[en] Andean tuber crop species oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas), and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pav.) play major roles in Andean communities. These species show high variability but are threatened with genetic erosion. To study the management of genetic resources of neglected vegetatively propagated crop species, we studied genetic diversity and structure of these species in an in situ diversity microcenter (Huanuco, Peru). A sample of 15 varieties of oca, 15 of ulluco, and 26 of mashua was analyzed with the inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular markers. Mean genetic distances and global genetic diversities were high for the three species, with higher values for mashua than for oca and ulluco. Assignment technique divided both oca and ulluco samples into two genetic clusters; the mashua sample probably belongs to a single genetic cluster. Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique showed intravarietal genetic variability for most varieties, suggesting an underestimation of the in situ genetic variability. These results are discussed considering how variation in breeding systems and farmers' practice influenced patterns of genetic diversity. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of a considerable amount of variability found in neglected Andean tubers and are essential to deserve adequate conservation strategies and to maintain genetic resources of neglected Andean tuber crop species under a threat of genetic erosion.