[en] Primary aorto-oesophageal fistula, secondary to an aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, are almost fatal. In the literature, only twenty six successfully operated cases have been reported. We report the case of a 78-year-old man with a thoracic aortic aneurysm eroded into the mid oesophagus. Prompt diagnosis of an aorto-oesophageal fistula resulted from clinical history, CT-imaging and oesophagoscopy. The patient was successfully operated by exclusion of the thoracic aneurysm (insertion of a straight cryopreserved arterial allograft), oesophagectomy and cervical oesophagostomy and jejunostomy. The continuity of the digestive tube was later restored after preliminary aortic valve remplacement (stenosis of 0.8 cm2). This case report is the second in which a cryopreserved allograft was successfully implanted in the management of a primary aorto-oesophageal fistula.