[en] The motivation for this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamic phenomena involved in flapping wing flight. The work is mainly experimental but also makes use of numerical results obtained from a vortex lattice approach. The flapping of 3D wings produces vortical structures which differ from those produced in 2D flow. It is a phenomenon experienced by any 3D lifting surfaces that are undergoing time dependent motion. In avian flight, it is known that different types of kinematics produce different kinds of vortical wake structures, depending on the wing aspect ratio. Understanding the wake structures and their effects can lead to the optimisation of flapping flight through the manipulation of these unsteady flow features. The objective of this work is to investigate the kinematics of 3D wings along with the evolution of the resulting vortex and wake structures while varying the oscillation parameters. The parameters in question are reduced frequency, flapping and pitching kinematics and wing profiles.The experiments make use of an enhanced version of a dynamically scaled mechanical flapping wing, which is modelled on large migrating birds with simplified kinematics. Pure flapping and combined pitching and flapping are tested in the wind tunnel and simulated at 6.0m/s, 9.4m/s and 14.8m/s.The model is forced to oscillate at four different frequencies.