[en] Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have allowed performing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients for whom conventional myeloablative allogeneic HSCT is associated with unacceptable risks of non-relapse-mortality. This approac relies mainly on graft-versus-tumour effects for tumour eradication. Retrospective studies have suggested that, in patients aged 40 to 60 years, RIC-HSCT was associated with a higher risk of relapse but a lower incidence of transplant-related mortality than myeloablative allogeneic HSCT, leading to similar progression-free and overall survivals. After reviewing the rationale for RIC-HSCT, this article discusses the results of RIC-HSCT in specific deseases, and proposes what could be current indications for RIC-HSCT in 2011. Finally, the article briefly presents some possible strategies aimed at increasing the anti-tumoral activity of the procedure while reducing the incidence and severity of acute graft-versus-host disease.