovation du Service Public de Wallonie. Chaque édition constitue une opportunité d’échanges entre acteurs ... [more ▼]

Le cycle des Midis de l’Innovation est une initiative du Département de la Compétitivité et de l’Innovation du Service Public de Wallonie. Chaque édition constitue une opportunité d’échanges entre acteurs issus de l’administration et des différents organismes wallons concernés par l’innovation. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch Self-Evaluation Report of the Department ArGEnCo
Collin, Frédéric ULiege; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege et al

Report (2015)

Evaluation is nowadays a general trend in the European Universities. At the University of Liège, the evaluation process is threefold: fist there is the evaluation of the bachelor and master degrees, then ... [more ▼]

Evaluation is nowadays a general trend in the European Universities. At the University of Liège, the evaluation process is threefold: fist there is the evaluation of the bachelor and master degrees, then the second evaluation concerns the internal administrations and finally Research activities are being evaluated. This quality policy at the different levels of the Institution is organized by the Vice-Rector for Quality, Pr. Freddy Coignoul and the SMAQ service (Service de Management et d’Accompagnement à la Qualité), which aims to promote, coordinate and disseminate within the University of Liège a culture of the Quality, founded on the values of the Institution. The Research assessment is a procedure undertaken by the University in order to promote the quality of the research in the Departments or research centres. Within the Faculty of Applied Sciences, the evaluation of the Bachelor and Master degrees in Engineering was carried out in 2013 by the AEQES (Agence pour l’Evaluation de la Qualité de l’Enseignement) and CTI (Commission des Titres d’Ingénieur - France). The present report is dedicated to the evaluation of research led in the Education and Research Department (DER) ArGEnCo. The present evaluation report proposes a global presentation of all our research activities. At the Department level, one of the elected members of the Executive Bureau is in charge of the Research, covering both evaluation and quality policy. In October 2013, the Executive bureau appointed a research steering committee, whose fist task was to coordinate the present evaluation report, following the guidelines of the SMAQ service. The draft of such a document arises from the work of the steering committee but also from the contributions of all Department members, who were asked to contribute to the report or to complete databases. The progress of this evaluation report was presented by the Steering committee to the Department Council and during the General Assembly of the Department. Moreover, two Focus groups were organized by the SMAQ service, in order to get the feedback of technician and administrative members on one hand and scientific members on the other hand, on the general organization of the research in the ArGEnCo Department. The reports of these two Focus groups (Appendix 4 in French) underpinned our thinking about our research management. This report is therefore the fist evaluation of the research led in the Department, the present effort should be pursued, and deepened, within the coming years. Some of the databases necessary for the evaluation have been developed in the frame of this procedure. This has resulted in a huge amount of work for every Department members to collect all the data. New procedures in the management of the Department will help establishing the next research evaluation reports systematically, in particular for the collection of the complete dataset. Following the guidelines of the SMAQ service, this evaluation report is divided into two main parts: the fist one focuses on a self-evaluation report of the research activities and the second part presents the Action Plan of the Department for the next five years to come. The self-evaluation report is composed of four Sections: Section one presents the Research organization and topics of the Department, Section two focuses on the Research activities, Section three gives an overview of the mobility (in and out), the attractiveness and the scientific recognition of the Department and finally Section four is dedicated to the resources available in ArGEnCo Department. Each Section ends up with a SWOT analysis. The Action Plan proposed by the Steering Committee results from the analysis of the self-evaluation report, insofar as it synthesizes and prioritizes the actions of the Department for the next fie years. These priorities are formulated as proposals following a contractual approach between research entities and Institution authorities, to whom the report will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailChronophage, le design empathique?
Elsen, Catherine ULiege

in Findeli, Alain; Borja de Mozota, Brigitte; Froehlicher, Thomas (Eds.) et al Actes des 9èmes Ateliers de la Recherche en Design (2015)

Cet article envisage la dimension chronophage de l’approche empathique, une des dimensions fondamentales du design d’expérience. Quels efforts investir dans le raisonnement « centré-utilisateurs », et ... [more ▼]

Cet article envisage la dimension chronophage de l’approche empathique, une des dimensions fondamentales du design d’expérience. Quels efforts investir dans le raisonnement « centré-utilisateurs », et pour quels résultats ? L’examen des données récoltées au fil de quatre protocoles (un empirique et trois expérimentaux) révèle comment une “créativité disciplinée” peut outiller une approche plus agile des besoins-utilisateurs. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign Thinking: une approche à intégrer à nos pratiques pour renforcer le potentiel d'innovation technologique en Wallonie ?
Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Réseau Easynove

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailChallenges in teaching architectural morphogenesis
Stals, Adeline ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Jancart, Sylvie ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers (2015)

Reviewing the successive cognitive, operative and constructive models of architectural morphogenesis through time, the paper first recalls students and teachers in architecture how designers started ... [more ▼]

Reviewing the successive cognitive, operative and constructive models of architectural morphogenesis through time, the paper first recalls students and teachers in architecture how designers started experimenting digital design to reach self-generative, morphogenetic morphologies. Generally referred to as “non-standard architecture”, this innovative morphogenesis favours a new kind of spatial and architectural audacity but also generates three types of rupture: i) a rupture between form and structure; ii) a rupture in terms of process continuity and iii) a rupture in terms of multi-disciplinary collaboration. We consequently have to acknowledge the fact that, at a current state, non-standard architecture still struggles in terms of self-coherency and implementation, leaving a large amount of projects at their virtual, embryonic state especially in pedagogical contexts. We believe the challenge resides in overcoming the overly simplistic and reductionist appeal of purely formal and visual non-standard architecture: these morphologies should, on the contrary, be intrinsically defined by their form and structure relationship. We suggest such reconciliation should occur during the early stages of architectural education. Two experimental instruments, that perhaps constitute interesting renewed pedagogical models, are reported in this paper and we conclude by listing the remaining challenges when it comes to the teaching of architectural morphogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailLumière et Patrimoine, Lumière et Paradoxes - Préface
Elsen, Catherine ULiege

in Elsen, Catherine; Luczak, Dorothée; Mambourg, Paul-Henri (Eds.) et al Lumière et Patrimoine, eBook (2014)

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