[en] The bank vole experienced a complex history during the Quaternary. Repeated isolation in glacial refugia led to the differentiation of several lineages in less than 300 000 years. We investigated if such a recent differentiation led to a significant divergence of phenotypic characters between European lineages, which might provide insight into processes of intraspecific differentiation. The size and shape of the first and third upper molars, and first lower molar, of bank voles genetically attributed to different lineages were quantified using an outline analysis of their occlusal surface. The three teeth present similar trends of decreasing size towards high latitudes. This trend, the inverse of Bergmann's rule, is interpreted as the result of a balance between metabolic efficiency and food availability, favouring small body size in cold regions. Molar shape appeared to differ between lineages despite genetic evidence of suture zones. A mosaic pattern of evolution between the different teeth was evidenced. The analysis of such phenotypic features appears as a valuable complement to genetic analyses, providing a complementary insight into evolutionary processes, such as selective pressures, that have driven the differentiation of the lineages. It may further allow the integration of the paleontological dimension of the bank vole phylogeographic history. (C) 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 681-694.