[en] Skin contains various hormonal receptors, particularly those for estrogens, progesterone and androgens. Steroid hormones of oral contraceptives affect the skin, in particular the control of the cell cycle, DNA replication, apoptosis and other cellular functions. Some estrogen-responsive pathways have the potential to promote tumor development. The question of whether oral contraceptives increase the risk for the development of skin cancer, particularly melanoma, remains an area of concern. There is some evidence that steroid hormones present in oral contraceptives do not significantly increase the risk of developing skin cancer when estrogen exposure is not excessive.