[en] high resolution G-bands ; FISH ; subtle 12q trisomy ; subtle 22q monosomy ; subtelomeric probes
[en] The high resolution G-bands (850 bands) karyotype have made it possible to identify small chromosome anomalies (5 megabases) which are now microscopically visible. New techniques have been improved, such as the Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with subtelomeric probes, which can be employed to detect cryptic chromosome alterations not visible microscopically. We present three cases which had been remitted for a high resolution karyotype. The high resolution G-band karyotype and the FISH techniques led us to conclude that the three cases were carriers of a similar subtle chromosomal alteration. Case I is a new born female with developmental and psychomotor delay, hypotonia, and long limbs with arachnodactily. A high resolution G-band karyotype showed an abnormal chromosome 22. FISH techniques confirmed a der(22)t(12;22)(q24.31;q13.3). Case II is a 12-year-old girl, with growth retardation, long shaped face with thick eyebrows, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip with severe mental retardation (still no language), with a phenotype very similar to that of his sister: long shaped face, thick eyebrows, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip. A high resolution G-band karyotype also showed in Case II and III an abnormal chromosome 22, studied by FISH techniques which confirmed a der(22)t(12;-22)(q24.3; q13.3) in both cases. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.