Publications of Marc Aubinet
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See detailCarbon balance of an intensive grazed grassland
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2012, April 23)

This work seeks to analyze the C balance of a Belgian grassland grazed by the “Blanc Bleu Belge” breed of cattle. The site is located at Dorinne in the Belgian Condroz (50° 18’ 44’’ N; 4° 58’ 07’’ E; 248 ... [more ▼]

This work seeks to analyze the C balance of a Belgian grassland grazed by the “Blanc Bleu Belge” breed of cattle. The site is located at Dorinne in the Belgian Condroz (50° 18’ 44’’ N; 4° 58’ 07’’ E; 248 m asl.). It is permanent grassland of ca. 4.2 ha with a moderate slope of 1 to 2 %. Homogeneity and topography criteria are met to ensure high quality turbulent flux measurements. The experimental field was equipped with an eddy covariance system. Flux correction, quality control and data gap filling were performed following standardised procedures. This device was completed by a micrometeorological station that measured temperature and humidity respectively in the air and within the soil, radiation, atmospheric pressure and precipitations. Carbon exported through mowing (CNBP,export), imported through compost application (CNBP,import) or through complementary feeds for cattle (CNBP,complement) was also measured. In addition, the vegetation development was followed in order to estimate herbage production and dry matter intake by grazing animals. Carbon lost through CH4 emissions (CNBP,CH4) was finally estimated, allowing the establishment of a full C budget. After one year of measurements (May 2010 - May 2011), the grassland was a net CO2 source (Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) = 172 ± 94 g C m-2 year-1). Net Biome Productivity (NBP) was calculated from NEE by taking into account imports and export of organic C and losses of carbon as CH4. Contribution of CNBP,CH4 to NBP was small as it was 12 ± 1 g C m-2 year-1. The balance between CNBP,import and CNBP,export created not such a large departure of NBP from NEE, which is not the case of CNBP,complement. The NBP was finally estimated at 102 ± 95 g C m-2 year-1. At this stage, it is premature to conclude about the sink or source behaviour of the plot because the NBP value is very close to its uncertainty. Moreover, this result was obtained under particular climate conditions, characterised by drought during summer 2010 and spring 2011. First year full carbon budget will be discussed in relation with climate conditions and management practices. A second year of measurements will be also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration in wheat fields
Delogu, Emilie; LeDantec, Valérie; Buysse, Pauline ULg et al

Conference (2012, April)

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See detailImpact of cultivation practices on soil respiration
Dufranne, Delphine ULg; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

Cultivation practices are known to induce a modification of soil organic matter quantity, quality and spatial distribution, which may impact dry matter decomposition kinetics. In order to bring answers to ... [more ▼]

Cultivation practices are known to induce a modification of soil organic matter quantity, quality and spatial distribution, which may impact dry matter decomposition kinetics. In order to bring answers to these questions, a multidisciplinary project (SOLRESIDUS) was set up by the University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech in collaboration with Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W). The aim was to investigate the impact of cultivation practices (tillage and residue restitution) on crop growth, yield and environment, as well as on soil properties and on activities. In the present study, we focused on the impacts on soil respiration soil for 3 years. We will present our first results. [less ▲]

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See detail50 Years of contrasted residue management in an agricultural crop: impacts on the soil carbon budget and on heterotrophic respiration.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

Poster (2012, February 10)

This study aims to estimate the carbon (C) loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in three contrasted residue management treatments (Residue Export, Farm Yard Manure addition and Residue Restitution ... [more ▼]

This study aims to estimate the carbon (C) loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in three contrasted residue management treatments (Residue Export, Farm Yard Manure addition and Residue Restitution after harvest) through the establishment of soil C budgets, and to compare these estimations with field SHR measurements. The soil C budgets were calculated in each case on the basis of total soil organic C content and C input data compiled since the beginning of the experiment in Belgium, 50 years ago. SHR fluxes were measured in 2010 and 2011 to compare them with the budget-based estimates and to assess SHR sensitivity to temperature. The comparison suggested that the treatment receiving the largest C input does not necessarily sequestrate the most C or produce the largest CO2 fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon balance of a grazed grassland in Belgium
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2012, February 10)

This work seeks to analyze the carbon balance of a managed permanent grassland grazed by the “Blanc Bleu Belge” breed of cattle. The study site is located at Dorinne. The experimental field was equipped ... [more ▼]

This work seeks to analyze the carbon balance of a managed permanent grassland grazed by the “Blanc Bleu Belge” breed of cattle. The study site is located at Dorinne. The experimental field was equipped with an eddy covariance system that measured CO2 fluxes and with a micrometeorological station. Carbon exported through mowing, imported through compost application or through complementary feeds for cattle was also measured. Carbon lost through CH4 emissions was finally estimated, allowing the establishment of a full C budget. In addition, the vegetation development was followed in order to estimate herbage production and dry matter intake by grazing animals. First year full carbon budget is presented and discussed, in relation with climate conditions and management practices. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil Respiration in forest Ecosystems: Combination of a multilayer Approach and an Isotopic Signal Analysis
Goffin, Stéphanie ULg; Longdoz, Bernard; Maier, Martin et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2012, February 10)

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See detailImpact of cultivation practices on soil respiration
Dufranne, Delphine ULg; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 08)

In addition to its, evident, food supply function, agriculture is subjected to various pressures and has to respond to many challenges like reducing its CO2 emissions, maintaining or improving the soil ... [more ▼]

In addition to its, evident, food supply function, agriculture is subjected to various pressures and has to respond to many challenges like reducing its CO2 emissions, maintaining or improving the soil quality, maintaining productivity, sequestrating of the carbon stock in soil... Cultivation practices are known to induce a modification of soil organic matter quantity, quality and spatial distribution, which may impact dry matter decomposition kinetics. In order to bring answers to these questions, a multidisciplinary project (SOLRESIDUS) was set up by the University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech in collaboration with Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W). The aim was to investigate the impact of cultivation practices (tillage and residue restitution) on crop growth, yield and environment, as well as on soil properties and on activities. In the present study, we focused on the impacts on soil CO2 fluxes. The experimental site is situated in Gembloux, in the Belgian loamy region. The plot is divided into 4 latin squares where two tillage modalities (plough after 2 stubble breaking vs only 2 stubble breaking) and two straw management practices (restitution vs. exportation) were compared. For 3 years, soil respiration was measured with automatic and manual dynamic soil chambers. Moreover, soil respiration was measured as well in cropping zone (total respiration) as in root exclusion zones created with root exclusion cylinders (heterotrophic respiration). As first results, we observed: -a significantly higher flux in plots with residue restitution, which is clearly explained by the larger amount of organic carbon prone to decomposition; -a decrease of standardized heterotrophic respiration (linked with residue decomposition) during growing seasons; -no significant differences in soil respiration between tillage modalities after 3 growing seasons. The experiment is still in progress, more years being necessary in order to evaluate the long-term impacts of cultivation practices on soil respiration. [less ▲]

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See detail50 Years of contrasted residue management in an agricultural crop: Impacts on the soil carbon budget and on soil heterotrophic respiration.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, February 08)

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in ... [more ▼]

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in different residue management treatments through the establishment of their soil C budgets and (2) to compare these estimations with field SHR measurements. Three contrasted treatments were considered: Residue Export (RE), Farm Yard Manure addition (FYM) and Residue Restitution after harvest (RR). They were established in 1959 and continuously applied since then at an experimental field located in the Hesbaye region in Belgium. The soil C budget was calculated for each treatment on the basis of total soil organic C content measurements and C input data compiled since the beginning of the experiment. This allowed estimating the C loss by SHR in the different treatments. SHR measurements were performed in 2010 and 2011 to compare them with the budget-based estimations and to assess SHR sensitivity to temperature in the different treatments. The soil C budgets showed that the soil under the RR treatment was likely to undergo the largest C loss by SHR since the beginning of the experiment. The comparison between the results from the C budget and the SHR field measurements, performed 50 years after the experiment had begun, did however show that the treatment that received the largest amount of crop residues (RR) did not necessarily sequestrate the most C or produce the largest CO2 fluxes (FYM). Besides, no significant difference between treatments was observed in the field measurements in terms of SHR sensitivity to temperature. Laboratory investigations (microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic diversity and soil fractionation) will later be performed to better understand the effects of long-term residue management on soil C dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailDiurnal CO2 flux responses in cultivated savanna in Benin (West Africa)
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Galle, Sylvie et al

Scientific conference (2012, February 08)

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See detailAbiotic and biotic control of methanol exchanges in a temperate mixed forest
Laffineur, Quentin ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Schoon, N. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2012), 12

Methanol exchanges over a mixed temperate forest in the Belgian Ardennes were measured for more than one vegetation season using disjunct eddy-covariance by a mass scanning technique and Proton Transfer ... [more ▼]

Methanol exchanges over a mixed temperate forest in the Belgian Ardennes were measured for more than one vegetation season using disjunct eddy-covariance by a mass scanning technique and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Half-hourly methanol fluxes were measured in the range of −0.6 μgm−2 s−1 to 0.6 μgm−2 s−1, and net daily methanol fluxes were generally negative in summer and autumn and positive in spring. On average, the negative fluxes dominated (i.e. the site behaved as a net sink), in contrast to what had been found in previous studies. An original model describing the adsorption/desorption of methanol in water films present in the forest ecosystem and the methanol degradation process was developed. Its calibration, based on field measurements, predicted a mean methanol degradation rate of −0.0074 μgm−2 s−1 and a half lifetime for methanol in water films of 57.4 h. Biogenic emissions dominated the exchange only in spring, with a standard emission factor of 0.76 μgm−2 s−1. The great ability of the model to reproduce the long-term evolution, as well as the diurnal variation of the fluxes, suggests that the adsorption/desorption and degradation processes play an important role in the global methanol budget. This result underlines the need to conduct long-term measurements in order to accurately capture these processes and to better estimate methanol fluxes at the ecosystem scale. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 1: The eddy covariance method
Foken, Thomas; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Leuning, Ray

in Aubinet, Marc; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario (Eds.) Eddy covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis (2012)

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See detailEddy Covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis
Aubinet, Marc ULg; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario

Book published by Springer (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 394 (18 ULg)
See detailChapter 3: Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations
Rebmann, Corinna; Kolle, Olaf; Heinesch, Bernard ULg et al

in Aubinet, Marc; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario (Eds.) Eddy Covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis (2012)

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See detailChapter 4: Corrections and data quality control
Foken, Thomas; Leuning, Ray; Oncley, Steven R. et al

in Aubinet, Marc; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario (Eds.) Eddy Covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)
See detailChapter 5: Night time Flux correction
Aubinet, Marc ULg; Feigenwinter, Christian; Heinesch, Bernard ULg et al

in Aubinet, Marc; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario (Eds.) Eddy Covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis (2012)

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See detailChapter 7: Uncertainty quantification
Richardson, Andrew D.; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Barr, Alan G. et al

in Aubinet, Marc; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario (Eds.) Eddy Covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis (2012)

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See detailThermal optimality of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and underlying mechanisms
Niu, Shuli; Fei, Shenfeng; Yuan, Wenping et al

in New Phytologist (2012), 194

• It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not ... [more ▼]

• It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not been examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. • Here, we compiled data from 169 globally distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem- level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. • We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum temperature) rather than changes in the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. • Ecosystem-level thermal optimality is a newly revealed ecosystem property, presumably reflecting associated evolutionary adaptation of organisms within ecosystems, and has the potential to significantly regulate ecosystem–climate change feedbacks. The thermal optimality of NEE has implications for understanding fundamental properties of ecosystems in changing environments and benchmarking global models. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based Network of NDVI measurements for tracking temporal dynamics of canopy structure and vegetation phenology in different biomes
Soudani, K.; Hmimina, K.; Delpierre, N. et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2012), 123

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (4 ULg)