[en] Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the maintenance of BoHV-1 within a cattle herd. This paper focuses on an updated pathogenesis based on a molecular characterization of BoHV-1 and the description of the virus cycle. Special emphasis is accorded to the impact of the latency and reactivation cycle on the epidemiology and the control of BoHV-1. Several European countries have initiated BoHV-1 eradication schemes because of the significant losses incurred by disease and trading restrictions. The vaccines used against BoHV-1 are described in this context where the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals is of critical importance to achieve BoHV-1 eradication.