[en] Neuronotrophic factors (e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor, bFGF and nerve growth factor, NGF) have been demonstrated to respectively promote survival and neuritogenesis in cultures of dissociated adult rat spiral ganglia. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta 1) has been shown to modulate the response of cultured auditory neurons to bFGF through the induction of high affinity receptors for bFGF in the neurons. In this study, we show that TGF beta is expressed in situ by adult auditory neurons in response to traumatic injury (i.e. transection of the eighth cranial nerve). Based on these in vivo results and on the results from our previous in vitro studies, we propose that TFG beta 1 acts as an early autocrine signal involved in the response to injury by neurons of the peripheral auditor system.