[en] Microsurgical free tissue transfer has become a gold standard in a wide range of clinical situations. Thrombosis at the anastomotic site is not only the most common cause of failure of microsurgical operations, but it is also one of the factors resulting in microcirculatory intravascular thrombosis in free flaps. All conditions of thrombus formation, defined by Virchow in 1856, are encountered in free flap surgery. This literature review concerns the problem of thromboprophylaxis in microsurgery. All citations published this last ten years (1996-2005) concerning this problem are noted. Data are confronted with other specialties, particularly vascular surgery, or with large retrospective studies. Protocol used in our institution is presented at the end of this lecture.