Reference : Contribution to the study of semiochemical slow-release formulations as biological contr...
Dissertations and theses : Doctoral thesis
Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences : Chemistry
Life sciences : Entomology & pest control
Life sciences : Environmental sciences & ecology
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/88814
Contribution to the study of semiochemical slow-release formulations as biological control devices
English
Heuskin, Stéphanie mailto [Université de Liège - ULg > Chimie et bio-industries > Chimie analytique >]
16-May-2011
Université de Liège, ​Gembloux, ​​Belgique
Docteur en sciences agronomiques et ingénierie biologique
224
Lognay, Georges mailto
Sindic, Marianne mailto
Barthelemy, Jean-Paul mailto
Haubruge, Eric mailto
Wathelet, Jean-Paul mailto
Bera, François mailto
Thonart, Philippe mailto
Hance, Thierry
Mestdagh, Michèle
[en] semiochemicals ; alginate ; biological control ; formulation ; slow-release ; Fast GC ; GC-MS ; aphids ; predators ; parasitoids
[en] Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect or plant-insect interactions – have been widely considered within various integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. In the present thesis, two sesquiterpenoids, E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene, were formulated for their related properties as aphid enemy attractants. E-β-farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, was also identified as a kairomone by attracting and inducing oviposition of aphid predators (Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae)) and by attracting aphid parasitoids (Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)). E-β-caryophyllene was identified as a potential component of the aggregation pheromone of the Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, another aphid predator. The two products were purified from essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae) for E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene, respectively. Natural and biodegradable slow-release formulations were then investigated in order to deliver these molecules on crop fields for a long period of time as biological control devices. Due to their sensitivity to oxidation, both sesquiterpenes needed to be protected from oxygen degradation. For this purpose, alginate – hydrophilic matrix with low oxygen permeability – was used as polymer for the formulations: the main objective was to deliver semiochemical substances in the air in a controlled way. Consequently, a careful selection of alginates was realised. Formulated beads showed different structural and encapsulation properties depending on various formulation factors. Alginate formulations were characterized by texturometry and by confocal microscopy in order to observe the distribution of semiochemicals in alginate network. The last step of alginate bead characterisation consisted in studying release rate of semiochemicals in laboratory-controlled conditions by optimised trapping and validated Fast-GC procedures. Finally, the efficiency of formulations as aphid predator (Syrphidae) and parasitoids (A. ervi) attractants was demonstrated by field trapping and olfactometry experiments.
Région wallonne : Direction générale des Technologies, de la Recherche et de l'Energie - DGTRE
SOLAPHID
Researchers ; Professionals ; Students
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/88814

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